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ZOOLOGY 



fi5H 



OF 



NEWYORK, 



OR THE 



KJEW-YORK FAUIUA; 



COMPRISING DETAILED DESCRIPTIONS OF ALL THE ANIMALS HITHERTO OBSERVED WITHIN THE 

STATE OF NEW-YORK, WITH BRIEF NOTICES OF THOSE OCCASIONALLY FOUND NEAR 

ITS BORDERS, AND ACCOMPANIED BY APPROPRIATE ILLUSTKATIONS. 



BY mm I m m. 



PART III. 



REPTILES AND AMPHIBIA 



,^'—-'^■'4,^ 



<^srn- 




ALBANY : 

PRINTED BY W. & A. WHITE & J. VISSCHER. 

1842. 



The copy right of this work is secured for the benefit of the People of the State of New- York. 

SAMUEL YOUNG, 

Secretary of State. 
Albany, 1842. 



PREFACE. 



So general is the repugnance of mankind to the animals composing these 
classes, that their study has been overlooked, and they have usually been con- 
sidered as beings which it was not only necessary but meritorious to destroy. 
A part of this vulgar prejudice is derived from education, and perhaps some of 
it may originate from the fact that several of them are furnished with venomous 
fangs, capable of causing intolerable sufferings and death. To the naturalist and 
physiologist, however ; to those who study nature through her various modifica- 
tions of form and structure, they present some of the most interesting objects of 
contemplation. Their utihty, either in diminishing various noxious animals, or 
in furnishing food themselves to others, has been lost sight of; and because they 
were cold to the touch, with a naked slimy skin without hair or feathers, they 
have been considered as loathsome and hideous, although their structure displays 
as much of the omnipotence and care of the Creator as can be seen in those 
which are considered to be the most gorgeous and beautiful of his animated 
beings. 

The number of known Reptiles and Amphibia throughout the world has 
been variously estimated. It seems to be considered by some writers to reach 
to 1,300 species, whilst others suppose that 1,500 would scarcely comprise them 
all. As the greater number inhabit the torrid zone, we are not to expect to find 
many in the United States. In this work we have enumerated one hundred and 
sixty-one species, and have described and figured sixty-three species as found in 
the State of New- York ; but we suppose the list to be far from being exhausted, 
more particularly among the Amphibians. 

Descriptions of a few species may be found in the writings of Kalm, Schoepff, 
Bosc, Pahsot de Beauvois and Daudin ; but these are often confused and contra- 
dictory, and drawn up from altered cabinet specimens. In many cases, animals 



IV PREFACE. 

not even belonging to this continent have been attributed to New- York, simply 
because they were sent by a collector from that place. Thus the Homolupsis 
carinicauda of Brazil, and the Platydactylus milherti, a species probably existing 
west of the Cape of Good Hope, have been described as belonging to this State. 
Often writers, in describing the Cyclura harlani, an animal j^robably from tropi- 
cal America, state they have reason to believe that it is common in New- York. 
But it is chiefly to the labors of American naturalists that we are indebted for 
our knowledge of the Reptiles and Amphibians of the United States. 

Mr. Say has given us descriptions of several new Serpents and Tortoises ; Dr. 
Green first investigated the numerous family of Salamanders ; and Major Le 
Conte has described several new Tortoises and Frogs, and elucidated the pre- 
\ious doubtful or obscure species of the older writers. To Dr. Harlan we are 
indebted for almost all the knowledge which we possess in relation to those 
remarkable families among the Amphibians, which were for a long period known 
under the name of doubtful reptiles. 

Dr. Holbrook, in his excellent and beautifully illustrated work, entitled North 
American Herpetology, has enlarged our acquaintance with every department 
among these classes, and his volumes will long remain a monument of his genius 
and his zeal. Dr. Holbrook has recently remodelled this work : and at the 
moment that these pages are passing through the press, is engaged in jjublishing 
a second edition, in five quarto volumes, with many important additions. To his 
kindness I am indebted for the pri%ilege of being permitted to examine most of 
what has already been printed, and it has suggested many valuable improve- 
ments in the present volume. 

To Major Le Conte, I have to express my thaulvs for his assistance in the 
course of this work, which owes several of its illustrations to his pencil. Dr. 
Emmons, of the Geological Survey, has also afforded me valuable aid in obtaining 
some species which might otherwise have escaped my obsen'ation. 



J. E. DE KAY. 



The Locusts, Queens County. 
January 1, 1842. 



LIST 



WORKS REFERRED TO IN THE DESCRIPTIONS OF THE REPTILES AND 

AMPHIBIANS. 



Ac. Sc. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences. 8 vols. 8vo. Philadelphia, 1817 et seq. 

Am. JmiT. American Journal of Science and Arts, conducted by Benjamin Silliman. 43 vols. 8vo. New-Haven, 1818 

ct seq. 
Am. Tr. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. 4to. Philad. 1771 et seq. New Series, 1816 ct seq. 
Ann. Mus. Annales du Museum. 20 vols. 4to. Paris, 1803 ct seq. 

Ann. I/yc. Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History. 4 vols. 8vo. New- York, 1824 ct seq. 
Barton, B. S. Memoir concerning an animal of the Class of Reptilia or Amphibia, known in the United States under 

the name of Alligator and Hell-bender, pp. 12. 8vo. Philad. 1812. 
" Some account of the Siren lacertina, and other species of the same genus of amphibious animals, pp. 

33. PhHad. 1821. (With a plate.) 
Bell, Rep. History of British Reptiles, by T. Bell. 8vo. Lond. 1839. 

BoNAP. Oss. Sulla seconda edizione del Regno Animale del Barone Cuvier, Osservazione. Bologna, 1830. 
" Prospetto del Sistema generale d'Erpetologia. pp. 26. Bologna, 1830. 

" Cheloniorum Tabula Analytica. 8vo. pp. 10. Romae, 1836. 

Bonn. Oph. Tableau cncyclop6dique et m^thodique des trois Regnes de la Nature : Ophiologie, par Bonnaterre. 4to 

Paris, 1790. 
CLOatJET, J. Memoire sur I'existence et la disposition des voies lachrymales dans les serpens. 4to. Paris, 1821. 
CnviER, R. A. The Animal Kingdom, translated by Griffith. Vol. 9. 
Daudin. Histoire Naturelle des Reptiles. 8 vols. 8vo. Paris, An. X. 

De Blaintille. Prodrome d'une nouvelle distribution systcmatique dn Rcgne Animal. 4to. Paris, 1816, 
De Kay, J. E. On the remains of extinct Reptiles of the Genera Mosasaurus and Geosaurus. (Ann. Lye. Vol. 3, p. 1 34.) 

" Observations on the jaw of a fossil species of Gavial. (Ann. Lye. Vol. 1, p. 156.) 

DtTMERiL and Bieron. Erpetologie generale ; ou Histoire naturelle complete des Reptiles. 8 vols. 8vo. Paris, 1834 et seq 
Eights, J. Various Observations on Reptiles and Amphibians, published in the Zodiac. Albany, 1835-6. 
FlTZiNGER. Neue Classification der Reptilien nach ihren Naturlichen Verwandtschaften, &c. Von L. I. Fitzinger. 4to. 

pp. 66. Wien, 1826. 
Grat. Synopsis of the Genera of Reptiles and Amphibia, with a description of some new species, by J. E. Gray, pp. 13. 

(From the Annals of Philosophy, 1825.) 
" Synopsis of the Class ReptiUa, by J. E. Gray. (From Griffith's Translation of Cuvier, Vol. 9, 1831.) 
Green, J. Description of several species of North American Amphibia, accompanied with observations. (Jour. Ac. Sc 

Vol. 1, p. 348.) 
Harlan, Genera of North American Reptiha, and a Synopsis of the Species. (Acad. Nat. Sc. Vol. 4.) 

" Medical and Physical Researches. 6vo. Philad. 1835. I cite also from the same author many papers and 

descriptions of reptiles in the Ac. Sc, Ann. Lye, and Am. Journal, 
Fauna. 1* 



VI LIST OF BOOKS. 

Hitch. Cat. List of Reptiles, by D. Smith, from Hitchcock's Catalogue of the Animals and Plants of ^lassacbusctts. 

Amherst, 1835. 
HoLBROOK. North American Herpctology, or a Description of the Reptiles inhabiting the United States. 4 vols. 4to. 

PhilaJclphia, 1834 et seq. 
KiHTLAND. Report on the Zoology of Olxio. pp. 42. Cincinnati, 1838. 
Le Co.vte. Description of the Species of North American Tortoises. (From Ann. Lye. Vol. 3, p. 91.) 

" Remarks on the American Species of the Genera Hyla and Rana. (From the same. Vol. 1, p. 278.) 

Lin. Soc. Report of a Committee of the Linnean Society of New-England, relative to a large marine animal supposed 

to be a Serpent, pp. 59. London, 1818. (With a plate.) 
Mebrem. Tentamen Syslcmatis Amphihiorum. Auctorc Blasio Mcrrcm. 8vo. Marburgi, 1820. 
MiTCHiLL, S. L. Description of a Batrachian animal from Georgia, diiTerent from the reptiles of that order hitherto 

known. (Medical Recorder, July, 1822.) 
Oppel. Sur la Classification des Reptiles : Ordrc 2, Ophidiens. (Ann. Mus. Vol. 16, p. 254-376.) 

" Sur la Classification des Batraciens. (Id. Vol. 16, p. 394.) 
Say. Notes on Prof Grecn'.s paper on the Amphibia. (Ac. Sc. Vol. 1, p. 405.) 
" Notes on Hcrpetology. (Am. Journal, Vol. 1 , p. 256.) 

" Descriptions of three new species of Coluber inhabiting the United States. (Ac. Sc. Vol. 4, p. 237.) 
" On the Fresh-water and Land Tortoises of the United States. (Ac. Sc. Vol. 4, p. 203.) 
Scnoiprr. Reisc durcb einlge der Mittlem und Sudlichen Vereinigten Nord-Americanischen Staaten. 2 vols. 8vo. 

Eriangen, 1788. 
" Historia Tcstudinum. Icon, illus. 4to. Eriangen, 1792. 

Schneider. Historim Amphihiorum. Auctor J. G. Schneider. 8vo. Jente, 1800 et seq. 
ScHLEGEL. Essai sur la physiognomic des Serpens. Par H. Schlegel. 2 vols. 8vo. La Haye, 1837. 
Spix, Serf. Scrpentum Brasiliensium species novie, etc. Par Jean de Spix. FoUo. Monachii, 1824. 
Spix, TVrf. Animalia nova sivc Species novjc Tcstudinum et Ranarum, &c. Descripsit J. B. de S[)ii. Folio. Monachii, 

1834. 
Smith, J. A. Account of the Dissection of the Menobranchus, with remarks on the Siren intermedia. (Ann. Lye. 

Vol. 2, p. 259.) 
Stober. Report on the Reptiles of Massachusetts, pp. 49. Boston, 1839. 

SwiiNSON. Natural History of Fish, Amphibia and Reptiles, or Monocardian Animals. Vol. 2. Lond. 1839. 
Troost. On a new genus of Serpents, and two new species of the genus Hcterodon. (Ann. Lye. Vol. 3, p. 174.) 
Waoler. Naturaliches System der Amphibien, &c. Von Dr. Joh. Wagler. 8vo. MOnchen, Stuttgart und Tubingen, 

1830. 
WiEGSiAVN. Herpetologia Mexicana, sou Descriptio Amphibiortun Novas Hispania;, &c. Par A. F. A. Wcigmann. 
Pars prima : Saurorum species. Folio, pp. 5-1, Tabulis X. Berolini, 183-1. 



SYNOPSIS 



OF THE 



GENERA OF THE REPTILES AND AMPHIBIANS OBSERVED IN THE 

STATE OF NEW-YORK. 



Orders. 



Chelonia. 



Sauria, 



Ophidia, . 



REPTILIA: 

Families. 



Chelonidae, — 

i Scincidfe, 

( Agamidse, 

ColuberidsB, 

I Crotalidae, 

AMPHIBIA. 

RanidEe, 

Salamandridae, 

SirenidsB, 

Amphiumidae, 



Genera. 

Chelonia. 

Sphargis. 

Trionyx. 

Chelonura; 

Emys. 

Kinostemon. 

Sternothaerus. 

Cistuda. 

Scincus. 

Tropidolepis. 

Coluber. 

Tropidonotus. 
■I Leptophis. 

Calamaiia. 

Heterodon. 
i Trigonocephalus. 
( Crotalus. 



Rana. 
Scaphiopus. 

Bufo. 

Hylodes. 

Hyla. 

Salamandra. 

Triton. 

Menobranchus. 

Menopoma. 



THE NEW-YORK FAUNA. 



CLASS III. REPTILES. 

VERTEBRATED ANIMALS, RESPIRING BY LUNGS, WITH RED AND COLD BLOOD. HEART TRILOCULAR, 
OR COMPOSED OF TWO AURICLES AND A SINGLE VENTRICLE. EXTREMITIES VARYING IN 
NUMBER, OR ENTIRELY WANTING. BODY COVERED WITH HORNY OR CARTILAGINOUS PLATES, 
OR WITH HARD SCALES. REPRODUCTION BY A PREVIOUSLY FECUNDATED EGG, WHICH IS 
HATCHED AFTER LEAVING THE BODY, OR IN ITS PASSAGE FROM THE PARENT. UNDERGO NO 
STRUCTURAL METAMORPHOSIS IN THE COURSE OF THEIR GROWTH. TERRESTRIAL OR AQUATIC. 
HIBERNATE IN TEMPERATE REGIONS. CARNIVOROUS FOR THE MOST PART. NUMEROUS IN 
THE TORRID ZONE. SOME ARE POISONOUS. 

Obs. We have deviated from the arrangement of Cuvier, who united together in one class 
animals which he had himself demonstrated to be very different in their organization. In 
separating liis order Batrachia from the Reptiles, we follow the path which he has indicated, 
and shall point out briefly the most important characteristics which distinguish these two allied 
classes. Tn adopting this course, we are supported by the authority of eminent herpetologists . 



ORDER I. TESTUDINATA. 

This is at once recognized by the hony or cartilaginous covering above and beneath ; leaving 
the head, neck, limbs and tail free. Feet four. .Taws toothless. The vertebrm of the 
neck and tail only, visible. 

Obs. This order, which may be described as having its skeleton external, is very natural 
and precise. It has, however, obscure affinities through Chelonura with the following order. 
Fauna — Part 3. 1 



2 NEW-YORJC FAUNA. 

It contains about one hundred and thirty species distributed tliroughout the globe, and has 
been divided into several families by various systeraatists. It is susceptible of division into 
two principal groups, which may be thus designated : 

1 . Apalodermata. Outer shell coriaceous or cartilaginous ; 

2. Sclerodermata. Shell hard and bony. 
We recognize but one family. 

FAMILY C MELON ID^. 

Body covered hy two bony or cartilaginous plates, the one above formed by an expansion of 
the vertebra and ribs ; the other, by a similar expansion of the sternum, which, in some 
genera, is divided into several movable pieces. Jaws with cutting edges, but no true teeth. 
Feet with 2-5 claws, sometimes wanting, occasionally fm-shaped. 

Obs. The animals of this family are carnivorous or herbivorous. They are strictly ovipa- 
rous ; hiding their eggs in sand, and leaving them to be hatched by the heat of the sun. Some 
are exclusively aquatic ; others exclusively terrestrial ; whilst others appear to live equally on 
land or in the water. 

Thirty-five species, arranged under nine genera, have been described by authentic writers 
as inhabiting the United States and its territories. In this State, we describe eighteen species. 

GENUS CHELONIA. 

Feet fin-shaped, elongate, depressed, not retractile, beneath the shell. Shell covered with 
horny plates. Aquatic ; living in the ocean. Some of the species useful as food to man ; 
others employed in the arts. 

THE GREEN TURTLE.* 

Chelonia mydas. 

Tesludo mydai. L. Syst. Nat. 

T. viridu. ScHNEID. Schild. pi. 17, fig. 2. 

Green Turtle. Catesby, Car. Vol. 2, p. 38. Abd. Om. Biog. Vol. 2, p. 370. 

Tmtutfranche. Daud. Jtist. Kept. Vol. 2, p. 10, pi. 16, fig. 1. Griffith's Cuv. Vol. 9, p. 15 and 88. 

Chelonia myiUu. HoLBKOOK, N. .\m. Hcrpctologj-, Vol. 2, p. 25, pi. 3. 

Characteristics. Shell sub-cordate, pointed behind. Scales either carinate or imbricate. 
Two claws on each foot. Length 2-6 feet. 

* The word turtle, originally corrupted from tortoise, has now grown into such general use, as its equivalent, tliat it would seem 
pedantic to avoid employing it. By Turtle, wc would more especially designate the Marine Tortoises, although hy usage H ib 
applied to a few others. 



FAMILY CHELONID^. 3 

Description. Shell smooth, slightly keeled in the centre ; composed of thirteen plates, viz. 
five vertical plates which are hexagonal, and four lateral plates on each side. Marginal plates 
twenty-seven ; the anterior broader than long ; the posterior pointed behind, and the last two 
emarginate. Sternum convex, composed of six pair, with three supplementary ones on each 
side. Head elongated, compressed at the sides. Fore feet in the shape of fins, longer than 
those behind. Two nails, flat, 0«75 long, on the anterior edge of each fore foot ; two similar 
but shorter nails on the posterior feet. Tail very short, conical. 

Color. A dull greenish, inclining to olive brown. 

Length, 23-0. Transverse diameter, 20-0. 

Foreleg, 13-0. Hind leg, 10-0. 

The above notes were made from an individual which came on shore near my residence, 
September, 1840, on the northern coast of Long Island. It is certain that this species is a native 
of the tropical seas, and of course such an occurrence must be considered as purely acciden- 
tal. In reference to the geographical distribution of animals, the enumeration of this species 
as an inhabitant of the waters of the coast of New-York would lead us into error, by enlarging 
unnecessarily its ordinary geographical limits. In preparing, however, a work designed to 
illustrate the Fauna of this State, and for the instruction of the student who may accidentally 
meet with other specimens, we have deemed it useful to insert this brief notice. My friend 
Mr. I. Cozzens, a well known practical naturalist and excellent observer, informs me that he 
has, on several occasions, seen them in the New-York Market, which had been capUired off 
Sandy Hook, and near Coney Island. 

The Green Turtle is well known to the epicure for its delicious steaks, and the savory 
soup which it affords. Along the coast of Florida, it approaches the shores in the early part 
of summer, and deposits its eggs in a hole scraped in the sand, where they are hatched by the 
heat of the sun in the course of two or three weeks. 

{EXTRA-LIMITAL.) 

C. caretta. Hawksbill Turtle. (Holbrook, Vol.2, pi. 4.) Orbicular; carinated above. Head very 
large ; when young, the nose elongated. Gulf of Mexico. 

C. imbricata. Tortoise-shell Turtle. (Holbrook, Vol.2, pi. 5.) Subcordate ; scales imbricate, yel- 
low rayed and spotted with brown. Gulf of Mexico. 



4 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

GENUS SPHARGIS. Merrem. 

Body covered above by a leathery skin instead of scales. The ribs not soldered together, 
and not united to the almost membranous sternum by the marginal plates. This covering 
is tubercular in the young, but elevated into distinct ridges in the adult. Feet fin-shaped, 
without nails. 

Obs. This genus was iirsl indicated by Merrem. The names of Corindo, Dermochelis and 
Dermatochelys have been successively proposed by Fleming, De Blainville and Wagler. 

THE LEATHER TURTLE. 

Sphargis coriacea. 

(PLATE V. FIG. 9.) 

Testudo comma. Lin. 12 ed. p. 350. 

Torlue luth. Daud. Hist. Rept. Vol. 2, p. 62, pi. 18, fig. 1. 

T. coriacea. Mitchill, Med. Rep. New Series, 1812, p. 191, and 1813, figure. 

Sphargis id. Griffith, Cuv. Vol. 9, p. 17, and 88 plate. Gbav, Synops. p. 20. 

S. id. BoNAP. Faun. Ital. figure. (Young.) 

S. id. Storer. Mass. Rep. p. 217, plate 4. Holbrook, N. Am. Ilerp. Vol. 2, p. 45, pi 6. 

Characteristics. Shell with seven longitudinal ridges, truncated in front, pointed behind. 
Length 6-8 feet. 

Description. Upper surface smooth and polished, of a leathery appearance, truncate, emar- 
ginate in front, with a rather elongated process on the sides of the neck, obtusely pointed 
behind. Surface of the shield divided into separate oblong compartments by seven equidis- 
tant longitudinal ridges, which are obsoletely nodulous, becoming more indistinct behind : 
The first runs along the dorsal ridge ; the ne.xt on each side commencing in advance of the 
dorsal ridge, and approaches it behind ; the third pair on each side begins posterior to the 
first ; the last ridge is formed by the margin of the shell. These ridges are acute, slightly 
interrupted on the edge. Beneath, smooth, of a somewhat softer consistence. Head smooth, 
compressed nearly to an edge anterior to the eyes. Jaws sharp, the upper emarginate in 
front to receive the acute hooked point of the lower jaw ; on each side of the central notch 
is another, not quite as deep, and more rounded. Strong spinous processes in the roof of the 
mouth, and in the cESophagus. Nostrils small, circular, and placed behind the tip of the 
snout. Eyes large, opening obliquely. Anterior feet smooth, elongated, ending in a blunt 
point, and twice the length of the posterior pair. Posterior feet rounded, or rather obliquely 
truncated behind, with a softer margin. Tail pyramidal, compressed laterally, pointed, and 
extending beyond the shell. 

Color, of the head and buckler, dull blackish brown, and in tlie fresh state with a bluish 
tinge. Extremities obsoletely spotted with greyish. The under parts marbled with blackish, 
on a yellowish or soiled whitish ground. 



FAMILY CHELONID^. 5 

Total length, 70-0. 

Ditto of the shield, 68-0. 

The young of this species presents strong and numerous variations from the adult. The 
skin, instead of being smooth, is roughened with tubercles. Tlie ridges are composed of a 
series of rounded tubercles. The head is larger in proportion ; the pupil vertical, and the 
sternum with five longitudinal ridges. 

This gigantic species, which breeds on the Tortugas or Turtle islands, and on the Bahama 
islands and keys, visits our coast suiBciently often to entitle it to a place in our Fauna. It 
was first noticed on our coast in 1811, and described and figured by Dr. Mitchill. In 1816, 
another individual of a large size was captured off Sandy Hook, and is now in the American 
Museum of New-York, set up in a very false and gi'otesque manner. A third species was 
taken in 1824, in Massachusetts Bay, and is described in the Report cited above by Dr. Storer. 
A fourth specimen was taken September 7, 1826, in Long Island Sound ; and another in 1840, 
m Chesapeake Bay. 

The Leather Turtle, although a native of tropical American seas, is a great wanderer : it 
has been seen on the coast of England, and in the Mediterranean. We are not in possession 
of sufficient evidence to determine whether the large leather turtle seen in the Pacific and 
Indian oceans belong to this species. The food of our turtle is said to consist of fish, shells 
and marine plants. 

Lesueur is said to have described another species ? under the name of Dermochelis atlantica ; 
but I have been unable to find the description. 



GENUS TRIONYX. Geoffroy. 

Shell without scales, and, together with the sternum, cartilaginous, and extending over the 
edges into a flexible margin. Feet palmated, with three sharp claws. A corneous bea:k, 
covered iviih fleshy lips. Nose produced. Vent near the extremity of the tail. 

Obs. Tiie coverings of the animals of this genus are even softer and more pliable than the 
preceding. Tiie expanded ribs which form the upper shell do not extend to the margin, and 
the under portion is equally undeveloped. They all live in fresh-water streams, and have the 
reputation of being exceedingly voracious. 



6 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

THE SOFT-SHELLED TURTLE. 

Trionyx feeox. 

PLATE VI. FIG. 11. Young. — (CABINET OF THE LYCEUM.) 

Testudo frrox et cartilnginea. Gmelin, Syst. Nat. 

The Soft-shelled Tortoise. Garden, Phil. Transac. 1771, p. 22C. 

River Tortoise. Penn. Arct. Zoology, Supplement, p. 78. 

La ToTtue de Pennant. Dahdin, Hist. Rept. Vol. 2, p. 68, pi. 18, fig. 2. 

Trionyx spiniferus. Lesueur, Mem. Mus. Vol. 15, p. 258, pi. 6, a, b, c. 

T. fa-ox. Say, Ac. Sc. Vol. 4, p. 218. Le Conte, Ann. Lye. Vol. 3, p. 93. Harlan, Med. and Phys. p. 158 

T. platypeltis. Fitzing. 

T. amyda. Schweigg. 

Trionyx ferox. Holbrook, Am. Herpetology, Vol. 2, p. 11, pi. 1, 

T.ferox. KiRTLAND, Report on the Zoology of Ohio. 

Characteristics. Dusky brown. Orbicular ; little elevated ; the anterior margin with cuticu- 
lar processes. Fore feet with three squamous folds in front, and two 
oblong tubercles behind. Young, with ocellate spots. Length 9-12 
inches. 

Description. Shell entire, orbicular, bony in the central parts, and cartilaginous on the mar- 
gins. The anterior margin in the adult with numerous pointed tubercles, which may be faintly 
and distantly traced in the young. A series of raised and tuberculated lines on the disk in 
the adult. Under a lens, the surface of the shell appears divided into minute compartments, 
in which there are two concentric rings, including a small rounded central elevation ; these 
are barely sensible to the touch. Sternum cruciform, osseous in the middle. Head large, 
tapering acutely to the nose, which is long and flexible, with the nostrils nearly terminal. 
Eyes prominent, contiguous, and almost vertical. Mouth cleft behind the eyes ; jaws narrow, 
partly covered by the lips, which are thickened on the sides. Neck long, smooth, with a gular 
fold. Legs long and slender, palmate, five-toed ; the web extending over the two clawless 
toes on both feet, and high up along the posterior margin of the hind foot. Tail short, thick, 
suddenly contracting to a point, and extending beyond the shell. Vent within 0"5 of the 
extremity of the tail. Claws robust, subtrigonal, nearly straight, the intermediate one on the 
hind foot longest. 

Color. Shell dark slate, with numerous large ocellate spots, and with black dots chiefly 
along the margin. Beneath, soiled white. Head slate, punctate with black on the summit 
and sides. Nose light, or flesh-colored ; a white stripe, margined on each side with black, 
proceeds from the posterior margin of the eyes, and is lost in the marblings on each side of 
the neck. Chin and sides of the lower jaw, together with the feet and tail, varied with black 
and white. Irides yellow, with a black medial stripe. 

Total length, 9-0. Length of shell, 5-3. 

Ditto of head and neck, 3"0. Diameter of shell, 5'0. 

Dittooftail, 1*7. Height of same, 1*4. 



FAMILY CHELONID^. 7 

The Soft-shcllcd Tortoise was not generally known as an inliabitant of New-York, until 
after the completion of the Erie canal, connecting the Great Lakes with the Ocean. Pre- 
vious to that period, it was supposed to belong exclusively to the southern and western waters. 
The description given above was taken several years since, from a specimen obtained in the 
Mohawk river. Subsequently, several individuals, as I understand, have been taken from the 
Hudson river near Albany. The specimen, as I then thought, varied so much from any 
description of the ferox within my reach, that I considered it to be new, and named it ocel- 
latus. An examination of many specimens, both oi ferox and miiticus, (which I suspect to 
be identical,) since that period, together with a recent reexamination of the specimens in the 
Cabinet of the Lyceum, satisfies me that my oceUatus was nothing but the young of ihe ferox, 
the premiere variete of Lesueur (Op. sup. cit. p. 261). It is, however, so peculiar, that I 
deemed it worthy of being drawn. The color of the adult is of a uniform dusky brown, 
occasionally with a few obsolete darker spots. 

I am not acquainted with any other locality in this State, though I have heard of their bcin<r 
taken in Chautauque and Cayuga lakes. I have been assured by persons in Cattaraucrus 
county, that they have been taken in the Allegany river, a tributary of the Ohio. Major 
Le Conte informs me that they are abundant both in Lake Ontario and Erie. Dr. Kirtland 
mentions this species as very abundant in all the streams both of the Ohio and Lake Erie. 
In calm weather, during summer, he observes, great numbers may be seen floating near the 
surface of the water. At such times, they were closely followed by several of the black bass 
f C. ohioensis); but he could not ascertain what attracted this usually coy fish about them. 

It is much esteemed as a wholesome and nutritious article of food. They are said to feed 
on fish, and the smaller aquatic reptiles. The statements regarding their ferocity, which has 
given them their specific name, appear to vary. According to Mr. Speakman cited by Say, 
it is only the young who attempt to bite ; and Major Le Conte observes, that they are not 
more inclined to bite than any other species. Dr. Eights, on the other hand, asserts that he 
saw " a large one from Cayuga lake dart out its head ferociously at a dog which had been 
" purposely brought near, and take from its side a mouthful of hair m the attempt."' They 
are chiefly taken with a hook baited with flesh, and sometimes speared. When they sliow 
themselves above water, tliey are killed by the rifle. 

(EXTRALIMITAL) 

T. muiicus. (Les. Mem. Mus. Vol. 15, pi. 7. Holb. Vol. 2, pi. 3.) Shell elUptical, confounded 
with the neck, not tuberculated or spinous in front. Sternal callosities four ; the two hinder laro-e, 
united. Length 7 to 8 inches. Ohio River. 

T. hartrami. (Le Conte, Ann. Lye. Vol. 3, p. 96.) Head and neck furnished with retractile tuber- 
culated appendages. East Florida. 

T. harlani. (Bell, Monog.) Body more ventricose, and the soft portions of the shell less extensive 
than in the other species. East Florida. 



8 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

GENUS CHELONURA. Fleming. 

Head large, ivith small plates. Both jaws strongly hooked. Sternum small, cruciform, 
immovable. Tail long, and furnished with a scaly or tuberculated crest. Anterior feet 
with Jive claws ; posterior with four. 

Ous. This genus is identical with the Emysaurus of Dumeril & Bibron, Rapara of Gray, 
and Saurochelys of Latreille. The Chelydra of Schweigger appears to have been founded 
on the young of the C. serpentina. I am acquainted with but one species in the United States. 
Dr. Harlan, in his Medical and Physical Researches, has indicated the existence of another 
from Tennessee, but lias given no detailed description. 

THE SNAPPING TURTLE. 

Chelonuba serpentina. 

PLATE ni. FIG. 6. YoUNO, 

Tcshuh serpentuia. L. Sysb. p. 354. 

r id. Dacdin, Vol. 2, p. 98, pi. 20, fig, 2. 

Clidotmra serpentina. Say, Acad. Nat. Sc. Vol. 4, p. 217. 

Chelydra lacerlina. Schweigg. Monog. (Young.) 

Testudo serpentina. Le C. Ann. Lyc. Nat. Hist. N. Y. Vol. 3, p. 127. 

Emys (Chelydra) serpentina. Gray, Synopsis Rept. apud Griff. Cuv. Vol. 9, p. 14. 

Chelydra serperUina. HaKL. Med. & Phys. p. 157. 

Emysaurus id. Dumeril & Bib. Vol. 2, p. 350. 

Emysaurus id. Stoker, Mass. Rep. p. 212. 

Chelonura id. HoLBEOOE, Am. Herp. Vol. 4, p. 21, pi. 3; and Vol. 1, p. 139, pi. 23, of the 2d Ed, 

Characteristics. Shell oval, more or less carinate, three-toothed on its posterior margin. Upper 
jaw hooked, acute. Head long and wide. Snout attenuated. Length 
2-4 feet. 

Description. Shell oval, little elevated, with a dorsal ridge produced by the elevation of the 
posterior margin of the vertebral plates. Five vertebral, eight lateral and twenty-five marginal 
plates. The first lateral plate triangular, with its outer base rounded ; the remainder sub- 
quadrate, the posterior smallest. The marginal plates small, oblong, and gradually enlarging 
on the sides ; the posterior largest, and of these, three and occasionally four with strong spi- 
nous angles. The vertebral plates are quadrate, except the last, which is pentagonal. Sternum 
composed of ten plates ; the anterior pair small, the two following pair gradually larger. The 
wing or supplementary plates long and narrow, united to the marginal plates by two small 
plates ; these wing plates are attached beneath to the pectoral and femoral pair. Caudal 
plates long, narrow and triangular. Head exceedingly large, scaly above. Skin of the neck 
loose, and thickly covered above with fleshy warts, somewhat smoother beneath. Jaws stout, 
the upper jaw largest. Legs robust. Fore feet covered above by series of scales, of which 
those on the posterior edge are largest. Hind legs with similar large scales beneath. Toes 



FAMILY CHELONID^. 9 

partially webbed ; those of the fore feet almost entirely so. The claws are robust, channelled 
beneath, moderately curved. Tail very long, cylindrical at the base, slightly compressed on 
the sides, and tapering to an acute tip ; its dorsal surface crested by numerous compressed 
elevated scales, becoming smaller behind ; a series of large flat scales on the sides. 

Yoimg. The lateral plates form a prominent ridge on each side, becoming more elevated 
behind, and separated from the dorsal ridge by a broad and deep furrow. All the plates of 
the shell strongly marked with elevated lines radiating forwards, with slight concentric fur- 
rows. In the adult, these are obsolete. The supplementary or wing plates are united to the 
margin by three small plates. 

Color. Dusky brown or olivaceous gi-een above. The sternum, under side of the margnial 
plates, and of the neck, feet and tail, bright yellow, which becomes dull with age. Eyes 
brown. In a specimen from Lake Janet, Hamilton county, the under sides of the marginal 
plates were of a beautiful light green. 

Total length, 12-0 - 48-0. 

Ditto of tail, 4-0-16-0. 

This is one of our largest turtles. It is common in every part of the State, and inhabits 
equally the clearest and muddiest streams. It is occasionally met with at a distance from the 
water, probably in search of food, or of a suitable place of deposit for its eggs. On the 
Raquet river, Franklin county, I found them laying their eggs in June, and we were frequently 
indebted to these deposits for a precarious meal. They scoop out a hole in the sand a short 
distance from the water, a few inches deep ; and by probing with a short stick in places indi- 
cated by the tracks of the animal, we frequently obtained as many as sixty or seventy eggs 
from one spot. The eggs, as well as the animal, afford a very nutritious and savory food. 
The larger and older animals have a strong musky flavor, which renders them unpalatable. 
They feed upon frogs and fishes, and snap greedily at ducks in ponds, dragging them imder 
water to be devoured at leisure. It is this propensity to snap at every thing within its reach, 
which has obtained for it its popular name. In other sections, it is known under the names 
of Loggerhead, Alligator Turtle and Couta. I have frequently observed a small leech 
(Clepsina scabra) adhering to it. 

This species appears to extend over the whole Union, but its precise geographical limits 
are not yet ascertained. 

{EXTRALIMITAL) 

C. temmincJci, (Holb. Vol. 1, pi. 24.) Head enormously large, covered above and on th,e sides with 
plates. Upper jaw hooked in front ; lower jaw with a strong tooth-like process received in a cavity 
in the upper jaw. Shell tricarinate, concave in front, deeply emarginate and dentate behind ; mar- 
ginal plates 31, placed in two rows at the flanks. Tail not crested. Length of head and neck 12 
inches; of shell, 22 inches; tail, 14 -O. Mississippi. 
Fauna — Part 3. 2 



10 NEW- YORK FAUNA. 

GENUS EMYS. Brongniart. 

Shell not much elevated, solid, covered with horny plates. Sternum solid, broad, immovable ; 
of six pair and four supplemental plates. Feet palmate ; anterior with five claws, posterior 
with four. 

This genus comprises nearly all the fresh water tortoises discovered in America. In this 
State, we enumerate nine species. 

THE SALT-WATER TERRAPIN. 

Emys paldstris. 

PLATE in. FIG. 5. —'(STATE COLLECTION.) 

Testudo paluslns. LiN. Gmel. 

Tortue a lignes concentriques. Daud. Hist. Nat. Rep. Vol. 2, p. IS.I. 

Emys centrata. Say, Acad. Sc. Nat. Philad. Vol. 4, p. 211. Hakl. Med. and Phys. p. 153. 

T.palustrU. Le Conte, Annals of the Lye. Nat. Hist. Vol. 3, p. 113. 

Characteristics. Shell oval, obtusely carinate ; the plates with numerous deeply impressed 
concentric striae ; the last vertebral plate rounded in front. Beneath, red- 
dish or orange, dusky, irregular stripes or rings. Length 5-7 inches. 

Description. Shell emarginate behind, depressed, but the extent of this depression varies 
in different individuals ; occasionally quite elevated, and as if distinctly carinated along the 
vertebral plates. Each plate is very distinctly marked, particularly in the males, by five to 
seven or eight regularly concentric lines, parallel with the direction of the sides of the plate : 
varieties occur, in which the plates are nearly smooth. The first vertebral plate quadrate, the 
remainder six sided ; the last polygonal, the anterior margins forming nearly a curved line. 
Lateral plates, the three first pentagonal ; the last small, subquadrate. Marginal plates 
twenty-five, unequal in size ; the intermediate small, oblong, linear, the outer edge occasionally 
emarginate, sometimes triangular, truncate ; the posterior plates small, somewhat upturned. 
Sternum of six pair ; the gular plates small, triangular, with impressed concentric angular 
lines ; the next pair larger, subquadrate, enlarged on the outer margin ; the three following 
subequal, the caudal pair rounded behind, where they form a broad emargination. Extre- 
mities with separate scales. 

Color. Usually of a dull ash brown above, varying in intensity in different individuals, 
sometimes approaching to black. Beneath, reddish or orange, occasionally pale and dull yel- 
lowish, with dusky dashes and rings on the sternal plates and lower side of the marginal plates. 
Head, neck and extremities dull bluish ash, with numerous spots of black. 

Length, 5-0 -7-0. 

Height, 1-0 -2-5. 



FAMILY CHELONID^. 11 

This species is the well known and justly prized Terrapin of epicures. It is well distin- 
guished as the Salt-water Terrapin, for it is found exclusively in salt or brackish streams near 
the seashore. They bury themselves in the mud during the winter, from which they are taken 
in great numbers, and are then very fat. 

The geogi-aphical limits of this species extend from the Gulf of Mexico, along the Atlantic, 
to New-York. They are found along the northern shores of Long Island to its extremity, but 
I am not informed whether it occurs on the opposite main shore. Dr. Storer does not mention 
it in his valuable Report on the Reptiles of Massachusetts. The Prince of Canino has intro- 
duced this species into Italy, but I have not learned with what success. 

THE SMOOTH TERRAPIN. 

Emys terrapin. 

PLATE XXIII. FIG. 63. — FIG. 65. Posteriohvehtebral plate. —CST.ITE COLLECTION.) 

Testudo terrapin. ScHOEPFF, Hist. Testud. p. 64, pi. 15. 

Lta Tortue a ligne^ concentriquesy variete 3me. Daud. Hist. Rept. Vol. 2, p. 157. 

Emys concentrica. Gray, Synopsis apud GriiF. p. 11. 

Emys terrapin. HoLBBOOK, N. Am. Herpetology, Vol. 2, p. 13, pi. 2, (excl. syn.) Ed. Ima; Vol. 1, p. 87, pi. 12, Ed. 2da. 

Characteristics. Shell smooth, not sculptured with concentric marks ; posterior vertebral plate 
regularly pentagonal. Length 5"0 - 7"0. 

Description. In the skull, the occipital process is more slender and longer than in the pre- 
ceding. No striking differences are observable in the shell, except that it is never so much 
carinated as in the preceding species, and it has only a few concentric strife on the lateral 
plates ; the last vertebral plate distinctly pentagonal. 

Color. Shell grey, with black concentric marks on each plate. Skin grey, speckled, and 
•spotted with black. 

I am indebted to Major Le Conte for a figure and note, pointing out the distinctive marks 
between this and the preceding species, which had been confounded by Daudin, and not con- 
tradistinguished by subsequent observers. They are both brought to our markets at the 
same time, and sold under the common name of terrapin. The specimens of the two species 
of the same size, examined by Major Le Conte, were both females. I had noticed the two, 
and supposed them to be sexual varieties. The market people say that they are caught in the 
same localities ; but as Schoepff derived his specimens (the present species) from Muhlenberg, 
I am inclined to believe that the T. terrapin inhabits indifferently fresh and salt water. Schoepff 
himself found one on Long Island, in water which was almost fresh. 

The figure and description of tjxe Emys terrapin of my friend Dr. Holbrook, clearly point 
out this species. His specimens are obscurely carinate on the vertebral line, and he is entirely 
silent respecting the deep concentric marks which distinguish the other species. According 
to Holbrook, this species occurs as far east as Rhode-Island. 



12 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

THE PAINTED TORTOISE 

EmYS PICTA. 

PLATE V. FIG. 10. — (STATE COLLECTrON.) 

Trsliido picta. Gm. Schneid. SchiWkrof. p. 348. 

7'. id. SCHCEPFF, Hist. Test. p. 23, pi. 4. (Adult.) 

T. cinerca. Id. pi. 3. fig. 3. (Young.) 

Tortuc peinti. Baud. Hist. Kept. Vol.2, p. 164. 

E.picla. Say, Ac. So. Vol. 4, p. 211. Le Conte, Ann. Lye. Vol. 3, p. 115. 

E. id. Harlan, Med, & Phys. p. 151. 

E. bellii. Gray, Synops. p. 12. 

E.picla et hdlii. DuMEK. & Bib. Hist. Rep. Vol. 2, p. 297 and 302. 

E.picla. HoLBROOK, N. Am. Heip. Vol. 2, p. 19, pi. 3. Storer, Mass. Rep. p. 208. 

E. id. Id. N. Am. Heiii. Ed. 2da, Vol. I, p. 75, pi. 10. 

Characteristics. Shell oblong, oval, smooth ; olive, with a yellow stripe along the sutures. 
Head with yellow lines along the sides. Neck and feet with red stripes. 
Length 5-9 inches. 

Description. Shell oblong, oval, not carinated, smooth, minutely notched behind. First 
vertebral plate with projecting acute lateral angles in front, rounded or sinuous behind ; the 
two following irregularly quadrate ; the third having a small projection forward on its anterior 
margin ; the fourth hexagonal, with sinuous sides ; the last obscurely hexagonal. Of the 
lateral plates, the first is irregularly four-sided, the margin contiguous to the second vertebral 
plate shortest ; the second is by far the largest, and the posterior smallest. The intermediate 
marginal plate linear, often doubly notched or bidentate in front ; the first and second pair, 
together with the eighth and ninth on each side, largest. Sternum solid, elliptical, oval, finely 
serrate in front, the medial line often irregular ; scapular plates triangular, with a slight knob- 
hke process at the exterior angles, which project beyond the margin ; pectoral plates narrow.' 
Head moderate ; upper jaw notched, with a sliglit process on each side of the emargination. 
Feet palmate, with five slender, acute and nearly straight claws in front, and four behind. 
Tail short, scaly, cylindrical. Independent of the sutures indicated externally on the shell by 
the markings, there are others concealed by the scaly epidermis. 

Color. This varies exceedingly in different individuals, but the following is the most usual 
distribution : Shell olive brown or blackish, with irregularly dilated yellow lines, bordered 
witli black along the suture. A very narrow yellow dorsal line from the margin of the inter- 
mediate plate, to the space between the two posterior marginal plates. The upper surfaces 
of the marginal plates with parallel vertical yellow lines, or else with concentric lines of the 
same color ; occasionally tliese lines become abbreviated, disconnected, and sometimes small 
orbicular yellow or reddish spots margined with black ; the under side of these plates yellow 
or reddish, with rounded or sub-quadrate dark spots. Sternum yellow or deep orange ; all 
the plates towards the medial line with irregular concentric approximated dusky lines ; these 
lines becoming occasionally confluent, and extending irregularly along the sutures toward the 



FAMILY CHELONID^. 13 

outer margins, form a dark blotch, with a few lighter spots within. Neck, feet and tail black, 
more or less distinctly striped with red intermixed with yellowish. Sides of the head striped 
with yellow, and with four yellow blotches above. Eyes small ; pupil black, with golden 
irides, and a black stripe running horizontally through their centres. 

Total length, 5-0-6-5. 

Height, 2-0. 

For the variety and beauty of its markings, this is unquestionably the handsomest of our 
fresh-water species. It is a timid, inoffensive animal, and dies in a few days when kept out 
of the water. It feeds on insects and the smaller aquatic reptiles, and also eats the leaves of 
the Alisma plantago, or water plantain. It is found in every part of the State, and next to the 
guttata or Spotted Tortoise, is the most common, preferring tranquil ponds of water to clear 
running streams. Although occasionally eaten, it is not much esteemed. It ranges from 
Canada to Georgia along the coast, and has been observed near Lake Superior. It is enu- 
merated by Kirtland among the Reptiles of Ohio. 

THE SPOTTED TORTOISE 

Emys guttata. 

PLATE VI. FIG. 12.— (STATE COLLECTION.) 

Testudo gultala. ScHNEID. Naturforsch, Vol. 4, p. 264. 

T. puMtata. ScHOEPFF, p. 25, pi. 5. 

T. punctata. Le Conte, Ann. Lye. Vol. 3. p. 117. Say, Ac. Sc. Vol 4, p. 212. Harlan, Med. and phys. p. 151. 

Clemi/s punctata. W'agler, Nat. Syst. der Amph. p. 137. 

Emys guttata. Holekook, N. Am. Herp. Vol. 2, p. 25, pi. 4 ; Vol. 1, p. 81, pi. 11, Ed. 2da. 

B. guttata. DuM. & Bib. Hist. Rep. Vol. 2, p. 295. Storek, Mass. Rep. Vol. 1, p. 295. 

Characteristics. Black, with rounded distant dots above ; varied with black and yellow beneath. 
Length .3-4 inches. 

Description. Shell ovate, (in the j-^oung, narrowed before, and widely emarginate in front;) 
slightly emarginate behind ; higher behind than in front. First vertebral plate pentagonal, 
the following hexagonal, the last seven-sided, all subequal. Of the four lateral plates on each 
side, the anterior is irregularly quadrate, the others pentagonal. Marginal- plates twenty-five ; 
the anterior impair, small, linear ; (in the young, broader ;) the others sub-quadrate ; the fourth, 
fifth, sixth and seventh on each side smallest, and more vertical. The sutures are accompa- 
nied with deep concentric furrows, which in the adult become nearly or completely effaced. 
Sternum emarginate behind ; the anterior pair triangular, with the external angle projecting 
beyond the margin ; the next pair irregularly triangular, and larger ; the two following pair 
oblong ; the femoral pair enlarged on their outer margins ; caudal pair trapezoidal. The 
junction of the sternum with the shell occurs with the fourth to the seventh marginal pair in 
elusive. All the sternal plates have angular concentric lines near the sutures. Head mode- 



14 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

rate, depressed above ; upper jaw emarginate. Legs scaly. Fore feet with five slightly 
incurved, brownish or black claws, channelled beneath. Of the four hind claws, the one next 
to the interior is longest. Tail pyramidal, pointed, with a slight prominence along the dorsal 
line. 

Young. The plates of the sternum and shell with deeply impressed concentric angular lines, 
covering each plate. Upper surface, when moistened, deep shining black ; the yellow dots 
confined to the marginal plates, of which there is one on each. Sternum and under sides of 
the marginal plates rosaceous, or flesh-colored. 

Color. Black or deep brownish black, with distant rounded yellow dots, occasionally with 
a few orange spots. Head with two or more reddish spots above. Chin and neck dark 
brown, with irregular reddish spots. Feet dark-colored, reddish within. Sternum yellow 
horn-color, with dusky brown nearly covering each plate. Marginal plates yellowish beneath. 
Tail black above, reddish about the region of the vent. 

Length of the shell, 4'0 - S'O. 

Ditto of the tail, T - 1 -3. 

This is one of our most common tortoises, and offers great varieties in the distribution of 
its spots. Most generally the lateral plates have but a single spot on each. They vary also 
exceedingly in the convexity of the shell. Under the name of Speckled Turtle, this little animal 
is found throughout the Union. It inhabits streams and ponds, giving a preference to such 
as have a deep muddy bottom. On a warm day, they may be seen on a log or rock, closely 
huddled together, and basking in the sun ; from this they slip suddenly into the water, on 
the approach of man. They feed on insects, frogs and worms ; and bury themselves, on the 
approach of winter, in the mud at the bottom of ponds. It is rare in the Western States. 

THE WOOD TEREAPIN. 

EMys iNacuLPTA. 

PLATE IV. FIG. 8. — (CABINET OF THE LYCEUM.) 

Emys scahra. Say, Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad. Vol. 4, p. 210. 

Terrapena scahra. BONAP. Oss. p. 157. 

Testudo insailpla. Le Conte, Ann. Lye. N. Y. Vol. 3, p. 112. Harl.4N, Med. and Phys. p. 152. 

Emys pulchella. DoM. and Bibr. Hist. Nat. des Kept. Vol. 2, p. 251. 

Wood Tortoise. Storer, Mass. Report, p. 209. 

E. insculpta. HoLBROOK, N. Am. Herpetology, Vol. 3, p. 17, pi. 2 ; and Vol. 1, p. 87, pi. 13 of 2nd Ed. 

Characteristics. Shell carinate, deeply furrowed by concentric and radiating lines. Plates of 
the sternum black at the angle formed by their exterior and posterior 
angles ; emarginate behind. Length 8-10 inches. 

Description. Shell oval, emarginate behind, depressed on the back, with a distinct carina, 
more prominent on the anterior and posterior vertebral plate. The surface of all the plates 



FAMILY CHELONID.f:. 15 

deeply sculptured by radiating and concentric lines, the latter somewhat waved, which gives 
to the whole surface a minutely reticulated aspect. The first vertebral plate pentagonal, 
smooth on the centre of its posterior margin ; the others sub-pentagonal. The first lateral 
plate four-sided, the internal margin short ; the centre of the posterior marcrin of the last 
occasionally elevated. Marginal plates twenty-five ; the intermediate one linear, prominent, 
often projecting ; the next obscurely pentagonal, projecting at the external angle, the second 
dilated along the outer margin. The outer edges of the fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh plates 
slightly upturned ; the largest are the ninth, tenth and eleventh, with their posterior angles 
slightly projecting. Sternum of twelve plates widely and deeply notched behind, depressed 
in the centre, and with obsolete angular concentric striae on the sides towards the medial line. 
Scapular plates with a slight acute tip at the outer angles, projecting a little beyond the mar- 
gin, as does likewise the femoral beyond the caudal ; the humeral and abdominal plates united 
to the marginal, without any intermediate plates. Head moderate, flattened above ; upper 
jaw emarginate, robust, the lower hooked. Neck rather long. Legs robust, scaly ; feet pal- 
mate, the anterior with five and the posterior with four very stout claws. Tail short, large at 
the base, cylindrical, scaly, tapering, sub-compressed to an acute tip. 

Color, of the whole shell, brown, tinged with reddish, and with radiating, abbreviated 
yellow lines ; edges of the marginal plates horn-color. Sternum and under side, the marginal 
plates yellow, with black blotches near their posterior and lateral margins. Under portions of 
the neck, feet and tail, red, speckled with black ; often a yellow line on each side of the neck. 
Eyes with a black pupil and brown irides, surrounded by a yellow ring. 

Total length, 11-0. Length of the tail, ... T 6. 

Lengthof the shell,. 6-5. Height of the shell, . . 2-7. 

This is not one of the largest dimensions. Mr. Say speaks of one of which the shell was nine 
inches long, and I have heard of another which measured twelve inches. 

We are indebted to Major Le Conte for the first elimination of this species. It is not so 
exclusively aquatic as most of its congeners, for it is frequently met with in woods at some 
distance from the water : hence one of its popular names. It is also called the Fresli-water 
Terrapin, to distinguish it from the E. paliistris before described, and which it is thought to 
resemble in flavor. It is a northern species, extending from near Canada to Pennsylvania. 
I observed it along the banks of the Raquet and Saranac rivers, in the northern part of the 
State. In one specimen S'O long, the caudal plates were serrated on their posterior margin 
by the extension of the deep angular impressed hues ; the lateral plates were hollowed in 
their centres ; neck furnished with warts ; color dark greenish, with interrupted radiating 
yellow lines ; throat and lower side of the legs bright orange. In another, found on a sand 
beach of Cedar river, one of the sources of the Hudson, with a shell 8-5 long, it was more 
convex, although the vertebral plates were more depressed, and' the keel nearly eflfaced ; 
the sutures were wide, and the plates elevated at the sutures. It is a harmless species ; but 
when irritated, it will snap repeatedly at the offender. Little is known of its habits. 



16 NEW- YORK FAUNA. 

THE RED-BELLIED TERRAPIN. 

Emys rubriventris. 
PLATE Vil. FIG. 14.— (STATE COLLECTION.) 

Bmys serrata. Say, Acad. Nat. Sciences, Vol. 4, p. 208 (excl. syn.) H.ielan, Ac. Sc. Vol. 4, p. 204. 

Tcstudo ntbriventris. Le Conte, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. Vol. 3, p. 101. H.tELAN, Med. and Phys. Res. p. 154, 

E. irrigata. Bell, Gray's Synops. Rept. p. 29. 

E. id. DoMERiL et Bib. Hist. Nat. Rep. Vol. 2, p. 27G. 

E. rubrivcntris. HoLBRoOK, N.Am. Herpetology, Vol. 2, p. 37, pi. 6 ; and Vol. 1, p. 55, pi. 6, of Ed. 2da. 

Characteristics. Very large. Shell oblong, gibbous, ecarinate. Intermediate plate linear, 
often serrate. Shell wrinkled along the side. Jaws serrated. Beneath 
red. Length 10 - 17 inches. 

Description. Shell oblong, elliptical, restricted, opposite to the abdominal plates, emarginate 
behind ; the sides with longitudinal wrinkles, which extend over the posterior marginal plates. 
The first vertebral plate obscurely six-sided, shorter than the others ; the three following, 
oblong, the anterior margin of the first of these concave, the next nearly straight, the suc- 
ceeding one convex, the lateral angles of all acutely pointed ; the posterior plate narrow in 
front, its lateral margins wide, its posterior margins subdivided into four concave surfaces. 
The lateral plates very large ; the posterior plate smallest, quadrate. Marginal plates twenty- 
five ; the intermediate often serrate, the next slightly projecting ; the eighth, ninth, tenth and 
eleventh also projecting at their external posterior angles. Sternum smooth, of twelve plates, 
emarginate behind. Scapular plates projecting ; occasionally a small supplementary plate 
between the external angle of this and the following pair. Pectorals narrow, and united to the 
third, fourth and fifth marginal plate by an accessory plate. Abdominal pair large, and united 
by a triangular accessory plate at its posterior margin, to the seventh and eighth marginal 
pairs. Femoral plates project beyond the succeeding pair. Posterior angles of the caudal 
pair rounded. Upper jaw emarginate, and receiving the middle tooth of the under jaw. 
Legs and tail scaly, the former with robust claws. 

Color. Dusky, with reddish confluent spots, and broad reddish lines. Sternum often of a 
uniform lake red ; the under side of the marginal plates of the same color, with large dusky 
splashes or spots. Head dark brown or black, and with the throat striped with reddish or 
yellow. Eyes yellow, with a horizontal broad and black stripe tlirough tlie middle. Legs 
and tail dusky, spotted, and occasionally striped with red. 

This is one of the largest of the genus, and the neighborhood of the city of New- York 
appears to be its extreme northern limit. I have never seen it in the western parts of the 
State, and it appears to be unknown in Ohio. They are brought to our markets from New- 
Jersey, where they are very numerous in running streams. As an article of food, they are 
equally prized with the preceding. It is not found farther south than Virginia, and with its 
western limits I am unacquainted. It may be well to note, that in cabinet specimens, its rich 
coloring almost entirely disappears, and the brilliant red sternum is changed to a wax yellow. 
Its history is yet incomplete. 



FAMILY CHELONID^. 17 

MUHLENBERG'S TORTOISE. 

EmYS MnHLENEERGII. 

PLATE VIII. FIG. 15. — (STATE COLLECTION.) 

Tesludo -punctata, var. Schcepff, Hist. Testud. p. 132, pi. 31. 

Chersme muhlenbergii. Merrem, Syst. p. 30. 

Clemmys? Wagler, p. 136. 

Emys bigultala. Say, Acad. Nat. Sc. Vol. 4, p. 205. 

Tenapene. BoNAP. 

T. muhlenbergii. Le Conte, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hisl. Vol. 3, p. 1 19. 

E. id. Harlan, Medical and Physical Researches, p. 152. 

■E. id. HoLBEOOK, N. Am. Herpetology, Vol. 1, pi. 5 ; and Vol. 1, p. 45, pi. 4, of Ed. 2da. 

Characteristics. Shell elevated, carinate. Neck with one or more orange spots on the side. 
Length 4 inches. 

Description. Head moderate, depressed above ; upper jaw deeply notched, the lower with 
an acute tip. Membrane of the neck rugose, with unequal papilla; and a large fold. Fore 
feet scaly ; the five toes divided from the claws nearly to their bases. Claws subequal, the 
external and internal being somewhat shorter. Hind legs longer than those before, with four 
toes, and one obsolete on the inner side. Tail sub-triangular, with about fourteen pair of sub- 
caudal plates. Shell elevated, carinate, dilated behind, narrowed in the middle ; anterior 
margin scolloped, the posterior emarginate. The intermediate marginal plate sub-linear and 
very small, projecting slightly beyond its neighbors ; the four next on each side nearly hori- 
zontal ; the three following more vertical, and the remainder horizontal, the most posterior 
declivous. First vertebral plate pentagonal, the three next hexagonal, the fifth irregularly 
four-sided, the remainder pentagonal. All the scales with concentric angular stria; and corres- 
ponding ridges, except on the middle marginal plates, where they become almost obsolete ; in 
old individuals, they become partially or entirely obliterated. Sternum emarginate behind. 
Scapular plates triangular, with their external angles projecting and rounded within, as shown 
on the plate above referred to. The remaining plates sub-quadrate ; abdominal largest ; 
femoral with its posterior angle projecting beyond the caudal, which is rhomboidal ; all have 
concentric strias. 

Color. Head dark-colored above, with darker dashes and crimson dots on the cheeks. Irides 
brown. Chin and sides of the jaw with bright red streaks and spots. Two large irregular 
orange or yellow spots, often confluent, on each side of the back part of the head. Inside of 
the feet and under side of the tail, red ; this is also the predominant color of the exterior parts, 
but it is of a darker hue. Shell dark brown, with irregular siib-radiating lines of a dingy 
yellow. Sternum blackish, with yellow or flesh-color along the medial hne. Claws of a dark 
horn-color. 

Length of shell, 3-5. 

Height, l-S. 

Length of the head and neck from the intermediate plate, . 1 • 4. 
Fauna — Part 3. 3 



18 NEW- YORK FAUNA. 

It is with hesitation that I refer this rare species to the present genus. It is decidedly 
terrestrial in its liabits ; preferring, however, moist places, and the neighborhood of running 
streams. The foregoing description was made from a living specimen presented to me by 
Mr. J. W. Hill, who obtained two of them from a meadow near Clarkstown, Rockland county, 
in the early part of May. Their movements, unlike most of the genus, are very sluggish ; 
and in captivity, they attempt to burrow. Its hitherto known geographic range is very re- 
stricted, being limited to New-Jersey and the eastern part of Pennsylvania : it may now be 
extended to the State of New- York. 

THE GEOGRAPHIC TORTOISE. 

Emts geographica. 
plate iv. fig. 7. — (state collection.) 

Testiulo geographica et geometrica. Le3. Mem. Mus. Vol. 15, p. 267. 

Testudo geographica. Id. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad. Vol. 1, p. 87, fig. 5. 

Testudo id. Le Conte, Ann. Lye. Vol. 3, p. 108. Harlan, Med. .ind Phys. Res. p. 152. 

Testudo id. HoLBEooK, N. Am. Herp. Vol. 4 ; and Vol. 1. p. 09, pi. 14 of Ed. 2da. 

Characteristics. Head very large. Shell not elevated, smooth, ecarinate, serrated behind, 
with irregular meandering yellow lines. Feet and tail striped with yellow. 
Head with yellow stripes, but no spots. Length six inches. 

Description. Shell oval, smooth, widely emarginate in front, more narrowly notched behind. 
The vertebral plates scarcely approach a carinate form : The first, hexagonal, rounded in 
front, with a slight central elevation continued along the intermediate marginal plate ; the 
three following larger, subequal, hexagonal. The two intermediate lateral plates largest, 
pentagonal ; the posterior rhomboidal. Marginal plates twenty-five ; the three first on each 
side continuous with the direction of the vertebral and lateral plates ; the three following re- 
stricted, with their outer margins turned upwards ; the seventh and eighth largest ; the four 
remaining ones on each side two-toothed on the outer margins, the bidentation becoming gra- 
dually more distinct to the last. Sternum deeply notched behind ; the scapular plates small, 
triangular, with a small projection at the outer angle, directed forward ; brachial plates, 
triangular ; femoral and caudal pair subquadrate. Head large, more than twice the size of 
the succeeding species ; jaws acute. Legs rather long, scaly ; feet palmate, well adapted for 
swimming. A series of rather large flat scales on the upper margin of the fore legs, which 
are furnished with five long, sharp, incurved claws. A broad palmation on the hind feet, 
posterior to the outer claw, margined with flat scales. Tail short, pointed, cylindrical at the 
base, compressed towards the tip. 

Color. Shell olive brown, with paler narrow meandering lines intersecting each other. 
Marginal plates beneath, and the processes of the pectoral and abdominal plates, yellowish, 
with broad, brownish, concentric striae. Sternum yellowish, with brownish variegations. 
Upper part of the head, feet and tail, brownish black. Head and neck striped with yellow, 



FAMILY CHELONID^. ' 19 

occasionally with orange or red ; these stripes are irregular, waved, confluent. Chin and 
throat dusky, with irregular yellowish longitudinal lines in a double series. The under sides 
of the legs yellowish, with similar duplicated lines above, dusky with narrow yellow stripes. 
Tail with narrow yellow longitudinal stripes. Eyes yellow, with a horizontal black stripe. 

Total length, 10-5. Height of shell, 3>0. 

Ditto of shell, 6 '5. Breadth, 5-0. 

Ditto of tail, IS. 

This species, which is not uncommon in the counties of Chautauque and Erie, in the streams 
falling into the great lake, is more abundant in the western waters. I have never tasted their 
flesh, but am assured that it is very palatable. They are exceedingly active and vigorous. 
Until recently separated by Dr. Holbrook, two species have been confounded under one name. 

THE PSEUDO-GEOGRAPHIC TORTOISE 

EmYS PSEUDOGEOGRAPniCA. 

PLATE n. FIG. 3.— (CABINET OF THE LYCEUM.) 

Testiuh geographica, Var. b, Les. Mem. Mus. Vol. 15, p. 268. 

Emys geographica. Say, Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad. Vol. 4, p. 210. 

Emys id. Var. a. Le Conte, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y. Vol. 3, p. 110. 

E. tesvmri? Gkay, Synop. Rept. p. 12, apud Griffith. 

Emys pseudogeographica. Holbrook, N. Am. Herp. Vol. 1, p. 103, pi. 15. 

Characteristics. Shell elevated, carinate. Head moderate, with yellow stripes and large 
confluent blotches. Size of the preceding. 

Description. Shell much more elevated than in the preceding species. First vertebral plate 
smallest, elevated in the middle, somewhat pentagonal ; the following three six-sided, and the 
last three-sided. A prominent dark-colored tubercle on the central line of the posterior verte- 
bral plate, projecting backwards, and almost imbricated over the next succeeding plate ; these 
tubercles are largest on the second and third plates, becoming effaced on the last. The other 
plates of the shell present nothing distinctive. Sternum oblong, elliptic, of six pair, and widely 
emarginate behind : The anterior or scapular pair small, triangular, with a small tubercular 
process at the outer angle ; brachial plates truncate, triangular ; abdominal plates largest, and 
united by lateral processes and an intermediate plate to the fifth, sixth and seventh marginal 
plates ; femoral plates four-sided, the posterior angle projecting beyond the lateral margins of 
the caudal pair. 

Color. Very much like the preceding, both in its general color and the distribution of its 
markings. Edge of the marginal plates yellow. Sternum of a uniform yellowish color. Head 
with numerous yellow lines, frequently forming one or more large rounded spots on the sides 
of the head. 

Length, 5-0 -7-0. 



20 NEW- YORK FAUNA. 

I have never met with this species in this State, but am assured by Major Le Conte that he 
has seen it in Lake Erie, from which it is reasonable to suppose that it occurs in this State. 
The specimen affording the above description, was one sent to the Lyceum by Mr. Schoolcraft, 
from the Sault St. Marie, several years ago. 

(EXTRA-LIMITAL) 

E.floridana. (Holbrook, Vol. 2, p. 47, pi. 8; and Vol. 1, pi. 8 of 2d Ed.) Shell gibbous, entire, 
ecarinate, very large, roughened longitudinally. Brown, with numerous dashes of dusky. Length 
of shell 15 inches. Florida. 

E. reticulata. (Holbrook, Vol. 2, pi 7; and Vol. 1, pi. 7 of 2d Ed.) Gibbous, ecarinate, entire, 
ruo-ose longitudinally. Dark brouTi yellow lines, and a dorsal yellow line; neck very long ; feet 
striped with yellow. Length of shell 9 inches. Carolina, Georgia. 

E. serrata. (Id. Vol. 2, pi. 5; and Vol. 1, pi. 7 of 2d Ed.) Gibbous, carinate, almost round, longi- 
tudinally rugose. Dusky, with irregular yellowish lines ; a large yellow spot on the cheek. The 
five posterior marginal plates deeply serrate behind. Length 12 inches. Virginia, Georgia. 

E. concinna. (Id. Vol. 1, pi. 19.) Smooth, ecarinate, emarginate behind. Dusky bro^^ni, with con- 
fluent yellow spots and lines, more or less reticulated ; legs and neck striped with yellow ; a bi- 
furcate stripe on the sides of the head. Length 8 inches. Georgia, Carolina. 

E. mobilcnsis. (Id. Vol. 2, pi. 9; and Vol. 1, pi. 9 of 2d Ed.) Large, oval, convex and entire in front, 
emarginate and sub-serrate behind. Jaws serrate ; inferior with a hook. Brown, with largely 
reticulated yellow lines. Shell 15 inches. Alabama. 

E. oregonensis. (Harlan, Am. Jour. Vol. 31, pi. 31. Holbrook, Vol. 1, pi. 16.) Shell ecarinate, 
olive, with irregular bright yellow lines margined vrAh black ; anterior marginal plates serrated in 
front. Length 8 inches. Columbia River. 

E. hieroglyphica. (Holbrook, Vol. 1, pi 2; pi. 17 of Ed. 2.) Shell ecarinate, smooth, elongate 
and imperfectly serrate beliind. Sternum emarginate behind. Upper jaw shghtly notched ; lower 
with a tooth. Shell dusky, with broad sub-concentric yellow lines. Claws very long. Length 
12 inches. Tennessee. 

E. m,egacephala. (Id. Vol. 1, pi. 3.) Shell carinate, serrate and acute behind. Sternum oblong, 
emarginate. Head very large ; jaws entire. Shell dark olive green ; sternum dingy yellow ; head 
and neck with greenish yellow stripes. Length 8 inches. Tennessee, Ohio. 

E. troosti. (Id. Vol. 1, pi. 4; Vol. 1, pi 20 of Ed. 2.) Shell depressed, ecarinate, slightly serrate 
behind. Head long and narrow. Upper jaw notched ; lower jaw with a toothlike process. Shell 
dark green ; sternum yellow, with a large black blotch near the centre of each plate. Length 8 
inches. Tennessee. 
E. cumberlandcnsis. (Id. Vol. 1, pi 18.) Head moderate; upper jaw slightly emarginate ; lower with 
a small hook in front. Shell rather rounded, indistinctly carinate, slightly notched in front, and 
serrated behind. Shell brown, wnth radiating yellow lines. Length of shell 8 inches. Tennessee. 



FAMILY CHELOmDiE. 21 

GENUS KINOSTERNON. Spix. 

Head sub-quadrangular, pijramidal, covered with a single plate. Jaws slightly hooked. 
Warts at the chin. Marginal plates twenty-three. Sternum subdivided into three sec- 
tions ; the anterior and jjosterior movable, the central fixed. Plates of the sternum eleven. 
Supplemental plates very large. Tail moderate or long. 

THE MUD TORTOISE. 

KiNOSTERNON PENSYLVANICnM. 

PLATE I!. FIG. 4. _ (C.-LBINET OF THE LYCEUM.) 

Testvdo pensylvanka. Edwards, Gleanings, pi. 287. Penn. Arct. Zool. Suppl. p. 80. 

La Tortue rcmgeitre. Daud. Vol. 2, p. 182, pi. 24, fig. 1, 2. 

Cistuda pensylvanica. Say, Ac. Sc. Vol. 4, p. 206. Le Conte, Ann. Lye. Vol. 3, p. 120. 

Kinostemon id. Bell, Zoological Journal, Vol. 2, p. 304. 

Emys id. Harlan, Med. and Phys. Researches, p. 155. 

Kinostemon pensylmnicum. Holbrook, N. Am. Herpet. Vol. 2, p. 23, pi. 3; and Vol. 1, p. 127, pi. 21 of 2d Ed. 

Cinostenion. Wagl. Bonap. Chel. Tab. analytica, p. 7. 

Characteristics. Dusky brown. Shell vaulted. Upper and lower jaw hooked. The penul- 
timate marginal plate on each side, dilated. Tail with a horny point. 
Length four inches. 

Description. Shell oval, smooth, elevated behind, flattened above, descending rapidly behind, 
where it is minutely emarginate ; the surface is covered with numerous obsolete angularly 
concentric furrows. First vertebral plate triangular, with a truncate apex behind ; the second, 
third and fourth, hexagonal ; the third smallest : all sub-imbricate behind. Lateral plates 
large, imbricate. Marginal plates elevated above the plane of the lateral plates, and sepa- 
rated from them by a deep furrow as far as the tenth pair, which, together with the eleventh, 
is continuous with the plane of the lateral and vertebral plates, and much higher than the 
others ; the intermediate plate small, linear, dilated beneath. The sternum of eleven plates, 
somewhat concave, notched behind, with a joint at the pectoral plates, and another joint more 
or less obvious at the posterior margin of the abdominal plates. Gular plates united into one, 
triangular. Brachial plates obliquely four-sided ; the thoracic triangular, smaller : both pair 
united to each other, and attached by a ligamentous hinge to the fixed abdominal pair, which 
is largest. This last pair connects to the marginal plates by two accessory plates, of which 
the posterior is largest, subtriangular. The posterior angle of the femoral plates forms a 
notch with the border of the caudal plates, which are emarginate. All the plates of the 
sternum with deeply sculptured angular and parallel lines. Head large. Upper and lower 
jaw with a hooked tooth. Skin of the neck with four series of cutaneous papilla; ; two others 
larger, approximated beneath the chin. Fore feet naked, with two large scaly folds on the 
upper side, and small scales beneath, with five robust but short claws. A few scattering 



22 NEW- YORK FAUNA. 

tubercles on the under side of the leg. Hind legs with four claws ; the fifth toe distinct, but 
clawless. Tail short, very robust at base, and terminating in a stout blunt horny point ; the 
sides of the tail with from four to six series of short tubercular processes, which are likewise 
numerous around the vent. 

Color. Shell olive brown. Sternum yellow or orange and darker, occasionally black in 
the vicinity of the sutures. Head brownish, with irregular lines, streaks and spots of a lighter 
color, which also extend to the sides of the neck. Irides dark brown. Feet and tail dusky 
brown ; beneath lighter. 

•Total length, 6-0. Length of the tail, 0-6. 

Ditto of the shell, 4-0. Height, 1-8. 

New-Jersey has hitherto been considered as the highest eastern limit of this species ; but 
it is (although sparingly) found in the southern counties of this State, west of the Hudson. 
I find no mention of it in Storer's Report on the Reptiles of Massachusetts, although it is 
cited in Hitchcock's Catalogue. It extends to Florida, and I presume through the Western 
States. It inhabits ditches and muddy ponds, and often takes the hook. It preys on fish and 
the smaller aquatic reptiles. Like the odoratus, it has a strong musky smell, and it cannot 
readily be confounded with any known species. 

GENUS STERNOTHyERUS. Bell. 

Head sub-quadrangular, pyraviidal in front, covered in front with a single plate. Warts 
on the chin. Twenty-three marginal plates. Sternum cruciform, bivalve, anterior valve 
only movable. Supplemental plates contiguous, placed on the sterno-costal suture. 

THE MUSK TORTOISE. 

Sternoth^rus odoratus. 
plate vii. fig. 13. — (state collection.) 

Testudo pensylvanica. ScHCEPFF, Hist. Test. p. 110. 

T. odorante. Lat. Hist. Rep. Vol. 1, p. 122. 

T. odorata. Daudin, Hist. Reptiles, Vol. 2, p. 189, pi. 24, fig. 3. (Sternum.) 

Cistuda odorata. Say, Ac. Sc. Nat. Vol. 4, p. 206 and 216. 

Slernotharus. Bell, Zool. Jour. p. 209. ' 

Kinostemon odorata. Gray, Synops. apud Griffith, Vol. 9, p. 13. 

Merrem, Syst. Amphib. p. 27. 

Le Conte, Ann. Lye. Vol. 3, p. 122. 

Harlan, Med. and Phys. p. 156. 

Bon. Oss. p. 169. Chelon. Tab. analyt, 

DuM. et Bib. Vol. 2, p. 358. 

Storee, Mass. Report, p. 210. 

HoLBROOK, N. Am. Herpetology, Vol. 3, p. 29, pi. 4 ; and Vol. 1, p. 133, pi. 22 of 2d Ed. 

Characteristics. Very small. Shell gibbous, subcarinate ; first vertebral plate pointed behind. 
Small, brownish, with darker radiating streaks on a dark olive green 
ground. A disagreeable odor. Length Si inches. 



Terrapene 


id. 


Testudo 


id. 


Steriioth(£rus 


id. 


Kinostemum 


id. 


Stanrotypus 


id. 


Stemotherus 


id. 


Slemotharus 


id. 



FAMILY CHELONID^. 23 

Description. Shell oblong, narrow in front, broader and more erected behind ; tlie dorsal 
outline descends rather more abruptly behind ; slightly carinated on the dorsal ridge. The 
first vertebral plate triangular, with its truncated axis behind ; the three following hexagonal, 
the last smaller than the two preceding ; the posterior plate sub-pentagonal, the posterior plates 
distinctly imbricated. Lateral plates large, the anterior irregularly subquadratc ; the two 
following higher than broad, pentagonal ; the last smallest, and also pentagonal ; the interme- 
diate marginal plate smallest, sub-quadrate ; the remainder oblong, the four posterior largest ; 
all, except the last two, separated from the shell by a groove. Sternum small, narrow, widely 
emarginate behind, composed of eleven plates, all with concentric angular striae, and minute 
radiating strife ; the anterior intermediate or united ; gular very small, triangular ; brachial 
small ; abdominal plates largest, and apparently immovable. Head and neck capable of pro- 
trusion an inch and a half from the shell. Head very large, pyramidal, four-sided, pointed, 
and shghtly truncate in front. Eyes moderate. Nostrils large, contiguous, and placed at the 
extremity of the snout. Two short yellow fleshy tentacula under the chin, and two rather 
larger behind. Skin of the throat and neck granulate. All the feet with acute incurved 
claws, distinctly webbed ; the place of the fifth claw on the posterior foot supplied by a broad 
web. The outer and inner margins of the feet furnished with a cuticular membrane, elevated 
into points. Scaly plates on the anterior surface of the fore feet, and on the under side of the 
hind feet. Tail very robust at the root, with several series of pointed processes, often with a 
horny tip. 

Color. The color and markings of this species not easily detected in the recently caught 
animal, as it is usually covered with an agglutination of mud and aquatic plants ; when 
cleansed, the shell appears of an ohve brown or green, obscure, radiating dark stripes on the 
lateral plates, and similar longitudinal ones on the marginal plates. Sternum reddish brown 
or flesh-color, with a few indistinct dark blotches. Pupils black ; iris golden. Head black 
or deep olive green. A yellow line on each side passes from the nostrils over the eye upon 
the neck ; another somewhat broader, from beneath the nostrils, and meeting in front, passes 
backward under the eye upon the neck ; a third, shorter, proceeds from near the symphysis 
of the chin, extending on each side of the lower jaw. Feet and tail reddish brown. 

Length, 2'5. 

Ditto of tail, 0-8. 

Height, 1-2. 

These dimensions are from a small specimen ; the ordinary size is three inches : it is the 
smallest of our tortoises yet discovered. This species is one upon which modern systematists 
have expended much labor, the result of which may be seen in the list of synonimes. 

The Musk Tortoise or Mud Turtle, Mud Terrapin or Stink-pot, (with other equally savory 
popular names,) is to be found in most of our ponds and ditches. It occurs from Maine to 
Florida, but its western hmits are unknown. We know from Kirtland, that it occurs in the 
northern waters of Ohio. It appears to be an active, vigorous animal, biting with considera- 
ble vigor when irritated. There appears to be two varieties, of which one is smooth on the 
shell, while the other is sub-carinate. 



24 NEW- YORK FAUNA. 



GENUS CISTUDA. Fleming. 

Shell gibbous, stout. Marginal plates twenty-four to twenty-Jive. Sternum oval, with twelve 
plates, bivalve ; both valves movable on the same axis, and connected together by ligament. 
Anterior feet with five nails ; posterior loithfour. 

THE COMMON BOX TORTOISE. 

CiSTDDA CAROLINA. 

PLATE I. FIG. 1. — (STATE COLLECTION.) 

Tesludo Carolina. L. 12 Ed. p. 352. 

T. clam. ScHCEPFF, Hist. Test. pi. 7. 

Checkered Tortoise. Penn. Arct. Zool. Supp. p. 79. 

T. clausa et virgulala. Daud. Hist. Rept. Vol. 2, p. 207, pi. 23, fig. 1, 2. 

Cistuda clausa. Say, Ac. Sc. Vol. 2, p. 205. 

C. Carolina. Le Conte, Ann. Lye. Vol. 3, p. 124. 

C. clausa. Harlan, Med. & Phys. Res. p. 149. 

C. Carolina. Ddm. & BiBBOK, Vol. 2, p. 210. 

C. id. Storer, Mass. Rep. Holbeook, Herpet. Vol. 3, p. 9, pi. I ; and Vol. 1, p. 31, pi. 2, of Ed. 2da. 

C. clausa. KiRTLAND, Zool. Report of Ohio, p. 188. 

Characteristics. Shell hemispherical, elevated. Upper jaw hooked. Vertebral plates sub- 
carinate. Sternum entire behind. Length 5-7 inches. 

Description. Anterior vertebral plate carinate ; the three middle vertebral plates hexagonal, 
sub-carinate ; the fifth pentagonal, smallest. First lateral plate quadrilateral ; the second 
largest. Marginal plates in this specimen, twenty-four ; this is noticed by Merrem as unusual, 
but I have seen it in three or four specimens. The anterior marginal plate very small, linear. 
Sternum smooth, entire behind ; the plates on the anterior lid smallest ; scapular and brachial 
plates triangular ; the others oblong, sub-quadrate. Posterior valve concave, not quite so 
flexible as the anterior, but sufficiently so as to enclose completely the animal. Fore feet 
with large and strong scales in front, and smaller ones behind, with short robust claws, of 
which the two medial were longest. Hind feet also with large scales, and four somewhat 
longer claws. Head stout, nostrils contiguous with the upper jaw, sometimes emarginate. 
Neck long. Tail short, conical. 

Color. Shell with a dark brown ground, upon which are numerous irregular stellated marks 
and dashes, with occasional confluent blotches. Head, neck and extremities of a light lemon 
yellow, with irregular black stripes on the summit of the head. Sternum rosaceous, with 
broad irregular blotches of black. 



^a" 



Length of shell, 6*0. 

Breadth, 4-0. 

Height, 2-5. 



FAMILY CHELONID^. 25 

This beautiful species, which is designated in this State under the names of Box Tortoise 
and Land Turtle, and in the west by the name of Lock Tortoise, is a very gentle and timid 
animal. It varies so much in its colors, that it is difficult to find any two alike. Major 
Le Conte has a series of drawings, exhibiting many remarkable varieties in color : One was 
of a uniform black ; and from this to the brilliant colored individual figured in the plate, a 
regular transition could be traced. He has enumerated five varieties, but they are almost 
innumerable. In common with many observers, I had considered the angular and concentric 
strije on the plates as constant characters. I have lately seen (May 1) a specimen, apparently 
of an adult, measuring six inches, in which the thin corneous laminae covering the plates 
were gradually dropping off", or shed ; leaving the new epidermis completely smooth beneath, 
with colors of renewed brilliancy, while the old laminee were dull and strongly corrugated. 
How often does this desquamation occur ? Is it the efi'ect of disease, or is it an annual or 
periodical process ? In this case, the desquamation was confined to the two middle dorsal, 
and to two lateral plates on one side, and to three on the other. The sutures between the 
plates, which had not desquamated, were of that deep character usually supposed to designate 
old age ; but at the places where the desquamation had occurred, the sutures were as narrow 
and as little profound as in young individuals. 

The Box Tortoise is common every where on dry land, although it is also occasionally met 
with in swamps and moist places. It never takes to the water from choice, and indeed would 
be drowned if retained there. It is frequently kept in cellars, under the notion that it drives 
away or destroys rats and other domestic vermin. One which I kept in my cellar, was found 
in the spring, eaten up by the rats. It feeds on insects, fruit, and the edible mushrooms. Its 
geographical range appears to be from Canada to Florida. It is rare in Ohio. In this lati- 
tude, it usually goes into winter quarters in the latter part of September. 

BLANDING'S BOX TORTOISE. 

CiSTDDA BLANDINGIl. 

PLATE I. FIG. 2. 

Cistuda blandingii. HoLBROOK, N. Am. Herpetol. Vol. 3, p. 34, pi. 5 ; and Vol. 1. pi. 39, pi. 3 of 2d Ed. 
Blanding^s Cistuda. Storer, Massachusetts Report, p. 215. 

Characteristics. Shell less elevated than the preceding, ecarinate ; margin entire. Sternum 
emarginate behind. Lower jaw hooked. Length 7-8 inches. 

Description. Shell smooth, ecarinate. The first vertebral plate pentagonal ; the second and 
third, hexagonal ; the fourth with seven sides, the last octagonal. Anterior and posterior late- 
ral plates four-sided, rounded beneath ; the second and third, pentagonal. Marginal plates 
twenty-five, with an interrupted margin ; the intermediate small ; the first, third, fourth, sixth, 
eighth, tenth and twelfth plates quadrilateral ; the second, fifth, seventh and ninth, pentago- 
nal : all are smooth in their centres, with indistinct concentric striae near their borders. Ster- 

Fauna — Part 3. 4 



26 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

num bivalve, of twelve plates, full and rounded in front, deeply emarginate behind, and when 
closed entirely conceal the animal. Head moderate. Nostrils anterior, contiguous. Eyes 
large, prominent. Upper jaw broad, with its cutting edge sharp, and deeply emarginate in 
front. Lower jaw with a small hook. Neck long, and slightly contracted behind the head. 
Fore legs robust, with imbricated scales in front, and smaller ones behind. Toes palmated, 
with live short curved claws. Hind legs covered with small scales and granulations, and fur- 
nished vnth five palmated toes, the posterior clawless. 

Color. Shell jet black, marked with numerous oblong and round yellow spots. Sternum 
dusky yellow ; each plate with a large quadrangular dark blotch at its outer posterior angle. 
Head black, with oblong yellow spots. Lower jaw and chin bright yellow. Throat yellow, 
but clouded with dusky. Fore legs olive yellow in front ; dusky, with yellow spots behind. 
Hind legs dusky above, and soiled yellowish behind. Tail black above, with two obscure 
yellowish lines ; dusky beneath. 

Length of shell, 7-0 -8-0. 

This species, which has been hitherto doubtless taken for a mere variety of the C. Carolina, 
was first accurately described and figured by Dr. Holbrook in the work cited above. It was 
obtained by him from the prairies of Illinois and Wisconsin, and for some time this was the 
only locality. More recently it has been detected by Dr. Storer as far north as Haverhill, 
New-Hampshire, in 44° north latitude. It ranges unquestionably through all the northern 
and middle States ; and hence, although not yet actually observed, must necessarily be 
included in our list of the Reptiles of New-York. 

(EXTRA LIMIT AL.) 

Genus Testudo, Brongniart. Shell soUd. Sternum soHd, immovable. E.xtremities short, thick and 

clavate. Toes short, and closely connected as far as the nails. 
T. Carolina. (Holbrook, Herp. pi. 1.) Shell very convex, depressed above ; the last two marginal 

plates united ; scapular plates projecting forward in a spade-like process. Tail very short. Length 

12 inches. Georgia, Florida, 



FAMILY EMYSAURID^. 27 



ORDER II. SAURIA. 

Body long, cylindrical, covered with scales varying in size, or with small scaly granulations. 
Extremities four. Tail usually very long, thick at the base. Mouth not capable of dila- 
tation, armed with teeth. Oviparous. Carnivorous. 

This order comprises about three hundred species, but as they are for the most part inha- 
bitants of the torrid zone, we have but twelve hving and four fossil species in the United 
States. The State of New- York has but two living representatives of this order. 

[EXTRALIMITAL.) 

FAMILY EMYSAURID^. 

Body lizard-shaped, large. Body furnished with large bony plates, often carinated, and forming two 
elevated crests on the tail. Sides of the body with small scales ; beneath square, slender, smooth. 
Feet palmate. Head large, often elongated. Fluviatile. Carnivorous. 

This family corresponds with the order Loricata of Merrem and Fitzinger, and Emydosaurus 
of Blainville. It appears to be a link connecting the Chelonida with the order Sauria : it con- 
tains many extinct species. 

Genus Alligator, Cuvier. Nostrils separated by a bony partition ; forehead divided by a short pro- 
minent carina. Four large tubercles on the neck, arranged in rows on each side of the vertebral 
line. Muzzle elongated, broad and obtuse. Teeth unequal. Feet semipalmated, and without 
indentation. 

A. mississippiensis. (Am. Tr. N. S. Vol. 2, p. 216. Holbrook, Vol. 2, pi. 7.) Dark ash brown 
above ; lighter beneath. Four carinate plates on the neck, disposed in a square. 

Genus Crocodilus, Cuvier. Muzzle oblong, depressed. Teeth unequal; the fourth passing into 
grooves, and not into notches, in the upper jaw. Feet palmated. 

We have no living representative of this genus in the United States. Dr. Harlan has described 
and figured, in the Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Vol. 4, p. 15, pi. 1, a fossil species 
from the greensand of New- Jersey. 
C. macrorhyncus. Jaw e.xcessively thick. Teeth thick, short and blunt. 

Genus Gavialis, Cuvier. Head produced into an elongated snout. Teeth subequal, the fourth passing 
into grooves, and not into holes, in the upper jaw. Hind feet palmated to the end of the toe, and 
indented at the external edge. Two large holes in the cranium behind the eyes, which may be 
perceived through the skin. 

This group has no living representative in the United States. I have described, in the Annals of 
the Lyceum, Vol. 3, a portion of a fossil species from New-Jersey. 



28 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

Gr, neocesariensis. (Plate 22, fig. 59.) With from fifteen to eighteen distant, conical teeth. Length 
9-10 feet. 

Genus Mosasaurus, Conyheare. Teeth smooth, with two sharp crests, elevated from the jaw by an 
osseous support, pyramidal, slightly recurved, 12 - 15 on each side above and below. 
This genus was first indicated by Cuvier, and the name imposed by Conyheare on a huge fossil 
aquatic reptile, long known in the books under the name of "the Animal of Moestricht." It was 
treated by various naturalists as a crocodile, a fish, or as a cetaceous animal. In this country, I am 
acquainted with but two localities of this fossil genus. Consult Mitchili., N. Y. Ed. of Cuvier's 
Theory of the Earth; Harlan, Ac. Sc. Vol. 4, p. 235, pi. 14; De Kay, Ann. Lye. Vol. 3, p. 
135. 

M. major. (Plate 22, figs. 57, 58.) Closely allied to the typical species. 14 - 15 feet long. New- 
Jersey, Alabama. 

Genus Geosaurus, Cuvier. Teeth resembling the preceding in their system of dentition, but com- 
pressed, and divided by sharp indistinctly serrated edges into two surfaces, each of which are 
subdivided into 4-5 facets. 

This group of large fossil reptiles has also a representative in this country. It is from the 
greensand of New-Jersey, and fragments of its remains have been described and figured by me, in 
the Annals of the Lyceum, Vol. 3, p. 138. 
G mitchilli. (Plate 22, fig. 59.) Fifteen to twenty feet long. 

FAMILY IGUANID^. 

Small. Tongue short and thick. Teeth in the palate. Scales on the abdomen not imbricated. Tail 
long and slender. 

Genus Anolius, Cuvier. Head elongated. Jaws and palate with small sharp notched teeth. Tongue 

soft, fleshy, neither cleft nor extensile. Body with minute scales. Tail cylindrical, very long, 

verticillate. Skin on the penultimate joints of the fingers and toes extending into an oval disk, 

transversely striate. 

A. carolinensis. (Holbrook, Vol. 2, pi. 8.) Head flattened, and covered with minute scales ; nostrils 

distant from the end of the snout ; a dilatable sac imder the throat. Tail nearly twice the length 

of the body. Length 6-8 inches. 



FAMILY SCINCID^. 

All the scales on the body and tail smooth, shining, equal, imbricated. Feet two to four, and 
loith the toes very short, sometimes rudimentary. Tongue scarcely retractile. No gular 
pouch. 

Obs. Of this family, we know at present four living species in the United States, one of 
which extends to our State, and even farther east. 



FAMILY SCINCIDyE. 29 

GENUS SCINCUS. Daudi7i. 

Head oblong, pointed, covered with plates . Jaivs furnished ivith closely set teeth ; two rows 
of teeth on the palate. Tongue fleshy, slightly extensible, emarginate. Tympanum appa- 
rent. Neck as large as the head. Body elongated. Tail conical. Body and tail covered 
loith small imbricated scales. Extremities with free and nailed claws. 

THE BLUE-TAILED SKINK. 

SciNCCa FASCIATCS. 

PLATE Vlll. FIG 17. — (CiBINET OF THE LYCEUM.) 

Lacerta fasciala. LiN. Sys. Nat. p. 209. 
Blue-tailed Lizard. Penn. Arct. Zool. "Vol. 2, p. 334. 

Scincus quinqnelineatus ? Daud. Hist. Nat. Rept. Vol. 4, p. 272, and Var. p. 275. 
Lacerta qmnquelin£ata. Green, Acad. Nat. Sciences, Vol. 1, p. 348. 
Scincus id. Haelan, Med. and Phys. Researches, p. 138. 

S. bicolor? Id. lb. p. 139. 

Scincus fasciatus. HoLBROOK, N. Am. Herpetology, Vol. 3, p. 45, pi. 7 ; and Vol. 2, p. 127, pi. 18, of Ed. 2da. Storer, 
Mass. Rep. p. 219. 

Characteristics. Bluish black above. Body with five yellow lines ; the vertebral line dividing 
into two on the summit of the head. Tail often blue. Length 6-8 inches. 

Description. Body cyhndrical and tapering gradually to the tail, and covered with longitu- 
dinal series of imbricated rhomboidal scales. Vertical plate hexagonal ; five occipital plates, 
with large scales behind ; eleven orbital plates proper, and two of the upper labial plates, 
complete the circle : rostral plate large and pentagonal. Nostrils near the snout. Eyes very 
small. External ear opening large, oval, vertical. Tail cylindrical, continuous with the body, 
and longer, with a central row of large plates beneath. Vent transverse, with two very large 
and two smaller scales in front. Fore feet short, scaly, with five small sharp nails ; hind feet 
larger, with long slender toes, also furnished with nails ; the second toe longer than the others. 

Color. Body of a shining bluish black, and appears alternately striped with black and yellow 
longitudinal lines ; this is produced by five bright yellow longitudinal lines over the upper 
surface of the body. The central or dorsal line divides on the head, and a branch passes to 
each nostril ; another line on each side begins above the eye, and a third beneath this on each 
side, all gradually lost on the tail. Abdomen light bluish. Tail deep blue. Extremities 
brownish above, light-colored beneath. 

Total length, 6-0 - 8-0. 

This harmless little animal, miscalled the Blue-tailed Lizard and Striped Lizard, is not 
uncommon in the southern counties of the State. I did not hear of it in the western districts, 
although I presume it is to be found there. It is frequently found under the bark of trees. 
Mr. Say, in a note to Prof. Green's paper cited above, very properly denies its identity with 



30 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

the quinquelineata, with which it is often confounded, and observes that the ultramarine color 
of the tail is only apparent when the tail has been broken off and reproduced. I have, how- 
ever, noticed this color in too many specimens, to induce me to suppose it to be occasioned 
by such an accident. Dr. Storer has observed this species at Barre, Massachusetts, in latitude 
42° .SO', which is its highest northern geographic limits along the Atlantic. 

{EXTRA-LIMITAL) 

Genus Plestiodon, Bumeril et Bibron. Nostrils open in the middle of the nasal plate. Palate with 

a broad mesial suture, enlarged at its anterior extremity. Sphenoidal teeth, numerous, short, 

straight, conical. All the scales smooth. 

P. erythroccphalus. (Holbrook, Vol. 2, pi. 17.) Head large, broad behind, contracted before the 

eyes, and covered with plates ; snout elongated and rounded. Body olivaceous ; head bright red. 

Jaws and sphenoid bones armed with strong teeth. Length 12 inches. Pennsylvania to Florida. 

Genus Lygosoma, Gray. Nostrils open in a single plate; anterior frontal plates wanting. Palate 
without teeth, and with a superficial triangular notch near its posterior margin. Scales of the 
body smooth. 
L. laterale. (Holb. pi. 8.) Above chesnut, with a line of black on each side. Body beneath yel- 
lowish ; tail blue. Tail twice the length of the head and body. Length 6-8 inches. Ohio, 
Southern States. 
L. qninquelineatus. (Id. Vol. 3, pi. 6; and Vol. 2, pi. 17, of Ed. 2.) Dusky above, tinged with 
green, and marked with five pale lines. Head pale red, with six obscure white lines, the two inter- 
nal confluent on the occiput. Tail brown. Length 6-7 inches. Ohio, Southern States. 

FAIMILY LACERTIDiE. 

Body long, smooth, without spines. Toes free. Tongue long, extensile, deeply forked. Scales of the 
tail and belly in smooth transverse parallel bands. 

Genus Ameiva, Cuvier. Body with minute scales. Head pyramidal, covered with plates. Jaws with 
numerous notched teeth. Tongue slender, bifid. No bony plate on the orbits. Abdomen with 
large scales. A row of pores beneath each thigh. Tail long, cylindrical, with verticillate scales. 

A. sexlineata. (Holbrook, Vol.2, pi. 15.) Dark bro\vn above, with six yellow longitudinal lines. 
Abdomen bluish. Tail twice the length of the head and body. Length 12 inches. Carolina to 
Florida. 

A. tessellata. (Harl. Med. & Phys. p. 136.) Black, with 9-10 longitudinal and 18-20 trans- 
verse brown and yellowish lines. Scales carinate. Length 12 inches. Arkansas. An Ameiva? 



FAMILY AGAMID.«. 31 

FAMILY AGAMID^. 

Body depressed, corpulent. Tail and abdomen with small imbricated scales. Head laro-e, 
inflated, often armed ivith spi?ies. Throat frequently with a fold, and susceptible of infla- 
tion. Tongue short, thick. No palatine teeth. Toes simple, not enlarged, free . 

This family embraces many singular and varied forms. Under the following o-enus are 
included those animals found in the southern and western part of the United States, and known 
under the popular names of Horned frogs. Horned toads, ^-c. 

< 

{EXTRA LIMITAL. ) 
Genus Phrynosoma, Weigmann. Body nearly orbicular. Head short, rounded in front ; bordered 
laterally and anteriorly with strong spines, and covered above with polygonal subequal scales'. 
Occipital plate semicircular. 
P. cornutum. (Holbrook, Vol. 3, pi. 9.) Head with a range of long spines on each side of the 

lower jaw. Nostrils within the internal margin of the superciliary ridge. Abdomen with carinate 

scales. Missouri. 
P. orbicular e. (Id. Vol. 3, pi. 10.) Lower jaw without spines. Nostrils at the anterior extremity 

of the superciliary ridge. Abdomen with smooth scales. Louisiana, Arkansas. 
P. coronatum. (Id. pi. 11.) A series of eleven spines behind the head. Nostrils as in the preceding. 

Eight series of large rhomboidal elongated and pointed scales under the chin, reaching to the throat. 

A row of spines on each side of the tail to the tip. Oregon. 
P. douglasii. (Id. pi. 12.) Nostrils as in the preceding. Head with tubercles, and not spmes, on the 

posterior part. Body above with shghtly elevated tubercles, smooth j scales beneath. Eighteen 

femoral pores on each side. Oregon. 

GENUS TROPIDOLEPIS. Cuvier. 

Body oblong, depressed, and covered with imbricated and carinated scales. Head short, 
depressed, rounded in front ; occipital plate large. Thighs with a series of distinct pores. 
Neck contracted, smooth beneath. No dorsal nor caudal crest. 

THE BROWN SWIFT. 

Tropidolepis u.vbulatus. 
plate vui. fig. 16. — (state collection) 
Lacerta umlulata. D.iUDiN, Hist. Nat. des Reptiles, Vol, 3, p. 384. 

L. hyacinthina el fasaata. Green, Acad. Nat. Sciences, Vol.1, p. 3(9. (Male and female) 
Uromastyx. Mebrem, p. 57. 

Agatna undulala. Harlan, Med. and Phys. Res. p. 140. 
Tropidolepis undulatus. CoviER, apud Griffith, Vol. 9, p. 126. 
Sceloporus undvlatns. Gravenhorst, Nova Acta, Vol. 18, p. 768. 
Tropidolepis undulalus. Holbrook, N. Am. Herpetology, Vol. 3, p. 51, pi. 8 ; and Vol. 2, p. 73, pi. 9 of Ed. 2da. 

Characteristics. Brownish, with deeper brownish irregular transverse undulating bands. Be- 
neath green, with a large white cross. Length 5-8 inches. 



32 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

Description. Body short, cylindrical, rather tumid, with imbricated pointed scales arranged 
in obliquely transverse series ; these scales are carinatcd on the back and sides of the body, 
each carina ending in a sharp point. On the tail, the scales are verticillate and carinate above 
and beneath, commencing behind the vent. On the throat and underside of the body, the 
scales are somewhat smaller, smooth, rhomboidal, the tips often broken or notched into twro 
or more jagged points. Head moderate, sub-quadrate, depressed above, obtusely pointed at 
the snout, and covered with rough imbricated scales. Terminal plate transversely oblong, 
triangular. Nostrils round, patent, near the end of the rostrum, each surrounded by ten small 
plates ; behind these are placed the larger plates of the head, of which the anterior is hexa- 
gonal, and the posterior largest. From beneath the nostrils, proceeds a series of acutely 
carinated scales. Eyes moderate, with eyelids covered by minute plates. Ear openings 
yery large, vertical. Minute recurved teeth in each jaw, and a sensible roughness on the 
palate. Tongue thick and fleshy, slightly fissured at the tip. A duplicature of the skin of 
the neck beliind the ear openings, which scarcely amounts to a gular fold beneath. Fore feet 
slender, covered above and on the sides with carinated scales, which become gradually effaced 
on the fore-arm and fingers ; beneath smooth. Fingers five, slender, and all covered with 
very acute curved nails ; the thumb shortest ; the next equal to the outer in length ; the two 
others longest, subequal. Length of the fore extremities, TO; of the hind legs, 1 • 5. These 
latter are likewise covered on the upper surface and the sides with the same carinated pointed 
scales, but they are continued over the metatarsus. Toes five, very long and slender, the inter- 
nal shortest ; the fourth from this, half an inch long. On the under side, and rather behind, 
is a distinct series of from sixteen to eighteen elevated pores ; posterior to this is a semicir- 
cular fold, covering a foramen ; and behind this, the vent, forming a transverse fissure. 

Color. Above of a reddish brown hue, with irregular waved bands of a darker color. 
Beneath the chin, abdomen and under sides of the extremities and tail, dingy or yellowish 
white. Throat and sides of a deep indigo or greenish blue. These colors are so disposed, 
that the underside of the animal appears as if marked witii a long white cross. Toes white- 
ish, obscurely banded with brown. In a young individual, two inches long, the color was 
deep olive brown, and the waved or zigzag marks were black, margined posteriorly with ash 
grey ; the toes, fingers and tail annulate with grey ; beneath uniform pearl grey, with several 
dusky longitudinal streaks on the posterior part. In another specimen, eight inches long, the 
dorsal marks and the sides were bright chesnut. 

Dimensions of the specirnen described above. 

Total length, 5-5. 

Length of the body to the vent, 1 ' 8. 

Length of the head measured to the ears,.. 0"6. 

Ditto of the tail, 3-2. 

This is an active httle reptile, abounding in forests, and apparently preferring the pine, upon 
which it is often seen in pursuit of insects. It was first introduced into my published list of 



FAMILY OPHIOSAURID.E. 33 

the New- York Reptiles on the authority of Dr. Eiglus, who informed me that he had taken it 
near Fishkill, Dutchess county. I have since obtained it from Coldspring, Putnam county. 
It is common over the southern and western States ; is extremely active, moving with almost 
incredible celerity ; and when irritated in confinement, elevates its spinous scales in such a 
manner as to present a very formidable appearance. 

It inhabits in preference sandy and rocky situations ; and from its abundance in pme forests, 
has obtained the name of Pine Lizard. It is also called the Broion Scorpion, and its activity 
has doubtless suggested the name of Sivift. 

It IS perfectly harmless, notwithstanding its apparently venomous aspect. Like the Cha- 
meleon, and many other reptiles, it has the property of changing its color, the back assuming 
an azure tint ; and by candle light, the blue stripes on the sides assume a dark brown m 
chesnut color. From the observations of Messrs. Say and Peale, it would seem that the 
bluish color beneath, and the white crucial mark, belong exclusively to the male. 

The Brown Swift is found throughout the west, and extends from the Gulf of Mexico to 
the forty-third degree of north latitude. 

(EXTRALIMITAL) 

T. umbra. (Harlan, Med, and Phys. p. 140.) Burnt chesnut color; beneath pale ash; under side 
of neck deep blackish violet. Occiput spinous. Length 15 inches. Mexico. An Tropidolepis. ? 

FAMILY OPHIOSAURID^. 

Scales as in the Scincidae. Body more elongated, serpentiform. Feet small, rudimentary, varying 
in number, four or two ; these latter are either in front or behind. 

Obs. This family connects the order Sauria with the following-. 

Genus Chirotes, C^ivier. Body slender, snake-like. Scales verticillate. Head obtuse. Two ante- 
rior feet only. 
C. lumbricoides. (Say, Long's Exped. Vol. 1, p 484.) With two short fore legs; four toes to each, 

and the rudiment of a fifth. Eyes small. 220 semi-rings on the body, and as many beneath. 

Length eight to ten inches. Missouri. 



Fauna — Part 3. 



34 NEW- YORK FAUNA. 



ORDER III. OPHIDIA. 

Bodij long, cylindrical, continuous with the tail, covered with plates or scales. Without feet. 
Jaws with numerous small teeth, mid some with long poisonous fangs. Carnivorous. 

Obs. This is an exceedingly numerous order, more than three hundred and fifty species 
having been enumerated from the tropical and temperate regions of the globe. In this State 
we have but sixteen to describe ; and of these, but two are venomous. The order is divisible 
into several families, characterized by the arrangement and form of the scales, by their habitual 
residence on land or in the w^ater, and by the presence or absence of poisonous fangs. Of the 
first family, Hydrophkte or Water Serpents, characterized by a compressed head and body, 
and usually with poisonous fangs, we have none ; they inhabit principally the waters of India 
and the Indian ocean. A representative of the next family is found in the United Stales, but 
not in this State. 

FAMILY ANGUIDJE. 

Head and body covered with smooth imbricate scales, in distinct series. Bones of the shoul- 
der and pelvis generally existing in a rudimentary state, under the skin. Tongue short, 
bifid. Short teeth applied against the internal sides of the jaios. 

The various genera composing this family, with some already described, have been arranged 
by modern systematists into two families, under the names of Saurophidaj and Ophiosauridse, 
which are suiiiciently distinctive as pointing out their greater or less affinity with the Serpents 
proper, or the Sauria, and such as have hitherto been arranged under the preceding order. 

(EXTRA-LIMITAL.) 

Genus Ophisaurus, Daudi7i. Body cylmdrical, rather robust. Ears visible externalljr. Scales 

square, smooth, thick, semi-imbricated ; a longitudinal fold on each flank, formed by smaller 

scales. No vestiges of limbs. Minute sharp teeth in the jaws. Vent nearly medial. 

O. vcntralis. Glass-snake. (Daud. Vol. 7, pi. 88.) Brownish or greenish, spotted with black. 

Fourteen rows of scales above, twelve below. Tail longer than the body. Length 2-3 feet. 

Western and Southern States. 



FAMILY COLUBERID.E. 35 

FAMILY COLUBERID.E. 

Serpents with no venomous fangs. No anal appendices. 

GENUS COLUBER. Linneus. 

Head with large polygonal plates. Body ivith rlwmhoidal, carinated or smooth scales. 
Abdomen with single broad transverse plates ; beneath the tail, double. Jaws with simple 
teeth, uniform in size. Hybernate. Carnivorous. 

A very numerous genus, even witli all tlie dismemberments which have followed a more 
critical examination of their characters. In this State we enumerate five species. 

THE BLACK SNAKE. 

Coluber constrictor, 
plate x. fig. 20. — (state collection.) 

Coluber constrictor. LiN. Gmel. 

Le Lien. Bonn. Ophiologie, p. 15. 

Le Conleiwre Hen. D.iUD. Hist, dcs Reptiles, Vol. C. p. 402. 

CoUcber constrictor. Harlan, IMed. and Phys. Researches, p. 112. 

The Common Black Snake. Stoker, Mass. Report, p. 225. 

C. constrictor. HoLBROOK, N. Am. Herpetology, Vol. 3, p. C9, pi. 15. Kirtland, Zool. Ohio, 

Characteristics. Black ; slate-colored beneath ; chin and throat white. Scales smooth. 
Abdominal plates 175 - 185 ; caudal, 85 - 90. Length 3-6 feet. 

Description. Head rather smaller than the body, which begins to taper from the vent. 
Rostral plates convex, prominent ; the first subquadrate, smaller than tlie second, which are 
irregularly five-sided, the central plate largest. Upper labial plates sixteen. Gular plates 
five pair, the three anterior elongated. Eyes moderately vertical. Nostrils large, vertical, 
placed between the first and second pair. Body covered with smooth rhomboidal scales ; 
beneath, with broad entire plates ; beyond the vent, the caudal plates are in pairs, occasionally 
interrupted by an entire plate. Length of the tail, compared to the total length, is as one to 
four nearly. 

Color. A uniform shining bluish black above ; margin of the jaws, chin and throat white. 
Belly usually slate-colored, or bluish white. Young, spotted and speckled with black and 
white above. 

Abdominal plates, 1 80. 

Caudal plates, 88. 

Length, 36-0- 85' 0. 



Z' ■,/ 



36 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

The specimen which furnished the preceding description was forty inches long. I have 
never myself seen one of the greatest size mentioned above, but it was stated to me by a 
person upon whose scrupulous accuracy I place implicit reliance. 

The Black Snake is a bold, active, wild and untameable animal. It climbs trees with 
great ease, by coiling itself round the trunk in a spiral manner, in search of eggs and young 
birds. Although perfectly free from any venomous qualities, they will, on some occasions, 
make considerable resistance, and even pursue an enemy who retreats before them. In various 
parts of the State, they have the popular names of Race?; Pilot and Black Snake. They 
feed on frogs, toads, and the smaller quadrupeds and birds. The lovers of the marvellous 
have attributed to this and many other species the power of fascination. This wonderful 
power, as far as I have heard, seems to be confined exclusively to birds. All the phenomena 
witnessed on such occasions may be readily solved by the terror occasioned hy the snake's 
appearance near their young, and by the well known artifices resorted to by many birds to 
mislead an enemy. Many years since, I examined, in the collection of Dr. Mitchill, a large 
snake which had been sent from Massachusetts, and had been described, I know not upon 
what authority, as the young of the Sea Serpent. Its vertebrae were diseased nearly through- 
out the whole extent of the column ; but as it clearly belonged to this species, the name of 
Scoliophis atlanticus must be expunged from the systems. 

The Black Snake extends from Canada to the Gulf of Mexico. According to Stedman, it 
is found in Surinam. It is numerous over the Western States to the Rocky Mountains. Dr. 
Kirtland observes, that in Ohio, it is evidently on the increase as the State becomes cleared 
and cultivated. 

THE PILOT BLACK-SNAKE. 

Coluber alleghaniensis. 
PLATE XII. FIG. 26. 
Cohiber alleghanimsis. HoLBBOOK, N. Am. Herpetology, Vol.1, p. Ill, pi. 20. 

Characteristics. Black. Scales carinate. Length 5-6 feet. 

Description. Head long and large ; vertical plate pentangular, short and broad ; temporal 
variable, consisting sometimes of two or three narrow plates, or their place chiefly occupied 
by the last labial plates very much enlarged. Posterior orbital plates two in number ; the 
anterior orbital single and very large, the local small and trapezoidal. Nostrils lateral. Eyes 
rather large ; pupil black ; iris brown. Neck small ; the body much elongated, fusiform, or 
tapering at each extremity. Scales oblong, oval, and bipunctate at the apex ; those on the 
back have a distinct carina ; the four or five inferior rows on each side smooth ; broader on the 
tail, and hexagonal. Tail short, tapering. 

Color. Head black above ; marginal plates silvery white, edged with black ; throat silvery 
white. Body above, intense polished black ; in certain lights an intense brown may be per- 
ceived. Many of the scales have marginal daslues of white, which are only evident when the 



FAMILY COLUBERID-E. 37 

skin is distended ; towards the tail, however, the scales are entirely black. Beneath, the 
anterior part of the abdomen is white, clouded with brown, and the posterior part of the tail 
entirely slate color. 

Abdominal plates, 23.5 - 240. 

Caudal plates, 60 - 72. 

Length, 60-0-72-0. 

I am indebted to my friend Dr. Holbrook for the above description of this large species, 
which is found in the Highlands, but which I have never met with. It is manifestly the 
snake which has been frequently described to me, of great length and prodigious velocity, and 
to which they gave the name of Racer and Pilot. As these names are also frequently applied 
to the Black Snake, I had supposed that species to have been intended by their descriptions. 

The Pilot Black-snake appears to select in preference elevated rocky situations, for it is 
found along the Allegany mountains as far south as Virginia. It has hitherto been confounded 
with the ordinary Black Snake, but is at once distinguished from that species by the carinated 
scales. 

THE CHAIN SNAKE. 

Coluber getulus. 

PLATE X. FIG. 21.— (CABINET OF THE LYCEUM.) 

Coluber getulus. LiN. Syst. Nat. p. 380. 

Chain Snake. Catesby, Carolina, pi. 52. 

La Couleuvre chaine. Daudin, Hist. Rept. Vol. G, p. 314, pi.T7, tig. 1. 

C. gelulus. Say, Am. Jour. Vol.1, p. 261. II.irlan, Med. & Phys. p. 122. 

Characteristics. Black. Thirty to forty narrow yellowish lines over the body and tail. Tail 
one-eighth. Length four to six feet. 

Description. Body long aiid slender. Head small, and covered with nine plates exclusive 
of the rostral (see iigure). The occipital plates very large ; the central or vertical plate three- 
sided, or sub-pentagonal ; supra-orbital slightly enlarged behind ; post-orbital small, two in 
number ; ante-orbital plates two, of which the anterior is smallest, and applied against the 
posterior nasal ; anterior nasal plate excavated behind ; rostral plate deeply notched beneath. 
Marginal plates of the upper jaw, seven on each side ; on the lower jaw, nine on each side. 
Two pair of oblong gular plates. Teeth small, subequal, curved backward. Mouth wide. 
Eyes moderate. Scales oblong, hexagonal, smooth. Tail about one-eighth of the total length, 
with uniform bifid plates ; apex corneous. 

Color. Above varying from rufous brown to black. Plates of the head, chocolate-color, 
with abbreviated dashes of yellow or whitish. Marginal plates of the jaw, dull, or yellowish 
white, bordered with dark brown. About an inch apart over the back are many narrow yel- 
lowish bands, which unite with each other on the sides near the abdominal plates ; these bands 



38 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

are continued to the extremity of the tail, and from a fancied resemblance lo a chain, has 
given rise to one of its popular names. Beneath metallic dingy white, tessellated with brown. 

Abdominal plates, 220. Total length, 42-0. 

Caudal plates, 47. Tail, 5-5. 

This beautiful snake, which from the celerity of its movements has also acquired the name 
of the Racer, is not uncommon in the pine woods of New-Jersey, and is also found, but 
rarely, in what are called the Brush plains of Long Island. They are perfectly harmless, 
and feed on other reptiles. Their northern and eastern range does not extend beyond New- 
York, and they are found as far south as Louisiana. My friend Dr. Holbrook has arranged 
this species under the genus Coronilla of Laurenti and Schlegel. Its characters, however, do 
not appear to me to be sufficiently precise and distinct. 

THE MILK SNAKE. 

Coluber eximius. 
plate xii. fir,. 23. —(state collection.) 

Coluber eximius, Dekay. Harlan, MeJ. and Pliys. Researches, p. 123. 

C. calligastef'! Tar. Say. Harlan, lb, p. 122. 

Chicken Snake, Stoker, Massachusetts Report, p. 227. 

C. exirniia. HoLBROOK, N. Am. Herpetology, Vol. 3, p. 69, pi. 15. 

Characteristics. Ovate chesnut spots over the back ; dark quadrate spots on a light-colored 
ground, beneath. Length two to five feet. 

Description. Body elongated, tapering rather suddenly from the vent to the tip of the tail. 
Head small ; neck somewhat contracted. Rostral plate large, emarginate beneath ; central 
plate pentagonal, large ; occipital plates very large ; upper labial plates fourteen, sixteen 
beneath. Body covered with smooth sub-hexagonal scales. Tail ending in a corneous tip, 
and about one-eighth of the total length. Abdominal scales occasionally divided. 

Color. Large irregularly ovate chesnut-colored spots, bordered with black, and varying in 
number from thirty to fifty, are distributed along the whole upper surface of the body and 
tail. These spots are often minutely punctate with red ; and the spots themselves are so dis- 
posed, that when viewed from above at a short distance, the body might be said to be annulate 
with white. On the flanks are similar smaller chesnut spots, alternating with those above. 
On the summit of the head is often seen a reddish semicircular band, extending from one eye 
to the other ; and a large irregular reddish spot on the occiput, lighter in the centre, margined 
with black. The colors are very vivid at certain seasons, but change almost instantaneously 
after death ; the large deep chesnut blotches becoming greyish, and the abdomen almost 
white. Beneath light pink when alive, passing into pearl grey, with many irregular quadrate 
dark spots. 



Family coluberid.e. 39 

Abdominal plates, 195-205. Length 36*0. 

Caudal plates, 38- 45. Tail, 5-0. 

This species has been, I suspect, strangely confounded with the Trigonocephalus contortrix, 
the arrangement and distribution of the colors agreeing tolerably well. In its markings, it 
approaches much nearer to the doliatus of the Naturalist's Miscellany (Vol. 7, p. 254), and 
more closely still to the C. Uchtensteinii of Wagler. It is needless, however, to add that it 
is specifically distinct from both. 

This innocent and beautiful snake is common throughout this State. It has been also ob- 
served in Massachusetts, Pennsylvania and Ohio. In this State, its most usual popular name 
is Milk Snake, although it has various other appellations. It is called Chicken Snake, 
Tliunder and Lightning Snake, House Snake, and Chequered Adder. In some parts of 
Westchester it is called the Sand-king; but for what reason I cannot imagine. In Suffolk 
county, a large snake resembling this has been described to me under the name of Sachem 
Snake. 

It is not unfrequently found in outhouses, and in dairies or cellars where milk is kept, which 
it is said to seek with avidity. It climbs well, and glides rapidly over the smoothest surfaces. 
It is rare to find them exceeding four feet ; the more usual length is about two. 



THE RING SNAKE. 

Coluber punctatus. 
plate xiv. fig. 29. — (state collection.) 

The Smalt Black and Red Siiakr. Edwards, Gleanings, Vol. 7, p. 2S9, pi. 349. 

Coluber punctattts. LiN. Syst. Nat. 

C. torqtiatus. Shaw, Gen. Zool. Vol. 3, p. 553. 

La Cmdeuvre ponctuee. Daud. Hist, des Reptiles, Vol. 7, p. 178. 

Homolosoma pwictalus. Wagler. 

Natrix edwardsii et punclatus. MeerE-M, Versuch. p. 131, 136. 

C. punctatus. Holbrook, N. Am. Herpetology, Vol. 2, p. 115, pi. 26. Say, Am. Jour. Vol. 1, p. 261. 

C. punctatus. Harlan, Med. and Phys. Res. p. 117. Storer, Mass. Report, p. 225. 

Characteristics. Small. Bluish brown ; beneath, red ; often with a triple row of black dots ; 
a white collar around the neck. Length 12 -18 inches. 

Description. Body slender, elongated, with smootli rhomboidal scales. Head small, flattened 
above, with ten plates on the surface. Nose rounded. Labial plates above, seventeen ; be- 
neath, fifteen. Nostrils and eyes large. Tail nearly one-fourth of the total length, acute, 
ending in a horny tip. Anal plate often divided. 

Color. Above bluish brown, approaching to black. Head lustrous, black. Across the 
occiput a yellowish white collar round the neck, margined with black ; occasionally the collar 
is not perfect, but in its place two or more whitish blotches. Beneath yellowish white, and 
more frequently deep reddish orange. At the junction of the dark color above with the lighter 



40 NEW YORK FAUNA. 

color beneath on the flanks, tlie colors unite in such a way as to leave a series of dark trian- 
gular marks, giving it a serrated appearance ; these serratures are continued to the tip of the 
tail, and become effaced towards the head. In adults, the abdomen for the most part imma- 
culate ; in the young, a minute dark point on the middle of the edge of every abdominal 
plate, as far as the vent. 

Abdommal plates, 145-155. Length 12-0-18-0. 

Caudal plates, 45- 55. Ditto of tail, 3-0- 4-0. 

This pretty little snake is found in every part of the State. It occurs under rocks and 
stones, and is frequently seen under the bark of decayed trees. It is very common under the 
bark coverings of the huts of the frontier settlers. Feeds upon worms, insects, grubs, etc., 
and is perfectly inoffensive. Emits a strong and disagreeable odor. Occurs from Maine to 
Louisiana. 

THE GRASS SNAKE. 

Coluber vern'ahs. 

PLATE XI. FIG. 22. 

ColubtT vernahs, Dekay. H.\rlan, Med. and Phys. Rpsearches, p. 124. 

C id. Stoker, Mass. Report, p. 224. Holbrook, N. Am. Herp. Vol. 3, p. 79, pi. 17. 

Green .Sniike. KlKTL.iND, Zoology of Ohio, p. 188. 

Characteristics. Small. Green, with smooth scales. Length one to two feet. 

Description. Body slender, tapering regularly to the tip of the tail, and covered with smooth 
rhomboidal scales. The tail is so much attenuated as to render it difficult to count the cau- 
dal scales. Anal plate frequently bifid. Head smah, flattened above, slightly larger than 
the neck. Labial plates above, fifteen ; the rostral plate emarginate in front. Plates of the 
head, 2.2.3.2. 

Color. Grass green above ; beneath white, tinged with yellow ; head dark olive-brown ; 
upper labial plates and throat dull white. 

Abdominal plates, . . 125-135. Total length, .. . 12-0 -26-0. 
Caudal plates, 80- 90. Tail, 4-0- 6-5. 

This innocent and beautiful species, known in this State as the Green or Grass Snake, 
has long been confounded with the estivus of the Southern States, from which it is readily 
distinguished by its inferior length and carinate scales. It feeds on insects, and is exceed- 
ingly lively and quick in its movements. It is very numerous in the marshes about Salina 
and Cayuga ; and, as I have been informed by credible eye-witnesses, fights furiously with 
the Striped Snake previously described. Its color changes upon immersion in alcohol, from 
a brilliant green to a duU blue. I am inclined to suspect, that in this State, it has been 



FAMILY COLUBERID^. 41 

described as cerulcus by Linneus ; always supposing an error to exist in his enumeration of 
the subcaudal plates. 

The Grass Snake is found from Massachusetts to Pennsylvania. It is also seen, but not 
abundantly, in Ohio. 

{EXTRA-LIMITAL) 

C. guttatus. (HoLBROOK, Vol. 2, pi. 24.) Smooth. Reddish brown above, with a series of deeper 

red large blotches, margined with dusky ; beneath white, with quadrate black spots. Abdominal 

plates, 126; caudal, 64. Length four to si.x feet. Southern States. 
C. couperi. (Id. Vol. 3, pi. 16.) Head triangular, thick. Scales very large, bluish black. Beneath 

bluish black, and reddish about the throat. Length ten to twelve feet. Carolina, Georgia. 
-C. sayi. (Id. Vol. 4.) Large. Body robust, elongated, black, covered with numerous small rounded 

yellowish white spots over the head, body and tail. Alabama. 
C testaceus. (Id. Vol.3, pi. 13.) Body above pale, sanguineous or testaceous ; beneath sanguineous, 

immaculate. Abdominal plates, 198 ; caudal, 80. Length five feet. Rocky Mountains. 
C. quadrivittatus. (Id. Vol.1, pi. 21.) Carinate. Greenish clay-color above, with four longitudinal 

bands ; yellowish beneath. Abdominal plates, 233 ; caudal, 90. Length 4-6 feet. Carolina, 

Florida. 
C. occipitomaculaius. (Storer, Mass. Rep. p. 230.) Small. Greyish, with an indistinct lighter band 

along the back ; three large white spots behind the occipital plates. Scales smooth. Abdominal 

plates, 124; caudal, 38. Length 10*5. Massachusetts. 

C. obsoletus. .> 

C. rhombomaculaius. > (Holbrook, ined.) 

C. doliatus. ' 

GENUS TROPIDONOTUS. Kuhl. 

Head oblong ovate, depressed, distinct. Two nasal plates. Eyes moderate ; pupil round. 
Loral plate single ; anterior orbital plate the same. Scales sub-hexagonal, notched poste- 
riorly, elongated and strongly carinated. 

Obs. The animals of this genus possess the power of elevating the ribs, and are thus ena- 
bled to flatten the body. This enables them to swim well, and hence they are all more or 
less aquatic. In this State four species have been observed. 



Fauna — Part 3. 



42 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

THE WATER SNAKE. 

Tkopidonotcs sipedon. 

PLATE XIV. FIG. 31.— (STATE COLLECTION.) 

Colnlcr sipedon. LiN. Syst. p. 379. 

C. jiorcatJis ? Dacd. Hist. Reptiles, Vol. 7, p. 204. 

Browii Water Snake. Haklan, Med. & Phys. Researches, p. 114. 

TTie Water Adder. Stoker, Mass. Report, p. 228. 

Tropidomilus sipedon. HoLBROOK, N. Am. Herpetology, Vol. 4, p. 29, pi. 6. 

Characteristics. Dark brown, or obscurely banded with darker ; beneath white, varied with 
brown or rufous. Abdominal plates, 130- 35 ; caudal, 70 - 75. Scales 
strongly carinate. Length two to five feet. 

Description. Body robust. Tail rather abruptly tapering. Scales sub-imbricate, carinate ; 
those on the three or four series adjacent to the middle of the back, so conspicuously carinated 
as to exhibit the appearance of deep grooves between them. The tail ends in a consolidated 
corneous tip, popularly termed a liorn. Plate on the head large, the vertical or central pair 
largest ; labial plates above sixteen, beneath eighteen. 

Color. This is exceedingly variable, and does not appear to depend on age ; for in very 
small ones of the same size, the markings are often dissimilar. Usually of uniform dull bro^vn 
color above, dark mahogany colored sides, and white varied with reddish beneath. In the spe- 
cimen figured on the plate, which was two feet and a half long, the following was the aiTange- 
ment of the colors : Back dark ash ; on the sides a series of dark chocolate-colored vertical 
bands, fifty-seven in number, dilated over the back, narrowed on the flanks, and margined 
with blackish, the intervening spaces ash-colored. Beneath, marbled with cinereous and 
coppery. Chin white ; sides of the jaws whitish ; numerous short, dark, vertical stripes. A 
black spot in front on the chin. Upper surface of the head uniform, polished, dark brown. 

Abdominal plates, 140. Total length, 30-0. 

Caudal ditto, 75. Length of tail, 8-0. 

All the colubrine snakes take to the water more or less, and move about in it with gi-eat 
ease ; but this species may be said to live in it habitually. It is called indifferently the 
Water Snake or Water Adder, and is erroneously said to be poisonous. It is frequently 
found in fields which are occasionally overflowed, feeding upon frogs and fishes. One was 
found to have swallowed a small pike. A correspondent of the Monthly American Journal of 
Geology asserts that he once saw a water snake lying on a bush over a stream, under which 
some chubs -were swimming ; he watched the snake, and saw it fall or plunge into the water 
from the bush, and seize a chub. Although of a sullen vicious temper, and with a tlireaten- 
ing aspect, it is completely harmless. 

The Water Snake is found in this and the States adjacent to us on the east. It also occurs 
in Pennsylvania and Ohio, but I am unacquainted with its southern geographical limits. 



FAMILY COLUBERID^. 43 

THE STRIPED SNAKE. 

Tropidonotus tenia. 
PLATE .XIII. FIG. 27. Variety. — (ST.'iTE COLLECTION.) 

■ Coluber sirtalisi LiN'. 
C. triple Tang'. L.\CEPEDE, Vol. 2, p. 131, pi. 4, fig. 2. 
C. tmiia. Die Band Schlange. Schcepff, Reise, Vol. 1, p. 490. 
C terordinatttsl Lateeille, Hist. Reptiles, Vol. 4, p. 70. 
C. triple rang. Dahdin, Vol.7, p. 151. 
La Couleuvrc sirlale. Dacd. Hist. Reptiles, Vol. 7, p. 140. 

C. sirlalis. Harlan, Med. and Phys. Researches, p. 110. Storer, Mass. Report, p. 221. 
Tropidonotus sirtalis. HoLBRooK, N. Am. Herpetology, Vol. 4, p. 41, pi. 11. Kirtland, Ohio, p. 188. 

Characteristics. Body robust ; tail short, suddenly tapering, one-si.\th of the total length. 
Greenish brown, with three light-colored stripes along the body. Length 
2-4 feet. 

Description. Body stout, covered with oblong strongly carinate scales, with the exception 
of a series of what may be termed accessory abdominal plates along the flanks ; these, how- 
ever, under the lens, show a slight carination. Head pyramidal, flattened above, with four 
series of plates behind the rostral plate, the posterior or occipital largest. Rostral plate rather 
more upturned than in the following species. Fifteen labial, including the rostral plate, above, 
and twenty-one beneath. The intermediate plates between the second pair of gular plates, 
narrow, subequal. Numerous minute recurved teeth, in the jaws and palate. Tail short, 
rapidly attenuated to the tip ; often calcarate, or with a horny tip. 

Color. Above darkish brown, and in some lights an olive green.* Three greenish yellow 
stripes along the whole length of the body ; one on the centre of the body, and one along 
each side. The dorsal stripe commences a short distance behind the occipital plates. The 
lateral stripes, after passing the vent, become confounded with the general color of the tail. 
A row of obsolete black spots (in spirits usually very manifest) on each side of the dorsal 
stripes, and a similar series on the upper margin of the lateral stripes. These spots are fre- 
quently alternate, occasionally confluent. Beneath, neck yellowish white ; abdomen and tail 
greenish yellow, with occasionally irregular black spots on the upper edges of the abdominal 
plates ; these are sometimes cflfaced, and their places supplied by a cloud of brownish : this 
is, however, rare. In the young the stripes are greenish (blue in spirits), the dark dorsal 



♦ It is rare to find, among the ophidian reptiles, any two of exactly the same shade of color, even when alive ; this appearins 
to depend upon the latitude, season, and plentiful or scanty supply of food. In cabinet specimens, these discrepancies are still 
greater ; and colors, which in the living subject are scarcely apparent, become very conspicuous after having been immersed in 
liquors of different strength and qualities. A good guide is much wanted to exhibit the changes which certain colors undergo 
after immersion in spirits. It has been ascertained that the brilliant green of reptiles changes to dull blue ; yellow changes to 
white ; the black, brown and metallic colors remain unaltered ; red becomes brownish, or is finally obliterated. It may not be 
unimportant to add, that by exposing a reptile which has been for some time in spirits, for a short time to the rays of the sun, 
we may, by the reflected light, form some judgment of the original markings. 



44 NEW- YORK FAUNA. 

.spots more obvious, and tlie two large black ovate spots behind the occipital plates ; the tail 
more slender than in the adult, but its relative proportions are the same. We reduce all the 
various appearances presented by different individuals obseiTcd in this State, to the following 
varieties, but doubtless many others may be observed : 

Var. a. Reddish above ; spotted between the scales with dusky ; the dorsal stripe bright red, 

the lateral ones yellowish. 
Var. b. Light-colored above, with a row of dark spots in place of dorsal and lateral stripes. 

We suppose this may have been possibly intended for the triple rang of Lacepede, cited 

above. 
Var. c. The dorsal stripe alone visible, with two series of alternate black spots on each side. 

It is this variety which we have selected, as it has often been confounded with another 

species not found in these latitudes. 
Var. d. The whole under surface of a deep mahogany color. 

Abdominal plates, . . 145-155. Length, 42 '0. 

Caudal plates, 55- 65. Ditto of tail 7*0. 

The short linnean description of C. sirtalis, from a specimen furnished by Kalm, may pos- 
sibly have been intended for this species ; but the characters are too insufficient and too in- 
accurate to authorize the adoption of that name. 

On the authority of my lamented friend, the late Mr. Say, (in letters to me,) I had been 
disposed to refer the species under consideration to the ordinatus. Linneus, however, had 
evidently some small southern species in view ; and this is evident from his reference to the 
52d plate of Catesby, which is entirely inapplicable to our species. The accompanying text 
of Catesby, throws no light on the subject : " Green spotted plate ; these grow to four times 
" the bigness of the figure. I would willingly avoid mistakes by describing the same serpent 
" twice, and multiplying this kind to more than there are ; and I am diffident in determinatmg 
" whether this be a different species from the spotted ribbon snake (pi. 51), which somewhat 
" resembles it, though of a different color." It is remarkable that Linneus no where cites 
this plate 51, which Catesby accompanies with the following text : "A slender snake ; the 
" upper part brown, spotted with black ; belly white ; on the ridge of the back, extends a list 
" (band) of white the whole length of it." 

In the Dictionnaire des Sciences Naturelles (Edition de Levrault), the sirtalis is arranged 
among the species which are too little known to merit transcribing, or which have been con- 
founded with others, and the ordinatus is passed over in silence. We leave it to our southern 
naturalists to determine what species was intended by ordinatus, or whether that and sirtalis 
should not be expunged from the systems.* 

* Since writing the above, I perceive that tiie true ordinatus has been re-iiiscovcred by Dr. Holbrook. 



FAMILY COLUBERID^. 45 

The first positive notice which I have been enabled to find of this species, is contained m 
the Travels of Schcepff." The following extract indicates plainly enough this species : " Die 
" Band Schlange, Garter Snake, Coluber tcBuia. (Scut, abdom. 145 - 148 ; squam. sub- 
" caud. 60 - 65.) About three to three and a half feet long ; the blackish brown back has 
" three handsome pale yellow (blatzgelbe) narrow stripes running straight from the head to the 
" tail, by which these serpents are readily recognized." 

The Striped Snake is of a robust clumsy make, and is comparatively sluggish in its move- 
ments. It is known under various popular names, such as Green Garter-snakc, Slow Garter, 
Swamp Garter, Water Garter, Striped Adder, ^-c. It feeds on frogs, toads, and the smaller 
quadrupeds. It takes the water readily in pursuit of its prey, and chiefly affects low marshy 
places. When irritated without the means of escape, it elevates its scales in such a manner 
as to give the whole body a peculiarly roughened appearance ; and under such circumstances, 
will bite, and leave a troublesome though not dangerous wound. In Ohio, according to Kin- 
land, its numbers are rapidly decreasing ; as it is eaten by hawks, owls, hogs, and in some 
instances by fowls, ducks and turkeys. 

It is our most common species, and I have even noticed it in the northern parts of the State 
at an elevation of two thousand feet above the tide water. It extends to Canada. It is fre- 
quently found in great numbers, and sometimes in company with rattlesnakes, under peat 
moss, at a sufiicient depth to protect them from frost. In the neighborhood of New- York, 
they retire about the beginning of October, and reappear about the last of May, although their 
times of appearance and retreat vary very much with the nature of the season. 



THE YELLOW-BELLIED SNAKE. 

Tropidonotus leberis. 

PLATE XI. FIG. 23. 

Coluber leberis. KiLM, Travels in the U. S. Linneus, Syst. Nat. 

Vipera id.? DiDDiN, Hist. Reptiles, Vol.6, p. 218. 

C. septemvittatiis. Say, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sc. Vol. 4, p. 210. Harlan, Med. & Phys. Res. p. 118. 

Tropidonotus leberis. HoLBHOOK, N. Am. Herpetology, Vol.4, p. 49, pi. 13. 

Characteristics. Olive brown, with three black.lines ; beneath yellow, with four distant lon- 
gitudinal series of quadrate spots. Length two to three feet. 

Description. Head small, rounded in front. Vertical plate pentagonal, broadest in front ; 
frontal plates hexagonal, descending on the sides of the head so as to join the loral plate. 
Rostral plate six-sided ; occipital pentagonal, smaller, notched behind. Nasal plates two, 
quadrilateral, subequal. Nostrils lateral, near the snout. Neck contracted, covered with 



♦ SchcepfF came out to this country as surgeon to a band of German mercenaries employed by England during the Revolution- 
ary war. He is favorably known by his various papers in the Transactions of the Berlin Natural History Society, on the Fishco 
of New-York ; and by his Historia Testudinum, and a work on the Mineralogy of North America. 



46 NEW-yORK FAUNA. 

small carinate scales. Body above with hexagonal strongly carinate scales, slightly notched 
behind. Tail long and slender. 

Color. Head above olive-brown ; lips yellowish. Body above olive-brown, with three lon- 
gitudinal dusky lines ; beneath with four parallel dusky longitudinal lines. 

Abdominal plates, 143. 

Subcaudal, 70. 

Length, 25-0 - 36-0. 

I have never seen this serpent in the State of New-York ; but Dr. Holbrook, whose descrip- 
tion I have availed myself of, has observed it not only in this State, but in New-Jersey, Penn- 
sylvania, Ohio and Michigan. Little is known of its habits. It is said to affect water and 
moist places. 

THE SMALL BROWN SNAKE. 

Tropidonotps dekati. 
PLATE XIV. FIG. 30.— (STATE COLLECTION.) 
Coluber deknyi. Holbrook, N. Am. Herpetology, Vol. 4, p. 53, pi. U. 

Characteristics. Reddish brown ; a lighter colored dorsal stripe, with a double row of small 
blackish spots. Length 12-15 inches. 

Description. Head somewhat elongated, slightly larger than the neck. Body slender, 
covered with small hexagonal scales, and an accessory row near the abdominal plates much 
larger. Supra-orbital plates elongated, projecting. Nasal plates two, quadrate, subequal. 
Frontal plates broad and pentagonal, shortest on their lower inargins. Anterior orbital plate 
single and large ; posterior two, subequal. Upper labial plates fifteen ; lower, thirteen. Anal 
plate frequently divided. 

Color. Reddish brown, with a darker spot beneath the eye, and another at the angle of the 
mouth ; with two oblong blackish spots on the sides of the occiput. A pale yellowish grey 
longitudinal stripe extends from the head nearly to the extremity of the tail ; on each side of 
this stripe is a double row of small blackish spots, alternating with each other. Beneath dull 
yellowish tinged with green, with numerous minute black dots approaching a regular series. 

Abdominal plates, 1 25-1 35. 

Subcaudal, 35- 45. 

Total length, 10-5 - 15-5. 

I observed this species many years since, and was for some time disposed to consider it as 
the young of T. tcznia. Recently my friend Dr. Holbrook has examined it, and determined 
it to be a new species. All the specimens which I have seen, were either in or near the water. 
For the specimen figured in the plate, I am indebted to John Crumby, Esq., a zealous sports- 



FAMILY COLXIBERID^. 47 

man and acute observer, who captured it as it was swimming across a large bay on the northern 
coast of Long Island. It has been noticed in Massachusetts, Michigan and Louisiana. 

(EXTRA LIMITAL) 

T. ordinatus. (Holbrook, Vol. 4, pi. 12.) Five series of small, alternate, subquadrate, dark spots 
on the sides. Scales carinate. Abdominal plates, 143 ; caudal, 66. Length 2 - 3 feet. Manj- 
land and South. 

T. cryikrogastcr. (Id. Vol. 4, pi. 7.) Brick-dust color, tinged with green at the sides; beneath copper- 
colored. Abdominal plates, 147; caudal, 60. Length 3 - 4 feet. Carolina. 

T. niger. (Id. Vol. 4, pi. 9.) Elongated. Dusky brown, almost black; throat and neck milky 
white ; beneath, slate. Abdominal plates, 143; caudal, 64. Length 2 - 3 feet. Found in Massa- 
chusetts and Maine, and probably in New- York. 

T. rigidus. (Id. Vol.4, pi. 10.) Brown; beneath bro^vnish yellow. Two contiguous series of oblong 
dark spots on the centre of the abdomen. Abdominal plates, 133 ; caudal, 51. Pennsylvania. 

T. fasciatus. (Id. Vol.4, pi. 5.) Carmato. Body robust; brownish above, with about thirty oblong 
red marks on the flanks. Abdominal plates, 140; caudal, 42. Length 2-|- feet. Carolina, Loui- 
siana. 

T. taxispilotus. (Id. Vol. 4, pi. 8.) Carinate. Body robust; above light chocolate, with a triple 
series of subquadrate and oblong black spots. Abdominal plates, 144; Caudal, 79. Length three 
feet. South Carolina, Georgia. 

GENUS LEPTOPHIS. Bell. 

Head much elongated, suhoval, narroio, covered with plates as in Coluber. Loral plate sin- 
gle ; one anterior and two posterior orbital plates. Body long and very slender, covered 
luith sub-hexagonal carinate scales. Tail very long. 

Obs. Hitherto, but two species have been observed in the United States. They are 
remarkable for their extreme activity. 

THE RIBBON SNAKE. 

Leptofhis saurita. 
plate xi. fig. 24. — (state collection) 

Coluber saurita. LiN. Gmel. Catesby, Vol. 2, p. 50. pi. 50. 

Lc Saurite. Lacepede, Hist. Nat. des Serpens, Vol. 2, p. 101. Daddin, Vol. 7, p. 104, pi. 81, fig. 2. 
Anpas eryx. Williams, Nat. Hist. Vermont. 
A. saurita. Harlan, Med. and Phys. Res. p. 115. 

The Riband Snake. Storee, Mass. Rep. p. 229. Holbrook, N. A. Herpetology, Vol.4, p. 21, pi. 4 ; and Vol. 4, p. 
21, pi. 4, of 2d Ed. 

Characteristics. Body slender. Tail filiform, nearly half the length of the body. Chocolate- 
brown, with three yellowish stripes. Length one to two feet. 



48 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

Description. Body exceedingly slender, rarely exceeding half an inch in diameter ; covered 
with small oblong hexagonal carinate scales. Head small, slightly larger than the neck. 
Plates on the head, 2.2.3.2, smooth. Labial plates above, fifteen; twenty-one beneath. 
The intermediate plates between the second gular pair, unequal ; the posterior broad, and 
largest. Vertical plate narrower than in the preceding species. Eyes prominent, conspicuous. 
Color. Above chesnut brown or bay, with three narrow bright-yellowish or white longitu- 
dinal stripes ; the central or dorsal stripe extending to the posterior plates of the head, and 
the lateral ones passing under the orbits, and dilated into the white of the lower jaw. Beneath 
dull white, immaculate, verging to greenish under the tail. Lateral portions of the abdominal 
plates dull chesnut ; lower half, as far as the fifth orbital, "and the inferior post-orbital plates, 
white. There are two varieties which seem to merit description : 
Var. a. Small black and distinct dots on each side of the dorsal stripe, and along the upper 

margin of the lateral stripes. 
Var. b. The black dots on each side of the dorsal stripe confluent, and forming a black 

border. 

Abdominal plates,.. 155-165. Length, 12-0 -24-0. 

Caudal plates, 110-120. Ditto of tail, 4-0- G'O. 

This delicate and graceful little snake is far less common than the preceding. It is more 
exclusively a southern species, although found sparingly in Massachusetts, and possibly as 
far east as Vermont. 

Wc are indebted to Linneus for the first authentic account of this snake, under the name 
of saurita. This name indicates its resemblance to a striped lizard ; for as the observer views 
it gliding rapidly among the herbage, he is in doubt whether it is a serpent or a lizard. The 
characters assigned by Linneus are, however, inaccurate ; partly owing to his having trusted 
to the execrable figure of Catesby, or to altered specimens. " Scutellis 21 " is obviously a 
misprint, which is corrected in the twelfth edition. " Virescens lineis tribus virescentibus," 
could only have been derived from cabinet specimens, or from a badly colored plate of Catesby. 
Catesby's notice itself is very meagre, and scarcely accurate : " Short Ribbon Snake. Slender, 
" not much bigger than the figure. Upper part of the body dark brown, with three parallel 
" white lines extending the whole length of the body ; belly white." 

The Ribbon Snake, or as it is frequently called in this State, the Little Garter Snake, is 
an exceedingly nimble animal. It climbs trees, and feeds on toads, frogs, and even the larger 
insects. It is a gentle animal. It has been confounded with the C. richardii, Bory (An. Sc. 
Nat. Vol. 1, p. 408, pi. 24), but is very distinct. In Ohio, according to Kirtland, it seeks the 
most retired woods for its residence. 

{EXTRA LIMITAL) 

L. aestivus. (Holbrook, Vol. 4, pi. 3.) Carinate. Green above, yellowish white beneath. Abdo- 
minal plates 160; caudal 140. Length two feet. Delaware, Maryland, Louisiana. 



FAMILY COLUBERID^, 49 

GENUS CALAMARIA. Bow, Wagler. 

Jiead small. Two frontal plates descending to form part of the orhit. One anterior and 
one posterior orbital plate ; no I oral plate. 

THE RED SNAKE. 

Calamaria amcena. 

Coluber amtsnus. Say, Acad. Nat. Sciences, Vol.4, p. 237- 

C id Hablan, Med.and Phys. Res. p. 119. 

Zacholusid. Wagler. 

The Red Snake. Storer, Mass. Rep. p. 226. 

Calamana ammia. HoLBROOK, N. Am. Herpetology, Vol.4, pi. 27 

Characteristics. Small. Reddish brown ; beneath red. Scales smooth. Tail short, abrupt. 
Length 6-12 inches. 

Description. Body small, cylindrical, with smooth polished elongated obscurely pentagonal 
scales. Tail about one-seventh of the total length, abruptly attenuated to a solid corneous tip. 
Head small, obtusely rounded ; terminal plate curving slightly on the top of the head, so as 
to be nearly horizontal above. The first pair of plates short, broader than long ; second pair 
rather large, oblique, the posterior outer angle reaching the eyes. Vertical plate convex, 
rounded, sub-triangular, wide before, and angulated on the anterior middle ; the posterior 
angle acute. Posterior plates a little convex, with a single scale between their tips. Eyes 
with one scale behind ; one before, twice as long as the posterior one ; small plate above the 
eye, less than half the length of the central plate. Teeth very minute. 

Color. Reddish brown or dark slate above ; beneath bright red, or rosaceous. 

Abdominal plates, 125-135. Length, S'O-IO-O. 

Caudal plates, 25- 35. Tail, 1-0- 2-0. 

This is a beautiful little serpent, found under stones and logs. I have not met with it, but 
have taken Say's description. Its present geographical limits extend from New-Hampshire to 
Pennsylvania. 

{EXTRA-LIMITAL.) 

C. elapsoidea. (Holbrook, Vol. 4, pi. 28.) Small. Body scarlet, with 18 - 20 white rings, broadly 
bordered on each side with black. Abdominal plates, 170; caudal, 38. Length 12-0. Carolina, 
Georgia. 

C. striatula. (Id. Vol. 4, pi. 29.) 

Fauna — Part 3. 7 



50 NEW- YORK FAUNA. 

Genus PsAMMOPH IS, Holbrook. Plates of the head as in Coluber. Body excessively long and slender. 
Scales over.the tail, not imbricated. 

Obs. Under this name, Dr. Holbrook proposes to arrange a group of serpents characterized by 
various peculiarities. 
P.Jlagelliformis. (Holbrook, Vol.1, pi. 19, Ed. prima; Vol. 4, pi. 2, Ed. secunda.) Supra-orbital 
plate projecting over the eye. Body long and slender; the anterior part deep black, both above 
and below ; the middle varied with brown and white. Tail one-fourth of the length. Abdominal 
plates, 203 ; caudal, 109. South Carolina, Florida. 

Genus Helicops, Wa^gler. Head depressed, smaller than the neck. Loral plate wanting ; two poste- 
rior, and one anterior orbital plate. Mouth inferior, ascending at the angle ; posterior tooth on 
each side longest. Body elongated, robust, with smooth scales. 
H. erythrogrammus. (Holbrook, Vol. 4, pi. 25.) Smooth. Bluish black, with three longitudinal 
red lines and a series of bluish black spots on each side of the abdomen. Abdominal plates, 178; 
caudal, 39. Length three and a half feet. Carolina. 
H. abacurns. (Id. Vol. 4, pi. 26.) Smooth. Bluish black above; flanks with transverse bright red 
bands. Beneath red, with somewhat regularly arranged black spots. Abdominal plates, 195 ; 
caudal, 34. Length four feet. Carolina, Louisiana. 

Genus Rhinostoma, Waglcr, partim. Posterior maxillary tooth long, cylindrical, pointed, fixed. 

Head not as large as the body. Rostral plate not carinate, but sub-acuminate. 
R. coccinea. (Holbrook, Vol. 4, pi. 30.) Scarlet, with jet black rings in pairs, not surrounding 

the body ; the black rings separated by yellowish white spaces. Length 2-3 feet. Carolina, 

Georgia. 

Genus Pituophis, Holbrook. Head elongated, oval, four-sided; the snout prolonged. Frontal plates 
four, in a transverse row. Rostral plate an isosceles triangle ; basis roimded and prolonged ; 
apex pointed, and received between the anterior frontal plates. Two anterior and three posterior 
orbital plates. Teeth rather larger in front. Scales strongly carinated. 
P. nielanoleucus. (Holbrook, Vol.4, pi. 1) White, with sub-rotund black or dusky blotches. Abdo- 
men pale cream, with a series of subquadrate black blotches. Abdominal scales, 216 ; subcaudal, 
60, bifid. Length 6-7 feet. Jersey to Florida. Will probably be found in this State. 



FAMILY COLUBERID.'E. 51 

GENUS HETERODON. PaJ. de Beauvois. 

Teeth unequal ; the posterior maxillari/ teeth largest. Head triangular, pointed. Rostral 
plate pyramidal, triangular, ridged above, a7id pointed at the tip. 

THE HOG-NOSED SNAKE. 

Heterodon platyrhinos. 

PLATE Xll[. FIG. 28, a. Plates of the head. —(CABINET OF THE LYCEUM.) 

Hclerodon a large luz. Latbeille, Hist. Rept. Vol.4, p. 32. 

Heterodon. Daud. Vol.7, p. 153. 

Coluber heterodon. Say, Am. Jour. Vol. 1, p. 201. Harlan, Med, and Phys. Res. p. 120. 

Heterodon platyrhinos. HoLBKOOK. N. Am. Herpelology, Vol.2, p. 97, pi. 21. 

H. id. Stoeer. Mass. Rep. p. 231. Troost, Ann. Lye. Vol. 3, p. 183. 

Characteristics. Greyish tinged with yellowish, and a triple series of blackish blotches. 
Dorsal series largest, bordered with black ; lateral series smaller, and 
irregularly rounded. A dark band through the eyes. Length two feet. 

Description. Body robust, and covered with oval-oblong carinate scales ; the two or three 
series next to the abdominal plates, smooth. The body tapers rather suddenly from the vent. 
Tail short, one-si.\th of the total length, ending in an acute tip. Ventral scale divided. Head 
large, triangular, flattened above, with a pointed snout. Teeth in the posterior part of the 
jaw long, hollow, not perforated, and four in number. The plates cover but a small portion 
of the head. Central plate irregularly six-sided, the lateral margins being longest, and the 
anterior meeting at an obtuse angle ; supra-orbital oblong, broadest behind, and projecting over 
the eye. Around the eye are arranged ten small orbital plates ; besides these, there are two 
pair of anterior nasal plates, of which the superior are largest, the lower plate being behind the 
posterior nasal plate, and furrowed in its centre. Nasal plates two on each side ; the anterior 
lunated behind, the posterior excavated in front to complete the nostril. Occipital plates 
triangular, with the apices truncated at their junction with the vertical plate. Frontal plate 
uniting laterally with the anterior and posterior nasal plates ; between the frontal plates is a 
long narrow azygous plate, ridged above, and uniting in a sub-imbricate manner on nearly the 
centre of this plate with the rostral plate. Rostral plate triangular, upturned in front, with a 
strong carina on its upper surface, and excavated beneath. Labial plates above eight on each 
side of the lower jaw ; nineteen in all. Nostrils large, lateral, and near tiie rostrum. Eyes 
large, prominent. Head in repose not much larger than the neck ; but when irritated, it 
distends to twice its usual breadth, the summit becoming flattened. 

Color. Brassy yellow above, with three series of irregular subquadrate or rounded deep 
chesnut, blackish or ash grey blotches, occasionally united on the posterior part of the body 
and tail, forming rings ; the series on the sides much smaller, and alternating with the larger 
ones. Summit of the head dark rufous, with irregular blotches and dots of dark brown. A 



52 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

black dash extends obliquely backwards from the eye to the angle of the jaws. A rounded 
black spot behind the occiput. Beneath dusky yellowish, or dull whitish. 

Young, of a uniform light ashen grey, with the lateral series of spots black, subquadrate, 
and united with each other across the back by dark-colored bands, with intervening lighter 
ones. Beneath gi-eenish grey, varied with dusky. A short rufous transverse band in front of 
the eyes. Over the eyes, a rufous band ; becomes dilated on the sides of the neck. 

Abdominal plates, . 130-142. Length, 12-0-25-0. 

Caudal plates, 42- 48. Tail, 2-5- 4-0. 

This well known species has a venomous aspect, particularly when irritated, but is entirely 
harmless. In this State, it has various popular names : Blauser, by the early Dutch settlers, 
from its habit of distending or blowing up the skin of its head and neck ; this property I have 
noticed in very young individuals wliich I have kept for some time. It is also called Deaf 
Adder, Spreading Adder, Hog-nose and Buckwheat-nose ; the latter from some fancied 
resemblance between that grain and its rostral plate. It is found frequently in dry sandy 
soils ; but I have observed them also in low and wet meadows, apparently in pursuit of frogs, 
etc. It is rather common in the southern parts of this State. It has been noticed in New- 
Hampshire and Massachusetts. It occurs in Michigan, Tennessee, and throughout the 
Western States. Southward it extends to Florida. 

(EXTRA-LIMITAL.) 

H. simus. (HoLBROOK, Vol. 4, pi. 15.) Azygous plate between the frontal, surrounded by 6 - 8 
smaller plates. Grey, with a vertebral series of subquadrate or rounded black spots on transverse 
bars; tail fa^vn-colored. Abdominal plates, 132; caudal, 39. Length 12-13 inches. Carc- 
Hnas, Georgia. 

H. niger. (Id. Vol.4, pi. 16.) Entirely black; beneath greyish, Body thick and clxmisy. Abdo- 
minal plates, 135 - 145; caudal, 50 - 55. Length three feet. Tennessee, Georgia. 

H. anmdatus. (Troost, Ann. Lye. Vol. 3, p. 188.) Slender. Body surrounded with black and 
yellow rings. Beneath yellowish white. Length 29 inches. Tennessee. 

H. tigrinus. (Id. lb. p. 189.) Smaller than preceding. Varied with black and ashen grey. A black 
horseshoe band runs through the eyes to the angle of each jaw. Length 16 inches. An jur? 
Tennessee. 

Obs. Dr. Holbrook considers the two last as varieties of H. platyrhinos. 



FAMILY CROTALIDiE, 53 



FAMILY CROTALID^. 

With poisonous movable fangs m the upper jaiv ; no other teeth in the upper jaw. A pit or 
fossa between the eye and nostril. Terrestrial. 

Obs. In this State we have but two venomous serpents belonging to this family; and neither 
of them, except in the unsettled districts, are numerous. 



GENUS TRIGONOCEPHALUS. Oppel. 

Head large, triangular ; covered with plates in front and on the vertex to behind the orbits, 
and beyond this ivith scales. A deep fosset between the eyes and nostrils. Body robust. 
Tail ivith plates, simple, unarmed ; its plates occasionally divided. 



THE COPPER-HEAD. 

TRIGONOCEPHALUS CONTORTRIX. 

PLATE IX. FIG. 18, A. Summit of the heab. - (CABINET OF THE LYCEUM.) 

Boa cmlortnx. Lin. Syst. Nat. 12 Ed. p. 373. 

Aagkistrodon mokeson. Pal. de Beauv. Am. Transact. Vol. 4, p. 381. 
Cenchris cmUmtnx. Daud. Hist Reptiles, Vol. 5, p. 358, pi. 50, fig. 25. (Head.) 
Scylale atprms. Harl. Med. and Phys. Res. p. 120. 

Tngonocephalia contortrix. Holdrook, N. Am. Herpetology, Vol. 2, p. 69, pi. 14, Ed. prima ; Vol. 3, p. 39, pi. 8, Ed. 
secunda. 

Characteristics. Copper-colored. Reddish brown blotches over the back, dilated on the sides. 
Senes of irregular rounded black blotches on each side of the abdominal 
plates. Length two to three feet. 

Description. Body robust and thick, and covered with oblong hexagonal carinate scales ; 
those on the flanks larger and smooth. The posterior part of the head covered with smooth 
oval scales, which become carinate on the neck. Head large and very distinct from the neck, 
(in the plate, the head is represented disproportionately small,) and flattened above. Rostral 
plate emarginate beneath ; the two pair of frontal plates four-sided, the posterior pair largest ; 
supra-orbital plate oblong, obscurely triangular, prominent over the eyes ; vertical plate sub- 
pentagonal, with an acute process directed backwards, and separating the occipital pair. 
Rostral plate large, triangular. The fosset or pit lies between the second labial and one of 
the anterior orbitals. Mouth very large, with long yellowish white venomous fangs in the 
upper jaw. Abdomen wide and flat. Tail short, one-eighth of the total length, tapering 
rather suddenly, and ending in a solid horny tip : the caudal plates irregularly bifid ; and 
this division occurs either at the commencement, middle, or more rarely near the end of the 
tail. Ventral plate wide, subquadrate. 



54 NEW- YORK FAUNA. 

Color. Above copper-brown, wliich is mucli brighter on the sides. Across the bick are 
about sixteen reddish brown bands, bordered with dusky, and becoming irregularly dilated on 
the flanks. These bands or blotches may be traced also over the tail, which is dusky towards 
the tip ; between these bands, are irregularly interspersed rounded spots of the same color. 
Beneath, the abdominal plates pale cupreous, with a series of about thirty-five large, rounded 
or subquadrate dusky blotches on each side, and alternating with each other. They become 
irregular, and more numerous towards the tail ; occasionally a few dusky spots are interposed 
between these series, on the centre of the abdominal plates. Head somewhat brighter colored 
than the upper part of the body. " 

Abdoiiiinal plates,.. 14.5-155. Total length, 25-0-36-0. 

Caudal ditto, 35- 45. Ditto of tail, 3-5- 4-5. 

The Copper-head is a vicious reptile, and its bite is justly dreaded. Its poison is considered 
as deadly as that of a rattlesnake ; and an instance is recorded, where a horse, struck by 
one of these reptiles, died in a few hours. It has various popular names in different districts ; 
the most common of these are, in this State, Copper-head, Red Adder and Dumb Rattle- 
snake. In other districts, it is called Copper-belly, Red Viper, Deaf Adder and Chunk- 
head. Its motions are sluggish ; and when approached, it assumes a threatening aspect, 
raising its head and throwing out its tongue. It chiefly occurs in pastures and low meadow 
grounds, feeding on field mice, frogs, and the smaller disabled birds. Many vegetable antidotes 
have been proposed against the venomous bite of this and the rattlesnake, but they all seem to 
depend mainly upon their being infused in large quantities of fluid. Nothing is more effectual 
than scarifying extensively, and cupping the wound. When the parts cannot be reached, 
after the application of a ligature, sucking the wound, if long continued, is commonly suffi- 
cient, together with copious draughts of oil, milk, or even warm water. Arsenic is said to 
have been used with great success. In a paper in the Medico-chirurgical Transactions, this 
remedy, combined with cathartic clysters, and frictions of oil of turpentine and spirits of 
ammonia on the wound, is said to have cured four very bad cases arising from the bite of a 
serpent. The arsenic was given in this form : Two drachms of Fowler's solution, with ten 
drops of laudanum and half an ounce of lime juice, in peppermint, formed a dose taken 
every half hour. From six to eight doses of the solution was found to be sufficient. The 
debility which ensued was counteracted by continuing the remedies in gradually diminished 
doses. The Prenanthes serpentaria or lion's-foot, the Alisma plantago or water plantain, and 
the Hieraceum venenosum or hawk-weed, have each had their vogue as remedies against 
this poison, but they can scarcely be depended on without the aid of the other remedies sug- 
gested above. An interesting series of experiments on the poison of the rattlesnake will be 
found in the Medical and Physical Researches of Dr. Harlan, to which we refer our reader. 

Although the Copper-head is found in the western district of the State, yet I noticed them 
most numerous in the meadows of Columbia and Dutchess counties. Its geographical range 
extends from 45° north latitude to Florida. It does not seem to occur abundantly east of this 



FAMILY CROTALID/E. 55 

State ; for I do not see it mentioned either in Hitchcock's Catalogue, or in the Report of Dr. 
Storer on the Reptiles of Massachusetts. Dr. Holbrook, however, has seen it in the neigh- 
borhood of JNorthampton, Massachusetts, and has received specimens from Vermont. It 
occurs in Ohio. 



(EXTRA-LIMITAL) 

T. fiscivorus. (Holbrook, Herptl Vol. 3, pi. 7, of 2(1 Ed.) Dusky greenish brown tinged with 
yellow, with irregular black bands. Abdominal plates, 130; caudal, 40. Length one to two 
feet. Toxicophis Icucostovms of Troost. North-Carolina, Louisiana. 

T. airofusais. (Id. Vol.3, pi. 9.) Scales smooth on the neck. Caudal plates : 25 subcaudal plates 
at the base, and 18 pairs of scales at the apex; black, varied with brown. Head black, bordered 
with grey; upper lip white. Abdominal plates, 133. Length two feet. Tennessee. 



GENUS CROTALUS. Linneus. 

Head large, triangular, rounded in front, and covered with plates only on its anterior part ; 
vertex and occiput ivith scales. A deep pit or fosset between the eye and nostril. Upper 
jaw with poison fangs. Tail short and thick, ending in a rattle, which is a horny produc- 
tion of the epidermis. Caudal plates undivided. 

Obs. This genus is peculiar to America. 



THE NORTHERN RATTLESNAKE 

CrOTALUS DURISSUS. 

PLATE IX. FIG. 19. — (CABINET OF THE LYCEUM.) 

Crotahis diirissus. LiN. Syst. Nat. p. 372. HARL.tN, Med. and Phys. p. 132. 

C. mnfiuentis? Say, Long's Expedition, Vol. 1, p. 48. 

Crotdus durissus. Holbrook, N. Am. Herpetology, Vol. 2, p. 81, pi. 17 ; and Vol. 3, p. 9. pi. 1, Ed. 2da. 

The Banded Rattlesnake. Storer, Mass. Report, p. 233. Kirtland, Zoology of Ohio, p. 188. 

Characteristics. Reddish brown or chesnut to black, with irregular rhomboidal black blotches. 
Abdominal plates, 173; caudal, 25. Length three feet. 

Description. Body robust, and covered with elongate rhomboidal scales, distinctly carinate 
above, but less obviously so on the sides, although these latter are larger. Head large, trian- 
gular, obtusely pointed, flattened above. Rostral plate large, truncate above, triangular, with 
a quadrangular plate on each side ; posterior to these a smaller plate, and in the suture between 
them are placed the nostrils. The superior orbital plates project strongly over the eye. A 
deep fosset or pit midway between the eye and nostrils, but on a lower plane. Throat with 
two very large plates. Neck small. Tail short, less than one-eighth of the total length. 



56 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

Rattles varying in number, in general varying from five to twelve.* The rattle, as it is called, 
is composed of several horny enlargements loosely attached to each other, and resounding 
against each other when shaken. 

Color. Usually yellowish brown, and occasionally bright chesnut red. I have seen some 
individuals in this State, of nearly a uniform brownish black. On the upper part of the head 
and neck, it is frequently of a lighter color, margined on each side with dusky. A series of 
black rhomboidal blotches, disposed in an angular form, extends along the back and over the 
sides ; often a distinct reddish vertebral line. Caudal portion uniform dusky, and occasionally 
deep black. Beneath dull yellowish, with glossy reflections, and minutely and irregularly 
dotted and blotched with brownish black. 

Abdominal plates, 170-177. Totallength, 36-0-48-0, 

Caudal plates 20- 25. Length of tail, 2-5- 3-5. 

As this species is found farther north than any other of the genus, I have ventured to desig- 
nate it Ijy the name of the Northern Rattlesnake, although it is found as far south as the 
Gulf of Mexico, and throughout the Western States, and to the base of the Rocky Moun- 
tains. Although furnished with such deadly weapons, the rattlesnake can scarcely be termed 
a vicious animal ; for he rarely strikes, unless almost trodden upon. When suddenly dis- 
turbed, he throws himself into a coil, and warns the aggressor by rapidly vibrating his rattles; 
these can scarcely be heard Ijeyond the distance of a few yards. f This is most usually the 
case, but they occasionally strike without the slightest warning. Some years since, I was at an 
Indian settlement in the western part of the State, when, as we passed through a thick under- 
growth of bushes, one of the Indians was struck in this sudden manner ; but as his legs were 
enveloped in thick leggings, the stroke was harmless. The other Indians immediately hunted 
down and killed the reptile. They assured me, that whenever a rattlesnake sprung his rattle, 
it was a sign that he himself was alarmed, and that in such cases they invariably spared his 
life. It is a popular but erroneous belief, that a rattle is added each year. This is contro- 
verted by Dr. Holbrook, who has known two rattles added in one year, and Dr. Bachman has 
observed four produced in the same period. The upper jaw is furnished with long curved 
acute and hollowed fangs, which are replaced by others in the rear when broken off. A poison 
bag, which occupies the wliole length of the jaw beneath the skin, communicates with these 
fangs at their bases. At the moment the snake strikes, he ejects the venom forcibly into the 

' In the Columbian Magazine or Monthly Miscellany for November, 1786, is figured and described the tail of a rattlesnake, 
with an almost incredible number of rattles. " The common number of fibute seldom exceeds fourteen or fifteen in a rattle ; but 
the one given (fig. 4) is certainly a very great curiosity, even to a person who has seen a great number of this genus of snakes. 
The fibula; are forty-four in number. The snake from which this rattle was taken, was not, as might be expected, of a size pro- 
portionate to the prodigious length of its rattle, but rather a middling sized snake. It was killed some time in the summer of this 
year, at Fort Allen." The greatest number ever seen by Dr. Holbrook, as he has assured me in conversation, was twenty-one. 
jj t At the commencement of the War of Independence, the naval flag of Massachusetts displayed a Pine Tree, at the root of 
which was a coiled Rattlesnake, with the words "Don't tread on me !" or sometimes " Caveant moniti!" Let those who are 
warned beware ! This was rather more appropriate than the ornithological monster who brandishes arrows and olive branches 
on our present armorial bearings. 



FAMILY CROTALID^. 57 

wound. In an instance of a very large rattlesnake from Florida (the C. adamanteus), which 
was irritated, he struck violently against the iron wire on the side of the cage, and ejected 
the venom to the distance of three feet. The absurd notion of fascination is entertained by 
few at the present day : it is alluded to under the article Copper-head. 

The Rattlesnake is common in various parts of the State, and m the northern States ecne- 
rally appears to prefer rocky situations. They abound in Clinton, Essex and Warren coun- 
ties, along the shores of Lakes Champlain and George. Some idea may be formed of their 
numbers in certain districts in this State, by the following extract from the Clarion news- 
paper published in WaiTcn county : " Two men, in three days, killed eleven hundred and four 
" rattlesnakes on the east side of Tongue mountain in the town of Bolton. Some of the rep- 
" tiles were very large, carrying from fifteen to twenty rattles. They were killed for their 
" oil, or grease, which is said to be very valuable." 

Although numerous in the rocky mountainous districts of this State, they are rare or 
entirely wanting in those elevated regions which give rise to the Moose, the Raquet and the 
Hudson rivers. They are found in the counties of Sullivan, Ulster, Orange and Greene. A 
few still linger in the swamps of Suffolk county. 

It is a popular belief that hogs are particularly destructive to these reptiles. This may be 
true to a certain extent ; but neither their bristly hide, nor their thick teguments, afford them 
perfect immunity from the stroke of this serpent. I was informed by a respectable farmer in 
Dutchess county, that he lost three hogs in one season by the poison either of the copper- 
iiead or rattlesnake. The more probable explanation is, that the rattlesnake gradually dis- 
appears, and is finally extirpated, before the progress of cultivation. 

The C. horridus, which frequently appears in the list of our reptiles, is not found in North 
America. 

(EXTRA-LIMITAL) 

C. adamanteus. (Holbrook, Herpet. Vol. 2, pi. 16; and Vol. 3, pi. 2, Ed. 2da.) Very laro-e. 

Dusky brown, with rhomboidal dark spots margined with grey. Length six to eight feet. Caro- 
lina, Florida. 
C. oregonus. (Id. Vol. 3, pi. 3.) A broad white bar between the orbits, and two others on each side 

of the head. Back with two white zigzag lines. Abdominal plates, 177 ; subcaudal, 22. Oregon. 
Genus Crotalophorus, Gray. Head covered with plates above. Rattles few in number and not 

much developed. Subcaudal plates mostly entire. 
C. miliarius. (Holbrook, Vol. 2, pi. 15; and Vol. 3, pi. 4, Ed. 2da.) Small. Grey, with a dorsal 

yellowish stripe, on which is a series of large black spots margined with yellowish white. Lenoth 

12 - 14 inches. Carolina, Michigan. Louisiana. 
C. tergeminus. (Id. Vol. 3, pi. .5, Ed. 2da.) Ash broTOi, with a triple row of brown spots bordered 

with lighter. Sides spotted with alternate fuscous series. Length two feet. Alhed to miliarius. 

Western Territories. 
C. kirtlandi. (Id. Vol. 3, pi. 6.) Massasagua. Black, varied slightly with brown. A series of 

light brown rings on the back, and vertical lines on the flanks. Abdominal plates, 152; caudal, 

27, bifid 2. Length 27 inches. Michigan. 

Fauna — Part 3. 8 



58 NEW- YORK FAUNA. 

FAMILY ELAPSIDiE 

With venomous fa,ngs, and permanently fixed ; other teeth in the upper maxillary, and on the palate. 
Head not distinct from the body. Jaws not dilatable. No fosset between the eye and nostril. 

Genus Elaps. Schneider. Head scarcely larger than the body; no fosset between the eye and nostril ; 

upper jaw with a fixed and permanently erect poison fan^. Resembles Coluberida:. 
E. fulvius. (HoLBROOK, Herpet. Vol. 2, pi. 18.) Red, encircled with broail black bands bordered 

with yellow. Abdominal plates, 212; caudal, 32. Length twenty inches. Carolina, Louisiana, 

Upper Missouri. 



CLASS IV. AMPHIBIA. 

SIORE OR LESS DISTINCTLY VERTEBRATED. WITH COLD RED BLOOD. HEART UNILOCULAR, OR 
WITH ONE AURICLE AND ONE VENTRICLE. EXTREMITIES FOUR, TWO OR NONE ; OCCA- 
SIONALLY DISAPPEARING WITH AGE. SKIN NAKED, DESTITUTE OF SCALES. RIBS SHORT OR 
WANTING. RESPIRATION BY' GILLS OR LUNGS, OR BOTH CO-EXISTENT. FORM IN SOME FAMI- 
LIES UNDERGOES A COMPLETE METAMORPHOSIS. AQUATIC OR TERRESTRIAL. CARNIVOROUS. 
EGGS IMPREGNATED AFTER EXCLUSION. 

The Amphihia or Afnphilnans have, until recently, been treated as an order of Reptiles ; 
but they present so many and such important variations from the character assigned to that 
class, that modern naturalists have almost unanimously agreed to consider them a distinct class, 
forming a group allied on the one hand to the Reptiles by the CcecilidcB, and on the other to 
the Fishes by the Sirenidee. 

As early as 1816, De Blainville published a system of classification, which he had publicly 
taught in his lectures for several years previous. In this he indicated the propriety of sepa- 
rating the animals under consideration from the Reptiles. Of these he made a class, which 
he designated as NudipdUfhres or Ichthijdides nuds. This he divided into four orders : 1 . 
Batraciens, Frogs ; 2. Pscudosauriens, or Salamanders ; 3. Amphibiens, as Proteus, Siren, 
&c. ; 4. Pseudophydiens, as Caecilia. This was afterwards modified and enlarged in his 
" Principes d'Anatomie Comparee," pubHshed in 1822, when he designated his third class 
under the name of Suhichthijcns. 

The characters assigned to this class must be taken with some limitations. Some of the 
genera undergo no metamorphosis whatsoever, either in form or respiration ; at least none 
has hitherto been observed. Nor is the phrase " unilocular heart" literally exact ; for although 
the auricle is externally single, yet dissections have proved that internally it is in some genera 
separated into two distinct auricles. 

The Amphibians present such a variety of changes, and such modifications of structure, as 
to have given rise to many systematic arrangements. From the various systems proposed, 
we select that of Mr. Bell, as detailed in his admirable work on the British Reptiles, with 
such modifications as are necessary to produce uniformity with the general plan of this 
Report. 



60 NEW- YORK FAUNA. 

FAMILY RANIDM. 

Body short and broad. Feet, {in the young) ivanting ; afterwards four, the hind ones long, 
formed for leaping and siui??i?ning. Tail {in the young) long, compressed; afterivards 
wanting. No ribs ; vertebrce few. Tympanum open. Respiration at first aquatic by 
gills, afterwards atmospheric by lungs. Gills at first external, but withdrawn within the 
chest before the metamorphosis. Impregnation after the exclusion of the eggs. 

This family corresponds with a part of the order Caducibi'anchia of Bonaparte, and entirely 
with the order Anoura of Bell. It also agrees with the family Ecaudata of Oppel, the order 
Salicutia of Merrem, and a part of the order Mutahilia of Gray. 

GENUS RANA. Linneus. 

Upper jaw with a row of minute teeth ; a transverse interrupted, row in the middle of the 
palate. Tongue large, fleshy, notched behind, where it is alone movable. No post-tym- 
panal glands. Hind legs long, palmated ; four toes before, five behind. Young, with 
elongated bodies, and gills ; ivithout feet, and with a long compressed tail. 

THE BULLFROG. 

Rana pipien.s. 

PL.ITE XIX. FIG. 48. — (STATE COLLECTION.) 

Ram pipiens. LiN. Syst. Nat. Lateeille, Hist. Nat. Kept. Vol. 2, p. 153. 
n id. Hael. Med. & Phys. Res. p. 101. 

R. scapularis, (young.) Id. lb. p. 103. 
R. mugims. Dumee. & BiBRON, Vol. 8, p. 370. 

R. pipiens. HoLBRooK, N. Ani. Herpetology, Vol.3, p. 81, pi. 15; and Vol. 4, p. 77, pi. 18, 2J Ed. Stoeer, Mass. Rep. 
p. 235. 

Characteristics. Large. Head green ; body greenish olive, with dusky blotches ; legs spotted 
or barred. Length 6 to 12 inches. 

Description. Body robust, smooth. Head very large. Nostrils lateral, very small, mid- 
way between the snout and orbits. Eyes large and prominent. Tympanum large and rounded, 
resembling a scale attached to the side of the head. Mouth large, with numerous minute 
acute teeth in the upper jaw. Tongue large and fleshy. Fore feet short, robust, with four 
short toes; the one next to the exterior longest ; all with small tubercles at the joints. Hind 
legs long, more then twice the length of the fore legs. Under surface of the thighs partly 
granulated. Toes largely webbed, with tubercles at the joints ; the one next to the exterior, 
longest. 

Color. Body dusky with a greenish hue, and varied with irregular darker blotches. Head 
green above ; throat yellow or yellowish white ; lower jaw white ; upper jaw green. Pupil 



FAMILY RANID^. 61 

of the eye black ; irides green. Tympanum green, with an outer circle of brown. Abdomen 
yellowish white. Fore legs greenish brown above, with dusky spots occasionally assuming 
the form of transverse bars. Hind legs brownish or dusky green above, yellowish white 
beneath, with obscure irregular dusky bars, or spotted with the same. 

Length of the body, 4-0- 12-0. 

Ditto of hind legs, 2-5- 7-0. 

The Bullfrog is one of the largest of the family in this State, and appears to be generally 
distributed throughout the Union. It is well known by its hoarse voice, compared by many 
to the roaring of a bull, and which is so loud as to be heard at a great distance. It is entirely 
aquatic, although it occasionally comes to land. In the adult state, it feeds on insects, craw- 
fish, helices, and small fish. The Tadpole, on the other hand, appears to be exclusively her 
bivorous. I have noticed this species some distance below Montreal, and I think in the vicinity 
of Trois Rivieres. With its southern limits I am unacquainted. It occurs in Ohio. 

THE LARGE NORTHERN BULLFROG 
Rana horiconensis. 
PL.\TE XXn. FIG. 62. 
Rana horiconensis. HoLBROOK, N. Am. Herpetology, Vol. 3, p. 91, pi, 18 ; Vol. 4, p. 83, pi. 19, 2d Ed. 

Characteristics. Dark olive, with irregular black blotches. A longitudinal culicular fold on 
each side. Length tlu-ce to four inches. 

Description. Body very stout, with an elevated cuticular fold running from the orbits on 
the sides of the posterior extremities. Nostrils small, lateral, and placed nearer the snout 
than to the orbits. Eyes large and prominent. Tympanum large, circular. Fore legs robust, 
four-toed. Hind legs much longer, the posterior part of the thigh granulated ; five-toed, and 
fully palmated. 

Color. Body dark olive brown, varied with irregular black spots above ; silvery white 
beneath. An indistinct bluish band extends from near the snout, under the tympanum, to the 
shoulders. Chin and throat white. Fore legs dusky above. Hind legs dark olive, with 
narrow dusky bars. Pupil black ; iris golden, reticulated with black. Length 3 -5. 

For a knowledge of this species we are indebted to Dr. Holbrook, who obtained his speci 
mens from Lake George in this State. The Indian name of that lake {Horicon), suggested 
the trivial name. I saw them in great numbers in the lakes emptying into the Raquet river, 
but until I met with Holbrook's description, had supposed them to be varieties of the preced- 
ing. To this it is closely allied in size, voice and habits ; but its cuticular fold is a strong 
distinctive mark. Its note is more sonorous, and in a lower key. It is beheved to be strictly 
a northern species. The vielanota of Harlan, appears closely allied. Dr. Harlan, it would 
seem, never saw the species, and the author he cites is utterly unworthy of credit. 



62 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

THE SPRING FROG. 

Rana fontinalis. 

PL.-ITE XXI. FIG. 54, A. 

Rana fontinalis. Common Spring Frog. Le Conte, Ann. Lye. Vol. 1, P- 282. 
R. fiavi-viridis, var. Harlan, Am. Jour. Vol. 10 ; Acad. Sc. Vol. 5, p. 338. 
R. id. Harlan,' Med. and Phys. Res. p. 103 and 220. Smith, Hitchcock's Catologiic, p. H. 

R./ontinaUs. HoLERooK, N. Am. Hcrp. Vol, 3, p. 85, pi. IG; and Vol. 4, p. 87, pi. 21 of 2d Ed. Storer, Mass. Rep. p. 
237. 

Characteristics. Briglit green, wilii obsolete dark-colored spots on the flanks ; throat yellow. 
Beneath white. Length 3-4 inches. 

Description. Body robust. Snout somewhat obtu.sely pointed. Orbits very prominent. 
Tvmpanum large, suboval, with a central elevation. Skin smooth on the dorsal and abdomi- 
nal surfaces, obsoletcly granulated on the sides. On each side of the back is a strong cuti- 
cular fold, extending from the posterior part of the orbit, touching the upper margin of the 
tympanum, and reaching to the posterior part of the body. 

Color. Brilliant green above, which also extends with a somewhat darker shade over the 
posterior parts of the body, and the outer parts of the extremities. Belly pearly white. 
Throat yellow, somewhat passing into orange. Tympanum chesnut or chocolate-brown, the 
central elevation green. Thighs obscurely barred with black, or in their place interrupted 
series of dusky spots. Buttocks and posterior part of the thighs mottled with black. Irides 
golden, with a bright yellow ring. 

Length 3-0 -4-0. 

The Spring Frog is one of our commonest species, and is that usually eaten as a delicacy. 
It lives in the vicinity of clear pools and running streams, and leaps into them when disturbed. 
It feeds upon water insects, and such others as may approach its neighborhood. It is one of 
the earliest that appears in spring. In its geographical range it must be considered as a 
northern species, being found in all the northern and middle States. Dr. Holbrook informs 
me that it is not found south of Virginia. 

THE MARSH FROG. 

Rana palbstris. 
PLATE .XXII. FIG. 60. — (STATE COLLECTION.) 

Rana palnslrts. Le CoNTE, Ann. Lye. Vol.1, p. 282. 

R.pardahs. Harlan, Am. Jour. Vol.10, p. 50. 

R.palustris. Id. Ac. Sc. Vol. 5, p. 339; Med. and Phys. Res. p. 104 and 222. 

R. id. Holerook, N. Am. Herpetology, Vol. 1, p. 93, pi. 14; and Vol. 4, p. 95, pi. 23 of 2d Ed. 

Pickerel Frog. Stoker, Mass. Report, p. 238. 

Characteristics. Four rows of dark quadrate spots on the back and sides. Under sides of the 
thighs yellow. Length three inches. 



FAMILY RANID.E. 63 

Description. Head short ; snout, obtusely rounded. Nostrils equidistant between the eyes 
and snout. Eyes large and prominent. Tympanum small, rounded and polished. Buttocks 
granulated. Joints of the toes with fleshy tubercles. 

Color. This appears to vary considerably with age : In the young, the general color of the 
upper part of the body is frequently of a brilliant golden green ; the adult is usually pale 
brown. The spots along the back vary with age from rufous brown to deep black ; these arc 
more or less of a quadrate form, and larger than the row on the sides, which are often rounded. 
The spots of the dorsal series become occasionally confluent, producing a dark longitudinal 
band on each side. A dusky line, more or less obvious, proceeds from the eye to the snout ; 
other lines parallel with this on the sides of the head. A greenish or yellow longitudinal line 
proceeds from the orbit to the posterior part of the body on each side, separating the dorsal 
from the lateral series. Tympanum of the general color of the body. Beneath soiled white, 
or tinged with yellow, which increases in intensity towards the tail. Fore legs short, brownish, 
with dark subocellate spots. Posterior extremities yellow beneath, brown or rufous above, 
with twelve to thirteen black annular bands margined with lighter ; these bands arc more 
usually uniform dusky greenish or brown. Similar, but oblique bands or spots on the fore 
legs. Eyes black, with a golden lustrous ring. 

Length 2-0- 3-0. 

This is one of our most beautiful frogs, and is remarkably active. It has a strong and dis- 
agreeable odor; and from being used as bait, it is called, in various districts, Pickerel Frog, 
and also Tiger and Leopard Frog. It occurs along salt marshes, and in wet meadows near 
ponds and streams. I observed it in the most elevated regions in the northern part of the State. 

Its geographical range, along the coast, extends from Maine to Virginia. Westward, it has 
been noticec} in Ohio. 

THE SHAD FROG. 

RiNA HALECINA. 

PLATE XX. FIG. 49. — (CABINET OF THE LYCEUM.) 

Rana halecim. Kalm. Daudin, Hist. Rept. Vol. 8, p. 122. 

Shad Frog. Bartrah, Travels, p. 274. 

R. haleciruz. Harlan, Ac. Sciences, Vol. 5, p. 337; Med. and Phys. Res. p. 102, and p. 224. 

R. id. HOLEKOOK, Herpetilogy, Vol. 1, p. 89, pi. 13 ; and Vol. i, p. 91, pi. 13, 2d Ed. Stoeee, M.iss. Rep. p. 237. 

Characteristics. Green, with dark brown ovate spots bordered with yellow; beneath yellowish 
white. Length three to four inches. 

Description. Head small, obtusely rounded in front. Eyes prominent. Upper part of the 
body roughened by several cuticular folds ; posterior part of the thighs granulated. Tym- 
panum large, plane, circular. Toes palmated. Fingers distinct ; the thumb of the male with 
a distinct tubercle. Posterior extremities scarcely twice the length of the head and body ; 
the fourth toe exceedingly long. 



64 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

Color. Brassy or bronze green above. Orbits above, with an oval black spot. On the 
dorsal surface, two series of large irregular roundish dark olive spots, margined with yellow ; 
these spots arc occasionally confluent. A bronzed or yellow stripe on each side, proceeds 
from the eye to the posterior extremity ; another yellow stripe extends from the eye to the 
angle of the mouth. The thighs and legs with dark olive oblong transverse patches, resem- 
bling bands. A few oblique dark oblong bars on the fore legs. Tympanum bronzed ; yel- 
lowish in the centre. Beneath silvery, becoming tinged with yellow on the abdomen. Eyes 
black, with a golden ring. 

Length, S'O- 4-0. 

This beautiful species is extensively distributed over the whole Union. It abounds in moist 
places, and feeds chiefly on insects. From its simultaneous appearance in the spring with our 
common Shad (A. sapidissima), it is frequently called Shad Frog. In Massachusetts, they 
are better known under the name of Leopard Frogs. The Swedish colonists named them 
Sill-hoppetosser, ox Herring-hoppers, from their appearance at the commencement of the 
herring season ; and this, we presume, .suggested the latin trivial name. 

THE WOOD FROG. 

Rana sylvjtica. 

PLATE XXI. FIG. 54. Abult. — PLATE XX. FIG. 50. Young. — (STATE COLLECTION.) 

Rana aylvatka. Le Conte, Ann. Lyceum, N. Y. Vol. 1, p. 282. 

R. pensylvanica. Harlan, Am. Jour. Vol. 10, p. CO. 

R. syhatica. Id. Med. and Phys. Res, p. 221 . 

R. id. HoLBROOK, N. Am. Herp. Vol. 1, p. 95, pi. 15; and Vol.4, p. 99, pi. 24, 2d Ed. Stoker, Mass. Rep. p. 239. 

Wood Frog, R. Syhatica. Kirtland, Zoology of Ohio, p. 190. 

Characteristics. Reddish brown ; a dark dilated stripe from the snout through the eye, and 
including the tympanum. Young, olive brown or green. Length two and 
a half inches. 

Description. Body slender. Head small ; nose obtusely rounded. Eyes large and promi- 
nent; tympanum small, circular. Thighs granulated behind. Posterior extremities twice 
the length of the head and body, palmated. 

Color. Reddish brown above, resembling in color a withered leaf; this color is bounded on 
each side by a yellow and often interrupted narrow line from the orbits to the posterior extre- 
mity of the body. Flanks mottled with greenish and yellow. A dark brown band proceeds 
from the snout, and dilating backwards, includes half the eye and all the tympanum ; this 
band is bordered below with a light yellowish line. Fore legs reddish brown, with obscure 
darker blotches. Hind legs of a similar color above, with two or more distinct transverse 
dark bands ; beneath soiled white. Under side of the extremities light brown. 



FAMILY RANIDjE. 65 

Young. Olive brown, verging on green above ; tbe lateral stripe yellow, margined with 
interrupted black lines ; the ocular stripe black, bordered beneath with white. Thighs, legs 
and tarsus barred with black ; palms reddish. Beneath pure white. 

Length 2-5. 

This small species can at once be recognized in the woods by its amazing and quickly 
repeated leaps, which render its capture difficult. 

It occurs from Massachusetts to Virginia, and is smaller than the Marsh Frog. It is said 
by some authors to be confined to the Atlantic States in its range ; but we learn from Dr. 
Kirtland, that they are so abundant in the woods in Ohio, that it is almost impossible to move 
without stepping on them. It is allied to the R. temporaria of Europe, but is smaller, with 
the head less pointed and tympanum smaller. 

[EXTRA-LIMITAL.) 

R. clamitans. (Holbrook, Vol. 3, pi. 17 ; and Vol. 4, pi, 20, 2d Ed.) Slender. Reddish brown 
above, darker behind, silvery white beneath ; upper jaw green. Lateral cuticular folds. ' Length 
three inches. Carolina, Georgia. 

Genus Cystignathus, Wagler. A sub-gular vocal vesicle, communicating with the mouth on each 

side of the tongue. Fingers and toes all distinct. Tympanum very small. 
C. ornatus. (Holbrook, Vol. 1, pi. 16; and Vol. 4, pi. 25, 2d Ed.) Small. Dove-colored above, 

with oblong spots of dark browai, margined with yellow. Toes not palmate ; the two outer united 

at the base. South Carolina. 
C. nigritus. (Id. Vol. 3, pi. 19; and Vol. 4, pi. 26, 2d Ed.) Small. Olive brown; an interrupted 

black vertebral line, with blackish blotches along the sides ; legs barred ; upper lip white. Length 

11 inches. Carolina, Georgia. 

Genus Engystoma. Fitzingcr. Body oval, and covered with a smooth skin. Head small, pointed; 
mouth minute. Tongue long, only movable behind. Jaws and palate without teeth No 
parotids ; tympanum concealed. Fore legs with four, hind legs with five toes not palmated. 
Obs. The animals of this genus bear a general resemblance to the Frog. Only one species has 
been as yet observed in the United States. Dr. Holbrook thinks it possible that a species may be 
found in this State, for he has heard its peculiar noise in the neighorhood of New- York , and Major 
Le Conte informs me that he has seen a species of Engystoma, said to have been found in a sandy 
district of this State. 
E carolinense. Holbrook, Vol. 1, pi. 1 1.) Chesnut above, and thickly mottled with blackish specks 
beneath. South Carolina. 



Fauna — Part 3. 



66 NEW- YORK FAUNA. 

GENUS SCAPHIOPUS. Holbrook. 

Body short, thick swollen. Head short. Minute teeth in the upper jaw and on the palate. 
A srnall parotid gland behind the ear, fro7n which a watery fluid can he pressed. Poste- 
rior extremities short, stout and muscular. Legs shorter than the thigh. A spade-like 
horny process ocmpies the position of a sixth toe, and is used by the animal in excavating. 

HERMIT SPADE-FOOT. 

SCAPHIOPUS SOLITARIUS. 

PLATE XIX. FIG. 47. — (STATE COLLECTION.) 

Scaphmpus soUtarius. Holbrook, N. Am. Herpetology, Vol. 1, p. 83, pi. 12. 
Rmia holbrookii. Hari.an, Med. and Phys. Researches, p. 105. 

Characteristics. Ash grey, with two yellow curved lines from the eyes, dilated, and subse- 
quently united at the vent. Length two inches. 

Description. Head short, obtuse. Nostrils subterminal. Eyes very large, and placed in 
very prominent orbits. Tympanum small, and behind it a small parotid gland, whicli upon 
pressure exudes an acrid fluid. Fore feet long, four-toed ; posterior with five toes, and a long 
black horny process on the metatarsus. 

Color. Back ashen grey, passing into dark brown, with dark brownish and reddish tubercles 
on the flanks. Irides golden ; and in a modiiied light, the iris is seen divided into four parts 
by a vertical and horizontal line, giving a lozenge shape to the black pupil. Tympanum dull 
yellow. From the eye on each side there runs a yellowish line, punctate with black, 
approaching each other, then diverging in a curved direction, and finally uniting on the rump ; 
the position of these two lines resembles the outline of the antique lyre. A bar of a similar 
color, but interrupted on the flanks. Coccyx with a broad longitudinal yellow stripe. Upper 
surfaces of the extremities brown, with yellowish blotches. Body beneath greyish white. 

Length, 2-0. Breadth of the head, O'T. 

This singular animal, whose structure is so remarkable as to have required a separate 
genus, was first detected by our eminent Herpetologist, Dr. Holbrook. With the teeth of a 
Frog, and parotid glands of a Toad, its natural place is between these two genera. It was 
first detected in South-Carolina, and subsequently found in Tennessee, and its geographical 
range was considered to be quite restricted. We have now the pleasure to include it in the 
Fauna of New-York. Specimens of this animal were found by Mr. Hill, in a garden near 
Clarkstown, Rockland county. It lives in small holes, in damp earth, a few inches below the 
surface, which it excavates with great ease by means of its spade-like processes. In these 
holes it lies in wait for such insects as may approach, and I suspect can spring forth to seize 
whatever may be passing incautiously near its hiding place. I remarked, at least in those 
which I had alive, that it leaped with great apparent ease to a considerable distance. To 



FAMILY RANID^. 67 

judge from those in my possession, although completely identical with the soUtarms, I should 
be disposed to believe that our northern variety is less brilliant in its markings, and its general 
color is of a more grave and sombre hue. Dr. Pickering, I learn, has recently seen it in the 
neighborhood of Salem, where they appear in great numbers, at distant periods, after rains 
of long continuance. 

GENUS BUFO. Laurenti. 

Body thick swollen, covered loith warts or papilla:. Jaivs loithout teeth. Behind the ear 
a large glandular tumor, having visible pores. Head short. Posterior extremities but 
slightly elongated. 

THE COMMON AMERICAN TOAD. 

BUFO AiMERICANUS, 

PLATE XIX. FIG. 46. YoDNG. — PLATE XX. FIG. 62. Adult. 

Bufo amencanus. Le Conte, Cat. in McMurtrie's Trans, of Cuvier's R^gne Animal. 

B. musicus. Harlan, Ac. Nat. Sc. Vol. 5, p. 3'14 (excl. syn.) ; Med. and Phys. Res. p. 109. 

B. americanus. HoLBEOoK, N. Am. Herpetology, Vol. 1. p. 75, pi. 9 ; and Vol. 5, pi. 4, 2d Ed. 

The Common Toad. Storee, Massachusetts Report, p. 244. Kietland, Zoology of Ohio, p. 168. 

Characteristics. Body moderately verrucose. Post-tympanal gland long and narrow. Pos- 
terior toes semipalmate. Greyish mottled with dusky, and dark bars across 
the feet. Length three inches. 

Description. Body corpulent, covered with numerous reddish warts irregularly distributed ; 
granular beneath. Head short, but wide ; channelled above by the prominence of the su- 
perciliary ridges. Eyes large and prominent ; the eyelids tuberculated. Nostrils small, 
rounded, and nearer to the nose than the eyes. Parotids prominent, tuberculated, reniform. 
Fore feet with four short free toes. Hind feet with its five toes connected at their bases. 
Inner toe shortest ; thence gradually increasing in length to the penultimate, or second from 
the outer toe : a large tubercle beneath. 

Color. This is subject to many variations, dependent upon age, season, scanty or abundant 
supply of food, and even varies at the will of the animal. It may be described generally as 
grey brovm or ash, with irregular but well defined dark blotches, and a pale ash dorsal stripe 
extending from between the eyes to the posterior part of the body. Eyes black ; irides varied 
with yellow and black. On the extremities are dark brown bars, extending over the toes. 
Beneath soiled white. Young, at first dull reddish brown, but by the end of the season 
become mottled and barred as in the figure. There is a variety occasionally found of a bright 
red or brick-dust color, but which in other respects resembles this species. 

Length 2-3 inches. 



68 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

The habits of this animal are somewhat nocturnal ; coming out of its hole in the dusk of 
the evening, and hopping about in search of food. I have also noticed it during the day time, 
crouched in a shallow cavity, with its body so much depressed as to appear nearly orbicular, 
and apparently on the look-out for its prey. Although according to our notions of beauty he 
is considered to be a disgusting looking animal, yet we are not to overlook his value in di- 
minishing the number of noxious insects ; and I have been assured that his flesh is as delicate 
an article of food, as the frog itself. It is a timid, inoifensive, and entirely harmless animal, 
and has even been domesticated. The popular belief in its poisonous properties, is unfounded. 
There is, it is true, an acrid secretion from the follicles of the skin, which may serve as a 
protection agahist some of its enemies. Dr. Davy supposes that it may be excrementitious, 
carrying off a portion of carbon from the blood, and thus be auxihary to the functions of the 
lungs. They live upon insects, earthworms, etc., which they always seize when in motion, 
refusing to touch any dead food. In their turn, they are preyed upon by the larger reptiles, 
especially by the two striped snakes and the other species. Like the frog, its young are 
developed in water, and pass through the tadpole state ; and it is also furnished with a sac for 
holding the water obtained through the cutaneous absorbents. It sheds its skin at certain 
intervals, and according to the observations of Mr. Bell, swallows it as soon as it is detached. 

Dr. Holbrook informs me that he has seen this species as far north as the River Saco, New- 
Hampshire, and probably it will be found still farther. Its southern and western limits appear 
to be defined by the hilly regions, as contradistinguished from the alluvial lands bordering on 
the Atlantic. Kirtland notices it in Ohio. 

{EXTRA-LIMITAL) 

B. lentiginosus. (Holbrook, Vol. 1, pi. 9; and Vol. 4, pi. 1, 2d Ed.) Upper jaw emarginate; lower 

with a process in front. Head large ; supercihary ridge much elevated. Rufous brov\m. Length 

three inches. Southern. States. 
B. erythronotus. (Id. Vol. 3, pi. 21 ; and Vol. 5, pi. 2, 2d Ed.) Brickdust color above; yellowish 

white beneath. Head short, rather pointed. Length one and a half inches. South Carolina. 
B. guercicus. (Id. Vol. 5, pi. 3, 2d Ed.) Very small. Head short, pointed; superciliary orbits 

slightly elevated. Body very flat, rounded at the flanks. A yellowish vertebral line. Length 0*75. 

Carolinas. 
B. cognatus. (Id. Vol.5, pL 5.) Channelled posteriorly between the orbits, but efTaced in front. A 

vertebral line, and oblique lateral yellowish lines. Foot with a spade-Uke process. Length three 

inches. Upper Missouri. 



FAMILY RAJVID^. 69 

GENUS HYLODES. Fitzinger. 

Teeth in the upper maxillary, and palatines. A tympanum. Extremities slender. Tips of 
the fingers and toes terminating in slightly developed tubercles. Mouth with a large sub- 
cordiform tongue. No bony sternum. 

Obs. This genus comprises several small species, and is intermediate between Rana and 
Hyla, partaking of the habits of both. 

PICKERING'S HYLODES. 

Hylodes pickeringi, 

PLATE XX. FIG. 51. 

Hylodes pickenngi. HoLBROoK, N. Am. Herpetology, Vol.4, p. 135, pi. 34. 

H. id. Essex Nat. Hist. Society, Vol. 1. 

Pickering's Hylodes. Stoker, Keport on the Reptiles of Massachusetts, p. 240. 

Characteristics. Reddish brown or blackish brown ; two angular dusky lines above ; hind legs 
barred with dusky. Length one inch. 

Description. Body somewhat ventricose, with its surface slightly granulate. Head trian- 
gular, obtusely pointed. Granulated beneath on the belly and thighs. Fore legs half the 
length of the head and body. Thigh and tibia slightly exceeding the tarsus and toes, and 
equalling in length the head and body. Tongue fleshy, retractile. A row of exceedingly 
minute teeth in the upper jaw, and similar ones in two rounded patches in the middle of the 
palate. 

Color. This varies apparently at the will of the animal. One which I kept for several 
days, presented constantly the following appearances : Color of the head, body and legs above 
a hght reddish brown, tinged with yellowish on the side ; upper lip yellowish white ; a dark tri- 
angular spot on tiie back part of the head. Irides golden ; pupil black. On the anterior part 
of the back, two angular dusky lines en chevron, touching at their apices, and forming the 
figure of a cross ; posterior to this, another angular mark across the back ; a dusky blotch 
on the posterior part of the body ; a dark lateral stripe on the side. Thighs and legs with 
broad dusky bands ; a dusky longitudinal line on the fore and hind legs, separating the two 
colors above and beneath. Beneath dull whitish, with numerous black dots sprinkled on the 
yellowish throat. At other times the general color is a uniform dark brown, with the mark- 
ings on the upper part of the body as described above, deep black. 

Length of head and body, 1 • 0. 

To the ends of the toes, 3'0. 

This species is common in the neighborhood of New- York, and is frequently found on Indian 
corn, grape vines, and also in green houses, under the leaves of plants during the heats of 



70 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

summer : feeds on small flies. Its present known geographical range is from Massachusetts 
to Pennsylvania. 

THE CRICKET HYLODES. 

Hylodes gryllcs. 

PLATE XXII. FIG. 61. — (CABINET OF THE LYCEUM.) 

Harui gryllus. Le Conte, Ann. Lye. Nat. History, Vol. I, p- 282. 

R. id. Harlan, Acad. Nat. Sc. Vol. 5, p. 340. 

R. dorsalis. Id. Med. and Phys. Res. p. 105. 

Acrys gryllus. DoM. et BiBEON, Hist. Niit. Kept, Vol. 8, p. 507. 

Hyla grylliK. HoLBRoOK, N. Am. Herpetology, Vol. 3, p. 75, pi. 13. 

Hylodes grylliis. Id. lb. Vol. 4, p. 131, pi. 33, 2d Ed. 

Characteristics. Cinereous, with a green or red vertebral line, and two or three black blotches 
bordered with white. Head green above. Length one and a half inches. 

Description. Body slender. Head somewhat elongated. Eyes large and prominent, the 
supra-orbital ridge being much elevated. Nostrils lateral, midway between the orbits and 
snout. Fore feet small, with slender fingers, which are slightly enlarged at their tips. Hind 
legs nearly twice the length of the body, with five long slender palmated toes. 

Color. Head greenish above, with a black triangular spot between the orbits. Irides 
golden above, blackish beneath ; pupil black. Body dusky above, with a greenish or reddish 
line extending backward to the vent ; this becomes bifurcated in front, a branch being directed 
to each orbit. The blotches on the sides are dusky or blackish, obsoletely bordered with white. 
Thighs yellowish behind, with a few semi-bars of brown. Beneath silvery white. 

Length 1 • - 1-2. 

This species is known under the names of Peeper and Cricket Frog, in New-York. At 
the South, it is called Savannah Cricket. It is very lively and noisy, frequenting moist 
wooded places and the borders of ponds, and is often seen on aquatic plants. It was first dis- 
tinctly indicated by Major Le Conte, who regarded it as a true Frog. I have followed Dr. 
Holbrook, in arranging it under Hylodes. It is never found on trees, and cannot adhere to 
the under side of smooth surfaces. 

{EXTRA-LIMITAL) 

H. ocularis. (Holbrook, Vol. 3, pi. 14 ; and Vol. 4, pi 35, 2d Ed.) Very small. Reddish brown; 
a black band from near the end of the snout, runs through the eyes and along the flanks. Length 
three quarters of an inch. South Carolina. Georgia. 



FAMILY RANIDiE. 7X 

GENUS HYLA. Laurenti. 

Body somewhat tapering. Teeth in the upper jaw and palate. A tympanum. No varotids. 
Fingers long, and with the toes terminating in rou7ided viscous pellets. Males with a 
vocal vesicle. 

Obs. The skin above, in most of the American species, is smooth. 

THE NORTHERN TREE-TOAD. 

Hyla versicolor. 
PLATE XXI. FIG. 53, a. — (STATE COLLECTION.) 

HyUt versicolor. Le Conte, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. Vol. 1, p. 281. 

■ff- '<'■ Harlan, Acad. N,it. Sc. Vol. 5, p. 343. Id. Med. and Phys. Res. p. 108. 

7/. id. HOLBROOK, N. Am. Herp. Vol. 1, pi. 17 ; and Vol. 4, p. 115, pi. 28, 2d Ed. Storer, Maas. Rep. p. 211. 

Cliaracteristics. Broad. Leg shorter than the thigh. Grey. Small warts above ; granulate 
beneath. Posterior parts of the thighs bright yellow. Length two inches. 

Description. Body robust and broad, covered with numerous small warts. Head broad, 
and terminating in a blunt snout. Fore feet with four toes terminating in rounded pellets ; 
the internal toe shortest. Hind feet with five toes terminating in the same manner, but semi- 
palmate. Under side of the body and thighs granulate. Eyes large and prominent. 

Color. This varies, as is well known, at the will of the animal, from grey to green. The 
more usual color is ash above, with a dusky acute-angled cross made up of irregular blotches, 
which also extend over the sides of the body and across the extremities. Eyes with black 
pupils and golden irides. Beneath whitish ; the chin speckled with cinereous. Legs beneath 
yellowish ; posterior part of the thighs yellow, barred with black. 

Length 2-0. 

This is universally distributed through the State, and is a northern species. The surface 
is covered with a viscid acrid secretion, which, as in the case of the common toad, has led to 
the popular belief in its being poisonous. It lives almost exclusively on trees ; and during 
damp weather, it is particularly clamorous. It feeds on insects. I have been assured by 
many credible persons that it possesses ventriloquial powers in no inconsiderable degree, and 
often deceives the most attentive observers. This, together with its faculty of ;>isimilating 
its color with that of the tree on which it rests, renders its capture very difficult. Extends 
from Maine to Virginia, and is also found in Tennessee and Ohio. 



72 NEW- YORK FAUNA. 

THE SaUIRREL TREE-TOAD. 

Hyla squirella. 

PLATE XXI. FIG. 53. — (CABINET OF THE LYCEUM.) 

Hyla sqmrella. Bosc, Nouv. Diet. Sc. Naturelles, Vol. 29, p. 543. 

Rainette squirelle. Daddin, Hist. Nat. Rept. Vol. 8, p. 34, pi. 93, fig. 2. 

H. sqMirdla. Le Conte, Ann. Lye. Vol. 1, p. 279. Harlan, Med. and Phys. Res. p. 109. 

H. id. HoLBBOOK, N. Am. Herpetology, Vol. 1, p. 105, pi. 18. 

Characteristics. Brown or ash. A dusky band from the nostrite to the eyes. The white of 
the upper hp reaches almost to the insertion of tlie fore legs. Length one 
inch and a quarter. 

Description. Body symmetrical, somewhat elongated. Skin smooth, or at the most with 
slightly elevated papilla;. Head conic. Snout acute ; its sides vertical, and giving it a pyra- 
midal form. Orbits somewhat elevated. Anterior feet short, four-toed. Hind legs long, 
iive-toed, semi-palmate ; all with rounded pellets at their extremities. 

Color. Brownisli or light ash above, changing to light green ; blotched, and lined with dusky 
stripes on the surface of the body in a very irregular manner. On the anterior part, more 
usually abbreviated longitudinal lines, and unequal sized blotches on its posterior portions. A 
dusky stripe extends from the nostrils to the eyes ; occasionally a large triangular dusky blotch 
between and behind the eyes. Thighs and legs barred with dusky. Beneath whitish. 

I have met with this species in the neighborhood of New- York, and supposed it at first to 
be distinct from the southern squirella. From a careful comparison of our specimens with 
those in the Cabinet of the Lyceum deposited by Major Le Conte, the only observable dis- 
tinction was in the smaller size of the northern animal. After a rigorous comparison. Major 
Le Conte decided it to be identical with the southern species. I am under obligations to him 
for the drawing which illustrates this pretty little tree-toad. 

According to Major Le Conte, it inhabits under logs and bark of decaying trees. 

While these pages are passing through the press. Dr. Holbrook is engaged in publishing a 
second edition of his Herpetology. He is still of the opinion that the squirella is exclusively 
a southern species. 

(EXTRA-LIMITAL.) 

H. femorahi (Holbrook, Vol.4, pi. 31.) Dark ash, with a few dusky blotches between the eyes ; 

a black hao from the eyes to the hind leg's, and another to those in front. Length li inches. 

Carolina and Georgia. 
H. delitescens. (Il Vol. 4, pi. 32.) Ash, irregularly speckled with darker: lips whitish, speckled 

with brown; vem varied with cinerepus. Length If inches. Georgia and South-Carolina. 
H- viridis. (Id. Vol. b, pi. 20; and Vol. 4, pi. 29 of 2d Ed.) Bright green, with a yellow line on 

each side from the snout to the posterior extremities. Length IJ inches. From Lat. 30" N. to 

Mississippi. 



FAMILY SALAMANDRID^. 73 



FAMILY SALAMANDRJDJE. 



Body long and slender. Feet always four. Tail long, rounded or compressed, persistent. 
Ribs very short. VertehrcB numerous and movahle. Respiration, at first aquatic by exter- 
nal gills, tvhich are never concealed in the chest ; afterwards atmospheric by lungs. 
Tympanum concealed. 

Obs. This family corresponds with the order Urodela of Bell. It is a vei)- natural family, 
and is in this country prolific in species. We separate it into two genera. 

GENUS SALAMANDRA. Brongniart, Holbrook. 

Jaws with numerous S7?iall teeth, and tiuo roivs of similar teeth in the palate. Tongue short 
thick, enlarged above, free, attached by a very slender root in the centre. Without a third 
eyelid. Ribs rudimentary ; no sternum. Pelvis suspended by ligaments. Tail either 
cylindrical or compressed towards the tip. 

These are ihe Land Salamanders, although found occasionally in water. 
THE YELLOW-BELLIED SALAMANDER. 

SjL.tMAVDRA SYMMETRICA. 

PLATE XV FIG. 33. 

Sahjnandra sttllio. Am. Jour. .Sc. Vo!. ], p. 2G4. 

S. symmetrica. II.iRLAN, Ac. Sc. Vol. 5, p. 158. Med. and Phys. Res. p. 98. 

S. id. ItoLBROOK, N. Am. Herp. Vol. 2, p. 59, pi. U. Storee, Mass. Rep. p, 246. 

Characteristics. Reddish brown above, with a series of crimson spots on the sides ; beneath 
reddish orange. Tail longer than the body, small compressed. Length 
three inches. 

Description. Body cylindrical, and covered with a rough cuticle. Head short, obtusely 
pointed. Fore feet slender, with four toes ; liind legs more robust, with five toes. Tail slen- 
der, sub-cylindrical at base, then compressed, and terminating in a point. 

Color. Upper part of the head, body and tail, reddish brovnr ; this color extends over the 
upper part of the extremities, and surrounds the lower part of the tail. On each side of the 
body a series of brilliant vermillion spots, each bordered with black ; these spots vary in 
number from three to five, and even seven have been observed on each side. Throat and 
abdomen orange, with minute black dots extending to the end of the tail. 

Total length, 2 ' 9. 

Length of the head and body, 2-0. 

Tail measured from the vent, 0-9. 

Fauna — Part 3. 10 



74 NEW- YORK FAUNA. 

The Yellow-bellied Salamander is extensively distributed throughout the Union, from Maine 
to Florida, and in Ohio westwardly. It is closely allied by its markings with the following 
species, from which it was first accurately distinguished by Dr. Harlan. It is frequently 
found under stones and decayed wood. 



THE VIOLET-COLORED SALAMANDER. 

Salamandra subviolacea. 

PLATE XVI, FIG. 36. — (CABINET OF THE LYCEUM.) 

Salamandra venenosa. Barton, apud Daod. Hist. Rept. Vol. 8, p. 229. 

S. subviolacea. Id. Trans. Am. Phil. Society, Vol. 6, p. 112, pi. 4, fig. 6. 

S. id, Harlan, Acad. Nat. Sc. Vol. 5, p, 327; Med. and Phys. Res. p. 93. 

iS. id. HoLBROOK, N. Am. Herpetology, Vol. 3, p. lO.'i, pi. 24. Storer, Mass. Rep. p. 247. 

Characteristics. Bluish black, with round yellow spots ; beneath immaculate. Tail cylin- 
drical, compressed towards the tip. Length 6-7 inches. 

Description. Body robust, tapering regularly to the end of the tail. Head large ; snout 
rounded. Eyes small, but prominent. A strong cervical fold. Fore feet slender, four-toed ; 
hind feet more robust, five-toed. Tail confounded with the body, cylindrical at base, then 
becomes compressed, and tapers to a point. 

Color. Bluish-black or purplish, with large round subequal bright-yellow spots irregularly 
distributed over the upper part of the head, body and tail, and occasionally on the upper parts 
of the legs ; these spots sometimes assume somewhat the appearance of two regular series on 
each side of the vertebral line. A small round spot usually over each eye. Beneath lighter, 
sprinkled with numerous white points extending beneath the tail. 

Length 5-0 -7-0. 

This species extends along the Atlantic from Maine to Maryland, and has likewise been 
noticed in the western States. Of the two names proposed by the same author, we are at 
liberty to reject the name which conveys a false idea, and to adopt that which the author 
applied to his more complete and detailed description. It appears to be nocturnal, and is 
found under rocks, stones and decaying trees ; and in spite of one of its names, is entirely 
harmless. 



FAMILY SALAMANDRIDiE. 75 

THE RED-BACKED SALAMANDER. 

Salamandra ertthronota. 
plate xvi. fig. 38. — (state collection.) 

Sttlammdra erythronota et cinerea. Green, Joum. Acad. Nat. Sc. Vol. 1, p. 356. 

iS. erylhrmota. Haelan, Med. and Phys. Researches, p. 95. 

tS. ci-nerea? Id. lb. 

S. erythronota. HoLBRooK, N. Am. Herpetology, Vol. 3, p. 113, pi. 27. 

The Red-backed Salamander. Storeb, Mass. Report, p. 245. 

Characteristics. Small. A distinct vertebral stripe, varying with age from scarlet to reddish 
brown. Length 2-3 inches. 

Description. Body slender, cylindrical. Tail cylindrical, tapering towards the extremity, 
where it becomes compressed, more particularly in the younger individuals, and pointed. 
Snout obtusely rounded, Eyes small, moderately prominent. Nostrils lateral, near the snout. 
Cervical fold indistinct. Legs feeble ; the fourth toe on the fore foot rudimentary. 

Color. Head above brownish ; chin and throat whitish, (according to Green, with a few 
dots of crimson.) Sides dull white, thickly punctate with brown, and lustrous. Eyes black. 
A broad vertebral stripe extending from the snout (occasionally from the occiput) towards the 
end of the tail ; this stripe is of a deep or lighter red color, varying with age. In very yoimg 
individuals 0-8 long, this stripe is of a brilliant scarlet or crimson. 

Total length, 3-0 - 3-5. 

Prof. Green, after a careful revision and comparison of his cinerea and erythronota, came 
to the conclusion that the former was an aged individual of the latter, in which the dorsal 
stripe had become obsolete. 

The Red-backed Salamander is a very numerous and widely distributed species. It is 
among the first which appears in the spring, and I have seen it as early as the middle of April. 
It runs with great rapidity among the leaves, in moist wooded districts, and conceals itself 
under stones and decayed trees. It has been noticed by Dr. Blanding at Camden, South 
Carolina, and by Mr. Say at Louisville, Kentucky. The most northerly limit of this species 
observed by me, was on the islands of the Saranac lake. 

THE PAINTED SALAMANDER. 

Salamandra picta. 

Salmandra picta. Harlan, Joum. Acad. Nat. Sc. Vol. 5, p. 136. 

S.mtermixta. Green, Macl. Lyceum, Vol.1, (fide Harlan.) 

S. picta. Harlan, Med. and Phys. Researches, p. 98 and 177. Storer, Mass. Rep. p. 251. 

Cliaracteristics. Dark slate or blackish ; yellowish or orange beneath. Tail abruptly com- 
pressed towards the tip, slightly shorter than the body. Lengtli four 
inches. 



76 NEW YORK FAUNA. 

Description. Head large, rather flat ; occiput broad, slightly protuberant ; snout obtuse, 
rounded posteriorly ; rictus of the mouth wide, extending to the eyes. A cervical fold. Legs 
short, strong, thick. Tail sub-quadrangular for the first two- thirds ; the remaining portion 
abruptly compressed, pointed, with the edges carinate. 

Color. Blackish, or dark slate above ; inferior portion of the body obsoletely punctured with 
dark spots, more evident on the sides. Legs externally of the color of the back. 

Length, 4 "5. 

Lihabits shallow streams. I am indebted to Dr. Harlan for the above description. It is 
introduced here, as it has been seen both in Massachusetts and Pennsylvania, and of course 
may be presumed to inhabit this State. 

THE SALMON-COLORED SALAMANDER. 

Sai.amandra SALMON'EA. 

PL.A.TE XVI. FIG. 39. — (STATE COLLECTION.) 

Salamandra sahnonea. HoLBOOOK, N. Am. Herpetology, Vol.3, p. 101, pi. 22. 
The Salmon-colored Salamander. Stoker, Mass. Report, p. 248. 

Characteristics. Reddish brown ; sides salmon-colored. A bright salmon-colored line from 
the eye to the snout. Length six to seven inches. 

Description, from a specimen preserved in spirits. Head flattened above, with the eyes 
prominent and far apart. Teeth exceedingly numerous, acute and recurved in both jaws. 
Tongue doubled back in the mouth, with a fold. Gular fold large, distinct. A vertebral 
fuiTow, extending from behind the eyes to a point opposite the vent. Tail compressed, distinctly 
carinate above, moderately so beneath. 

Color, from the description given by Dr. Storer, the original describer of this species. 
Whole upper part of the body, head, legs and tail, yellowish brown ; sides of a salmon-color. 
The entire surface of all the upper portion, as well as the sides, spotted with irregular greyish 
markings, which are more obvious on the lighter colored sides. Beneath, head and body 
white ; light salmon-color beneath the tail. From the edge of the upper lip, just exterior to 
the nostrils, arises a salmon-colored line, about a fourth of a line in width, which runs back 
to the inner angle of the eye, and passing up over the eye, loses itself upon the middle of the 
hack part. 

Total length, 5*7. Length of fore feet, 0"5. 

Length of head and body,. 3 •4. Ditto of the hind feet, 0-7. 

Ditto of the tail, 2-3. 

This beautifully colored Salamander was obligingly communicated to me by Prof. Emmons, 
to whom I am under many similar obligations. All its beautiful tints disappear in spirits, 
when it presents the following colors : Above mottled grey and brown, the former predomi- 



FAMILY SALAMANDRID.E. 77 

nating. On the flanks beneath, dull yellowish, punctate with brown. Sides of the tail similar 
to the dorsal surface. Chin whitish ; the lower lip dotted with brown ; a light colored stripe 
from the nostrils to each eye. 

I have been particular in noting these appearances, as it may serve as a guide to closet 
naturalists, and exhibits the futility of creating species from cabinet specimens. I had fallen 
into this error myself in relation to the species under consideration ; and previous to the publi- 
cation of Dr. Storer's description, had entered it in my hst of species as new, with an appro- 
priate name. I am indebted to my friend Dr. Holbrook for correcting my description. 

Dr. Emmons found it under a stone at Newcomb, Essex county, in tliis State. It has been 
seen in Massachusetts and Vermont. 



THE BLOTCHED SALAMANDER. 

Salamandra fasciata, 

PLATE XVII. FIG. 40. — (COLLECTION OF MAJOR LE CONTE.) 

Salamandra fasciata. Green, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sciences, VoL 1, p. 350. 

"S. id. Harlan, Medical and Phys. Researches, p. 94. 

S. id. Holbrook, N. Am. Herpet. Vol. 4, p. 103, pi. 23. Stoker, Mass. Rep. p. 247. 

Characteristics. Grey, with large bluish black blotches on the upper part of the body and 
tail ; beneath deep blue. Length five inches. 

Description. Body robust. Head moderately broad, short, thick and rounded. Mouth 
large. Eyes large and prominent. Nostrils lateral, and near the snout. Legs robust ; 
anterior four-toed, the posterior five-toed and longer ; all with separate toes. Tail shorter than 
the head and body, subcompressed, ending in rather an obtuse point. 

Color. Grey above, with irregular transverse bluish black patches on the head and body. 
A large triangular spot on the head. On the tail, the patches are so arranged as to cause the 
tail to appear annulate with grey and black. Summit of the head ash, punctate with dusky. 
Irides varied with greyish. Abdomen uniform blue-black. Toes annulate with blue and grey. 

Length, 5'2. 

Of tail, 2-3. 

I am indebted to Major Le Conte for the drawing of this remarkable species, which he had 
observed in the western part of this State. It has been observed from Massachusetts to 
Carolina. It has also been noticed in Ohio. 



78 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

THE LONG-TAILED SALAMANDER. 

Salamandra longicauda. 

PLATE XVII. FIG. 41. — (CABINET OF THE LYCEUM.) 

Saiamandra longicauda. Green, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sciences, Vol. 1, p. 351. 

S. longicaudata. Harlan, Med. and Phys. Researches, p. 96. 

S. longicatida. HoLBROOK, N. Am. Herpetology, Vol. 3, p. Ill, pi. 26. 

Characteristics. Yellow ; with numerous small black spots, becoming transverse bars on the 
tail. Tail more than twice the length of the body. Length 6 inches. 

Description. Body slender, cylindrical. Head short ; snout obtuse. Nostrils lateral, and 
near the end of the snout. Eyes small, but prominent. Palatine teeth in a diverging series. 
Tongue pediculated. Chin and neck smooth, with a slight gular fold. Tail compressed at 
the sides, slender, ending in a delicate point. Fore legs long and slender, with four slender 
subequal toes. 

Color. The general color throughout is yellow. Head, body, chin and throat lemon-color ; 
breast and abdomen yellowish white ; under side of the fore and hind legs straw-colored. 
Head and body above, and on the sides, sprinkled with numerous small irregular black spots, 
points and dashes ; these become confluent on the posterior part of the body and sides of the 
tail, forming vertical bars : all beneath immaculate. Pupil black ; iris golden. 

Length, .5-0 - 6*0. 

Of the tail, 3-2 - 3-5. 

The only specimen I have seen of this animal, is that in the Cabinet of the Lyceum, 
obtained near this city. Professor Green, its original describer, observed it near Albany. 
It is essentially aquatic, and is among the most beautiful of the genus. It usually affects 
deep caverns containing running water, and in this respect is associated in its habits with the 
Proteus of Carniola. It has been found at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and in Ohio ; but its 
southern limits have not been ascertained. 

THE GRANULATED SALAMANDER. 

Salamandra granulata. 
PL.\TE XXIII. FIG. 66. — (STATE COLLECTION.) 
Salamandra granulata. Holbrook, N. Am. Herpetology, Vol. 5. 

Characteristics. Greenish slate above, varied with grey and brown beneath. Tail slightly 
longer than the head and body. Length 6-7 niches. 

Description. Upper surface of the body and head as far as the eyes smooth, but under 
the lens, exhibiting an appearance like shagreen. Head above flattened, sub-truncate in front. 



FAMILY SALAMANDRID.E. 79 

Tongue pediculate. Eyes prominent, with the upper margins of the orbits very projecting. 
Gular fold very distinct. Fore feet 0-5 in length, four-toed, very feeble in comparison with 
the hind feet, which are 0-8 in length, and furnished with five toes. Tail lono- and slender, 
very slightly compressed, and ending in a slender acute point. 

Color. Above, a lustrous dark-greenish slate of a uniform hue. Chin and abdomen mottled 
with brown and grey. Lower surface of the tail uniform ashen grey. Gular fold soiled 
white. Soles of the fore and hind feet white. 

Length of the head to the fold, .. 0-7. Length of the tail from the vent,. 3-6. 
From the cervical fold to the vent, 2 • 5. Total length, 6-9. 

The colors of this species must be received with some reserve, as it was derived from a 
specimen in spirits, sent to me by Dr. Emmons from the northern district of this State. That 
gentleman, however, saw it alive, and the colors were little changed. In the same vessel 
were specimens with a total length of 3-3, which I suppose to be younger individuals of the 
same species. It had the same markings, and the same granulated appearance, although not 
quite so obvious. The greatest observed difference was in the length and shape of the tail, 
which was 1-5 in length, compressed, carinate above, and pointed. 

It need scarcely be added, that a more extended series of observations, and a more thorough 
knowledge of the changes effected by age, season and sex, are necessary before we shall be 
enabled to pronounce with certainty upon the specific identity of many of the animals of this 
genus. 

This species is allied to the subfusca of Green ; from which, iiowever, it may be distin- 
guished by the length of its tail, and the absence of spots on the upper part of the body. 
We beheve, however, that subfusca was dropped as a species by its author. Dr. Holbrook 
informs me that he has observed the granulata in Pennsylvania. 



THE STRIPED-BACK SALAMANDER. 

(SaLAM.4NDRA EILINEATA.) 

PLATE XXIII. FIG. 67. 

Salamandra bislimaia. Geeen, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sciences, Vol. 1, p. 352, 1818. 
S.flavissima. Hahlan, Am. Jour. 1825 ; Med. and Phys. Res. p. 98, 177. 
S. bilineata. Holbrook, N. Am. Herpetology, Vol. 5. 

Characteristics. Cinereous or brownish yellow ; back with two or three black hnes ; beneath 
yellow. Tail longer than the head and body. Length three inches. 

Description. Body slender, elongate. Head broader than the body, rather depressed ; 
snout oval. Eyes prominent. A cervical fold. Tail tapering, compressed, pointed, longer 
than the head and body. 



80 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

Color. Back cinereous (Green), brownish yellow (Harlan). Clear bright yellow or whitish 
beneath. A broad black line on each side, extending from behind the eyes to the end of the 
tail ; a narrow vertebral black line from the occiput to the base of the tail : this third line is 
occasionally absent or nearly effaced. Iris yellow. 

Length, 3-0. 

Although this species is said to be very common, both by Green and Harlan, I have never 
had the good fortune to meet with it, and have consequently been compelled to use their 
description. It is said to be very active ; found in shallow water, beneath stones in moist 
places, or on the borders of brooks in shady situations. Dr. Eights obtained several speci- 
mens from the Dripping Well near Albany, while engaged in digging up a soft bed of earth, 
marl and decomposed vegetable matter, which had accumulated beneath. He states that 
some of them were beyond the usual size, and in these the longitudinal lines could scarcely 
be detected. 

The geographic limits of this species, thus far ascertained, extend from New-York and 
Pennsylvania to Ohio. 

THE RED SALAMANDER. 

Sai.amandra rcbra. 

PLATE XVn. FIO 43. — (STATE COLLECTION.) 

Satammidra Tuhrn. Daudin, Hist. Rept. Vol. 8, p. 227, pi. 97, fig. 2. 

S. inacutata et ■mbriveniris. Green, Joiirn. Acatl. Nat. Sc. Vol. 1, p. 350 and 1353. 

iS. maculata et ruhriventris, var? Hablan, Med. and Ph>s. Researches, p. 96 and 97. 

>S. maculata. Brown Spotted Salamander. Storeu, Mass. Rep. p. 253. 

S. rubra. HoLBROOK, N. .\m. Herpetology, Vol. i. 

Characteristics. Red, (in cabinets dull salmon,) with numerous black dots. Tail nearly as 
long as the body, 4-6 inches. 

Desc?-iptioii. Body robust, cylindrical, smooth, slimy. Head moderate, flattened above ; 
snout rounded. Nostrils small, anterior. Tongue pediculate. Teeth diverging on the pala- 
tines. Fore legs moderately robust, with four small subequal toes ; hind legs very stout, 
with five toes, the interior shortest. Tail continuous with the body, rapidly diminishing 
towards the acute tip, and compressed on the sides ; a prominent ridge on the upper edge, 
which may be traced more or less distinctly to a point vertical to the vent. 

Color. In cabinet specimens, light brownish or dusky yellowish, sprinkled on the head, 
body and extremities, with reddish brown spots. In the living specimens, the general color 
above and beneath is red, more or less vivid, and the roundish spots are black ; these spots 
are usually larger and more crowded on the summit of the head and along the dorsal line, 
smaller and more scattered on the sides of the body and tail. Beneath almost immaculate, 
except under the throat and breast. 

Length, 3 ■ - 5 • 0. 

Tail, r3-2-2. 



FAMILY SALAMANDRID^, 81 

This is one of our commonest species, and is usually found under stones in shallow 
streams. If this be indeed the ,S'. rubra of Daudin, as Holbrook maintains, I must suppose 
the " bande longitudinale assez large, noiratre at comme brulee," on the under side of the 
body, to have been accidental, as I have never seen it in the many individuals which I have 
examined. 



THE SCARLET SALAMANDER. 

S. COCCINEA. 
PLATE XXI. FIG. 54. B. — (STATE COLLECTION.) 

Characteristics. Scarlet, with two or more ocellate spots on the sides. Length 2-6 inches. 

Description. Body cylindrical, smooth. Tail rounded, tapering, and, measured from the 
vent, equalling the head and body in length. 

Color. Bright scarlet, passing insensibly into bright orange red beneath. Three inequi- 
distant rounded vermilion spots, margined with black, on each side of the dorsal ridge. Eyes 
black, with a metallic golden margin under the superciliary ridge. A dark longitudinal abbre- 
viated stripe passes through the eye. 

Length of the head and body, 1-9. 

Ditto of the tail, ._ r 9. 

This'is a species which appears to dwell almost constantly on land. It was first seen by 
me near Lake Pleasant, Hamilton county, in a forest, just after a shower. Mr. L Cozzens 
states that he has observed this species on Anthony's Nose ; and Major Le Conte informs me 
that he has seen it from four to six inches long, under stones in Chenango county. Its brilliant 
coloring, however carefully kept, disappears, and fades into a uniform dark olive-brown ; the 
spots remaining unchanged, unless kept for a long time in alcohol. 



THE BLUE-SPOTTED SALAMANDER. 

Salamandra glutinosa. 

PLATE XVII. FIG.42.— (STATE COLLECTION.) 

Salamandra glutinosa. Geeen, Journ. Acad. Sciences, Vol. 1, p. 357. 

S.variolata. GiLLiAMS, Ac, Sc. Vol.1, p. 480, pi. 18, fig. 1. 

S. cylindracea. Harlan, Med. and Phys. Researches, p. 94. 

S. glutmosa. Storer, Mass. Report, p. 253. Kirtland, Zoology of Ohio, p. 16B. 

Characteristics. Small, smooth, polished. Bluish black, with small irregular bluish white 
spots. Length 4-6 inches. 
Fauna — Part 3. n 



82 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

Description. Snout blunt and rounded. Gular fold distinct. Nostrils small, nearer the 
snout than to the eyes. Eyes large, prominent and distant. Fore legs 0'38 long, slender, 
four-toed ; the two middle ones longest, subequal. Hind feet more robust, • 4 long, five- 
toed. Tail plump and rounded when alive, and continuous with the body, tapering to a blunt 
point. In spirits, the tail appears compressed, ancipital. 

Color. Above, polished, plumbaginous ; towards the end of the snout, marbled with ash. 
Neck and body sprinkled with numerous irregular minute transparent bluish spots, and a series 
of rather larger ones along the body ; in spirits, these become ash-colored. Upper edge of 
the tail with a similar series of large transparent bluish spots, extending sometimes to its 
extremity. Head and body beneath paler. Axilla of the anterior extremities whitish. Toes 
annulate with dusky and pale flesh-color. 

Length, 1-80. 

Of tail, 0-75. 

Of body from the vent, ' 80. 

The specimens from which the above description was drawn, were procured by Mr. I. Coz- 
zens from dry elevated gTounds near this city. It is to be observed that this species, which 
when alive had a rounded cylindrical and tapering tail, in spirits the same part became com- 
pressed and edged above and beneath. This should lead to great caution in receiving descrip- 
tions of species of this family, drawn up from cabinet specimens. 

The Blue-spotted Salamander appears to be allied in a measure to the nigra, as far as we 
judge by the brief description of Green. I am inclined to suspect -S. jeffersoni of the same 
author to be a variety of this species. It sometimes is found six inches long. It has been 
observed from Massachusetts to Pennsylvania, and also in Ohio. 



[EXTRA-LIMITAL) 

S. cirrigera. (Holbrook, N.Am. Harp. Vol.5, plate.) Yellow speckled with white; two short 
fleshy cirri above the upper lip ; a black line on each side, edged with white. Length three inches. 
Louisiana. An Var. S. bilineatm ? 

S. slnciput-albida. (Green, Ac. Sc. Vol. 1, p. 352.) Above dusky ferruginous ; beneath yellowish ; 
nose white. Tail short, thick, tapering, shorter than the body. Length three inches. New-Jersey. 

S.fusca. (Id. lb.) Yellowish brown ; beneath white, with a line on each side of black spots. Tail 
slightly compressed, as long as the body. Length three inches. New-Jersey. 

S. gwttolineata. (Holbrook, Herp. Vol. 2, pi. 12; and Vol. 5, 2d Ed.) Straw-colored, with a verte- 
bral line of black bifurcating behind the occiput ; a lateral black band, in which is a row of white 
spots, and beneath this a white line. Length six or seven inches. Carolina. 

S. auriculata. (Id. lb. Vol 3, pi. 28 ; and Vol. 5, 2d Ed.) Dusky brown ; greyish with minute spots 
beneath, and a series of small reddish brown spots on each side ; a reddish brown spot behind the 
place of the ear. Length five inches. Georgia. 



FAMILY SALAMANDRID^. 83 

S. talpoidea. (Id. lb. Vol.5.) Uniform dusky throughout ; body short and thick; head lar^e, with 
a contracted neck. Tail continuous, compressed towards the tip. Length three inches. Sea islands, 

s. a 

S. quadrimacidata. (Id. lb. Vol. 5, plate.) Head rather large; snout rounded. Body elongated, 
stout, dusky above, tinged with purple, and with two series of elongated subquadrate red spots. Tail 
of a similar color, with a red central line. Length three and a half inches. Pennsylvania to 
Georgia. 

S. haldemaiii. (Id. lb. Vol.5.) Head flattened above; snout rounded. Body and tail pale yellow 
above, slightly olive at the flanks, marked with dusky spots and blotches disposed in three irregular 
longitudinal series. Length four inches. Pennsylvania to Virginia. 

GENUS TRITON. Laurenli, Holbrook partim. 

Tongue fish-like, attached more or less at its borders, only free at its anterior extremity. 
Tail compressed. Length xmrious. 

Obs. This genus is composed strictly of aquatic species ; occasionally, however, they are 
found on land. 

THE TIGER TRITON. 

(Triton tigrinds.) 

PLATE XV. FIG. 33— (STATE COLLECTION.) 

Salammulra ttgnna. Green, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sc. Vol. 5, p. 116. 
'' *^ i<l- Haelan, Med. and Phys. Researches, p. 93. 

S. id. Holbrook, N. Am. Herpetology, Vol. 3, p. 109, pi. 25. 

Characteristics. Bluish black, with numerous irregular yellowish blotches over the head, 
body, tail and extreniities. Tail compressed from its origin. Length six 
inches. 

Description. Body robust, cylindrical, smooth. Head broad and rounded. Nostrils small, 
lateral. Eyes large and prominent. Mouth wide. Neck contracted with a fold. Fore feet 
short, with four toes. Tail longer than the body, and compressed to a very thin edge above 
and beneath. Beneath granulate. 

Color. Above bluish black ; in a modified light, lustrous. The spots on the upper surface 
pale ochre or lemon yellow, rounded or oblong ; their general direction is vertical to the axis 
of the body. Chin dusky yellow. Abdomen greyish, with dull yellow blotches. Pupil 
black ; irides brown and yellow. Tail unspotted beneath. 

Length, 6-0 -7-0. 

I am unacquainted with the habits of this species, except that it is occasionally found in 
decayed hollow trees. Those which I obtained, were from the vicinity of Oneida lake. It 
resembles, in some respects, the 5^. subviolacea ; but a slight attention to its characters will 
show it to be specifically distinct. 



84 NEW- YORK FAUNA. 

THE CRIMSON-SPOTTED TRITON 

Triton millepunctatus. 
plate xv. fig. 34. — (state collection.) 

Salamandra dorsalis. Harlan, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sc. Vol. C, p. 101 ; Med. and Phys. Res. p. 99. 
5. id. HoLBRooK, N. Am. Hcrpetology, Vol. 2, p. 57, pi. 10. 

jS. millepunctata. Many-spotlcd Salamavder. Storer, M.iss. Report, p. 249. 

Characteristics. Olive, with crimson spots ; the two colors above and beneath distinctly 
separated. Tail compressed, tapering. Length 3-4 inches. 

Description. Body cylindrical, granulated as in the preceding. Tail much compressed, its 
edges almost membranaceous, longer than the body. Fore feet long and slender, with four 
toes, one rudimentary. Hind feet more robust ; outer toes small. 

Color. Above, olive brown, varying in hue from light brown to deep olive green. On the 
flanks, sometimes on the sides of the throat, and occasionally for some distance along the 
sides of the tail, with a row of crimson circular spots bordered with black ; these spots vary 
in number from two to ten, at least this is the greatest number that has fallen under my notice. 
Beneath yellowish, punctured with black, and separated distinctly from the brown of the parts 
above ; the punctures extend over the belly, inside of the legs, and upper parts of the body 
and tail. In long preserved cabinet specimens, the line of separation between the colors 
above and beneath become effaced, and the crimson spots change to white. 

Length, 3-0 - 4-0. 

This species had originally the misfortune to be so badly named, and the description, which 
was taken from a changed cabinet specimen, gave such an imperfect and false idea of the 
animal, that we have adopted the name originally applied by Dr. Storer, both as more descrip- 
tive in itself, and as being the first true description of the species. We presume this to be a 
case where the law of priority can have no force, and where the original describer we imagine 
would cheerfully agree to the change. In some parts of the State it is called Evet, which 
name is also applied to several other species, and is evidently a corruption of eft. 

I have met with this animal in brooks, and in every part of the State. It is capable of 
withstanding a low temperature, for Holbrook saw them swimming about with great vivacity 
imder ice an inch thick. It feeds on insects, and, according to Dr. Storer, casts its skin in 
June. 



FAMILY SALAMANDRIDiE. 85 

THE DUSKY TRITON. 

Triton nicer. 

PLATE XV. FIG. 35. — (STATE COLLECTION.) 

Salamandra nigrr. Green, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sc. Vol. 1, p. 352. 

'S- "I- Harlan, Med. and Phys. Res. p. 97. Eights, Zodiac, Albany, 1835. 

Triton niger. HoLBROOK, N. Am. Herpetology, Vol. 5, plate. 

Characteristics. Back black ; sides with small white spots. Tail compressed, as long as the 
body. Lengtli 4-6 inches. 

Description. Body smooth, tapering. Head large, broadly rounded in front. Eyes approxi- 
mated, prominent. Two or three series of mucous pores between the eyes and nostrils. A 
moderate fold under the neck. Toes unusually long. Tail sub-cylindrical at its origin, 
becoming gradually compressed, and tapering to a point, with moderately acute edges. 
Tongue with numerous papillas. 

Color. Uniform dark brown or black ; somewhat whiter beneath, especially on the lower 
edge of the tail. Three or four obsolete whitish dots on the chin. 

Length, S'O - 6-0. Forelegs, 8-80. 

Head and body, 3-0. Hind legs, 1-10. 

Tail, 2- 8. Longest toe of the hind foot, . 0-45. 

Dr. Eights observed many of this species, " in wet springy places near running streams," 
in the neighborhood of Albany. Prof. Green assigns shallow waters as their usual habitat. 
The young are yellowish brown, especially along the back. This was noticed by Dr. Eights, 
who observed them " to vary from the original description, being as universally yellowish 
" brown as black." I am indebted to Prof. Emmons for specimens from Peru, Chnton county. 

THE GREY-SPOTTED TRITON. 

Triton porphtriticus. 

plate xvi. fig. 37. — (state collection.) 

Salamandra poTphyritica. Green, Maclurian Lyceum, Vol.1, p. 3, pi. 1. 
S id. Harlan, Med. and Phys. Researches, p. 98. 

Characteristics. Glossy black, slimy, with minute irregular greyish spots. Length seven 
inches. 

Description. Body smooth, robust, and tapering insensibly to the extremity of the tail ; 
covered with a viscid secretion. Head ovate, depressed. Rictus wide. Eyes very promi- 
nent, and black. Anterior feet four-toed, half the size of the hind feet, which are furnished 
with five. Tail cylindrical, scarcely compressed. 



86 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

Color. Shining black above, with numerous minute irregular grey or pale-ash spots distri- 
buted over the head, back and tail ; the spots on the flanks are larger, and inclined to brownish. 
Belly uniform plumbeous ; inferior and posterior portions of the tail rather lighter. 

Total length, 7 ■ 0. 

Of tail, 4-0. 

This large Triton, which in its form resembles the last described species, was captured by 
Mr. I. Cozzens in the neighborhood of New- York. I had referred it originally to the glutinosa 
of Green ; from which, however, it is obviously distinct by its shorter tail. The brief notice 
of porphyritica is very unsatisfactory ; but I prefer placing it provisionally under that name, 
rather than to introduce a new nominal species. The suprafusca of Green may have been 
derived from a cabinet specimen. 

The Grey-spotted Triton conceals itself under rocks and stones in moist places, and is 
exceedingly active in its movements. 

(EXTRALIMITAL) 

T. ingens. (Green. Ac. So. Vol. 6, p. 2.56. Holbrook, Herp. Vol. 5.) Ferruginous throughout, 
with dark bluish blotches. Tail compressed, and more than half the total length. Edge of the 
external toes of the hind legs fimbriated. Total length eleven inches. Nnc-Orlcans. 

T. jeffersoni. (Green, Mac. Lye.) Light brown, sprinkled with azure blue points. Tail sub- 
compressed, as long as the body. Length seven inches. Pennsylvania. 

FAMILY SIREN ID JE. 

Body elongate, formed for swimming. Feet either four, or two anterior only. Tail com- 
pressed, persistent. Respiration aquatic by gills througJiout life, coexistent with rudi- 
mentary lungs. Gills external, persistent. Eyes with palpebral. 

This group corresponds with the order Amphipneusta of Bell, and the sub-class Dijilopneu- 
mena of Hogg. It comprises the genera Siredon, Siren and Menobranchus ; of the latter 
genus, we have a representative in this State. 

GENUS MENOBRANCHUS. Harlan. 

Head large, flattened, truncate. Two rows of small conical teeth in the upper jaw ; one 
row beneath. Four feet, with four free toes on each. 

Although the type of this genus has received a variety of names, yet we are indebted to 
Dr. Harlan for the first clear and distinct account founded on its anatomical characters. It 
has been vaguely called Salamandra, Triton, Proteus and Necturus, without sufficiently 
eliminating or restricting its characters. The name proposed by Harlan must therefore be 
considered as firmly established. 



FAMILY SIRENID^. giy 

THE BANDED PROTEUS. 

Menobranciius lateralis. 
PLATE XVIII. FIG. 45. — (STATE COLLECTION.) 
Triton lateralis. Say, Long's Expedition, Vol. 1, p. 5. 

Proteus of the Lakes. MiTCHiLL, Sill. Jour. Sc. Vol. 4, p. 181 ; and Vol. 7, p. 62, pi. 2. 
Menobranchus lateralis. Harlan, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y. Vol. 1, p. 233, pi. 16; Med. and Phys. Res p 89 aiid 165 

Cdvier, Rdgne Animal, Griffith's translat. Vol. 9, p. 412 and 475, pi. copied. 
Proteus lateralis. Barnes, Am. Joum. Sc. Vol. 11, p. 285. 
P. maculatxis. Id. lb. Vol. 13, p. 68. 
M. lateralis. HoLBROoK, N. Am. Herpetology, Vol. 3, p. 119, pi. 30. 

Characteristics. Brownisli, with blackish spots ; often a dark lateral hne. Lengtii one to 
two feet. 

Description. Body robust, cylindrical, smooth. Head broad, depressed and attenuated in 
front, where it is truncate and slightly emarginate. Eyes small. Nostrils very minute and 
placed in the margin of the upper lip. Jaws covered with loose fleshy lips. Teeth minute 
conic, obtuse and separated ; two series in the upper jaw, and one in die lower jaw Tongue 
broad, and free near the tip. Gills, three on each side, ramified and fringed, with two 
branchial apertures. Throat with a fold of skin beneath. Anterior extremities slender 
placed near the gills, and with four clawless toes. Hmd legs similar, and with four similar 
toes. \ent a longitudinal fissure. Tail robust, compressed, lanceolate, ancipital. 

Color, of the body and tail dull brownish, spotted with black or blackish brown • on the 
back these are rounded, but on the sides of the body and tail become indistinct brownish 
blotches. Beneath lighter. Frequently a dark stripe from the nostrils through the eyes and 
becoming effaced behind. Gills blood-red. ' 

Length, 12-0 - 24-0. 

This curious and interesting aquatic animal is common in the northern and western parts 
of the State. It is found in Lake Champlain, and is particularly abundant at the falls of 
Onion river and at the outlet of Lake George. It inhabits Lake Erie, Seneca and the other 
lakes in the western districts of New-York. It has been found in the Erie canal, and will 
doubtless ere long be found to have reached the Hudson river. It occurs in all the streams 
in Ohio emptying into Lake Erie, and sometimes m the tributaries of the Ohio Their 
movements in the water are usually slow ; but from their broad and powerful tail they must 
occasionally move with great celerity. They are said to come occasionally on land It is 
often taken with the hook, and frequently speared. 

The Menobranchus, or Big Water-lizard as it is occasionally called in this State feeds 
on fluviatile shells, Crustacea, and the smaller fishes. Its flesh is white, and doubtless verv 
savory, but is never eaten by the ignorant fishermen, who regard them with great disgust and 
detestation. A closely aUied animal, the Axolotl of Mexico (Siredon pisciformis), is consi 
dered a great delicacy ; and indeed almost the whole class of reptiles and amphibia furnishes 
a delicate and savory food. 



88 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 



(EXTRALIMITAL.) 

Genus Siren, Linneus, Auct. Body eel-shaped. Two anterior legs. Teeth in the palate and jaws. 
Obs. The two last species of this genus have been arranged by some authors under the genus 

Pseudobranchus. 
S. laccrt'ma. Black above ; dusky beneath. Toes four. Length two to three feet. South Carolina, 

Florida. 
S. intermedia. (Le Conte, Ann. Lye. Vol. 2, pi. 1.) Similar to the preceding, but smaller. Gills 

included in a fleshy trilobate covering. Length, one foot. 
S. striata. (Id. lb. Vol. 1, pi. 4.) Dusky, with two longitudinal stripes on each side. Gills as in the 

preceding. Length, seven to nine inches. 

FAMILY AMPHIUMID^. 

Body long, formed for swimming. Feet four. Cranium solid. Tail comjjrcssed. Respi- 
ration by means of lungs only. No gills, but only cervical orifices. No metamorphosis 
known. 

This family is equivalent to the order Abranchia of Bell, and to the families Menopomatidee 
and Amphiumidce of Hogg and Bonaparte. ■ 

(EXTRA-LIMITAL.) 

Genus Amphiuma, Garden, Harlan. Body eel-shaped. Head and neck continuous. Legs feeble, 
rudimentary, with two or three jointless toes. No ribs. Two rows of teeth in the upper, and 
one in the lower jaw. 
A. means. (Harlan, Arm. Lye. Vol. 1, pi. 22.) Dark brown. Feet bifid at the extremities. Length 

one to three feet. South Carolina to Mexico. 
A. tridactylum. (Cuvier, Tr. Acad. Sc. 1826, pi.) Similar to the preceding. Feet trifid. Alabama, 
Arkansas. 

GENUS MENOPOMA. Harlan. 

Body robust. Head distinct from the neck. Tail broad, compressed. Lower jaw with a 
single row of teeth ; upper jaw luith an additional row. Ribs rudimentary. Legs stout, 
with four toes before and five behind. 

Obs. This genus was first distinctly established by Dr. Harlan, under the name of Abran- 
chus, which having been discovered lo be preoccupied, he changed it to Menopoma. Others 
have proposed new names either erroneous in themselves, or unaccompanied with descriptions. 
Such are those proposed, but not defined by Prof. Barton, under the names of Salamandra 
horrida, gigantea, maxima, and Protonopsis horrida. 



FAMILY AMPHIUMID^. 89 

THE ALLEGANY HELLBENDER. 

Menopoma alleghaniensis. 

PLATE XVIII. FIG. 44.— (CABINET OF THE LYCEUM.) 

Salamandra alkghnniensis, Sonnuii. Latreille, Hist. Nat. Rept. Vol. 2, p. 253, fig. 1. 

Le Salamaiidrc dcx Monts AlUgamcs. Daud. Hist. Nat. Rept. Vol. 8, p. 231 . 

Ahrajwhus alleghaniensis. Harlan, Ann. Lye. Vol. 1, p. 233, pi. 17 and 18. 

Menopoma. Id. lb. p. 270. 

Menopoma alleghaniensis. Barnes, Am. Joum. Science and Arts, Vol.11, p. 278. 

M. id. Harlan, Med. and Phys. Res. p. 87 and 174. Griffith'.s Cuvier, Vol. 9, p. 410, 475, plate. 

Molge. Merrem. 

Cryptobranchus. LeukaRD & FlTZINGER. 

Young AlligiUor. KiETLAND, Zool. Ohio, p. 190. 

Characteristics. Slate-colored, mottled with dusky. Head broad. Tail nearly as long as 
the body. A dark line through the eye. Two outer toes of the hind feet 
palmate. Length one to two feet. 

Description. Body robust, cylindrical, smooth. Tail vertically compressed, and nearly as 
long as the body. Vent a small longitudinal slit. Head wide, depressed, especially towards 
the snout, which is obtusely rounded. Nostrils prominent. Eyes small. Legs robust, short; 
the fore legs with four free subequal toes. Hind feet with five toes, the two outer palmate ; 
the outer edge of the outer toe with a broad membrane to assist in swimming. Tail much 
compressed, obtusely pointed, membranous on its upper edge, which extends some distance 
along the back. The cervical aperture covered with a simple fold. Lungs vesicular, elastic, 
vascular as in the tortoise. Vertebrae nineteen. Tongue free in front. 

Color. Dark slate or greyish with darker spots. A dusky abbreviated hne passes through 
the eyes. 

Length 12-0 -24-0. 

I have never met with this animal myself in this State ; but Prof. Hall assures me that he 
has seen it in the Allegany river, one of the tributaries of the Ohio, within the limits of this 
State. It feeds on worms, crayfish, fishes and aquatic reptiles. It is said to be extremely 
voracious. Dr. Kirtland states, that in the State of Ohio, it occurs in all the tributaries of the 
Ohio, but not in those of Lake Erie. 



Fauna — Part 3. 18 



INDEX 



POPULAR NAMES OF THE REPTILES AND AMPHIBIANS, 



REPTILES. 



Pace. 

Alligator, 27 

Black Snake, 35 

Blanding's Box Tortoise, 25 

Blauscr, 52 

Blue-tailed Lizard, 29 

Blue-tailed Skink, 29 

Brown Scorpion, 33 

Brown Swift, 31 

Buckwheat nose, 52 

Chain Snake, 37 

Checkered Adder, 39 

Chicken Snake, 39 

Chunk-head, 54 

Common Box Tortoise,. . 24 

Copper-head, 53 

Crocodile, 27 

Dumb Rattlesnake, 54 

Fresh-water Terrapin, 15 

Gavial, 27 

Geographic Tortoise, 18 

Glass-snake, 34 

Grass Snake, 40 



Page. 

Green Garter-snake, 45 

Green Snake, 40 

Green Turtle, 2 

Ha wksbill Turtle, 3 

Hog-nosed Snake, 51 

House Snake, 39 

Land Turtle, 25 

Leather Turtle 4 

Loggerhead, 9 

Massasagua Rattlesnake,. 57 

Milk Snake, 38 

Monitor. 28 

Muhlenberg's Tortoise,. . 17 

Mud Tortoise, 21 

Musk Tortoise, 21 

Painted Tortoise, 12 

Pilot, 36 

Pilot Black-snake, 36 

Pine Lizard, 33 

Pseudo-geographic Tortoise, 19 

Racer, 36, 37, 38 

Rattlesnake, 55 



Pahe. 

Red Snake, 49 

Red Viper, 54 

Red-bellied Terrapin, 16 

Ribbon-Snake, 47 

Ring Snake, 39 

Sachem Snake, 39 

Salt-water Terrapin, 10 

Sand-king, 39 

Small Brown Snake 46 

Smooth Terrapin, 11 

Snapping Turtle, 8 

Soft-shelled Turtle, 7 

Speckled Turtle, 14 

Spotted Tortoise, 13 

Striped Adder, 45 

Striped Lizard, 29 

Striped Snake, 43 

Swift, 33 

Tortoise-shell Turtle, ... 3 

Water Snake, . . . 42 

Wood Terrapin, 14 

Yellow-bellied Snake, 45 



92 



ENGLISH INDEX. 



P*OE. 

Allegany Hell-bender, 89 

Banded Proteus, 87 

Blotched Salamander, 77 

Blue-spotted Salamander, . 8 1 

Bullfrog, 60 

Common American Toad, 67 

Cricket Frog, 70 

Cricket Hy lodes, 70 

Crimson-spotted Triton,.. 84 

Dusky Triton, 85 

Evet, 84 

Granulated Salamander, . 78 



AMPHIBIANS. 

Paoe. 

Grey-spotted Triton, 85 

Hermit Spade-foot, 66 

Large Northern Bullfrog, 6 1 

Leopard Frog, 63 

Long-tailed Salamander, . 78 

Marsh Frog, 62 

Northern Tree-toad, 71 

Painted Salamander, 75 

Peeper, 70 

Pickerel Frog, --' 63 

Pickering's Hylodes, 69 

Red Salamander, 80 



Paoe 

Red-backed Salamander, . 75 
Salmon-colored Salamander, 76 

Scarlet Salamander, 81 

Shad Frog, 63 

Spring Frog, 62 

Squirrel Tree-toad, 72 

Striped-back Salamander, 79 

Tiger Frog, 63 

Tiger Triton, 83 

Violet-colored Salamander, 74 

Wood Frog, 64 

Yellow-bellied Salamander, 73 



LATIN INDEX 



REPTILES AND AMPHIBIANS. 



[Those in italic are extra-limital.] 



Page. 

Agamidje, 31 

Alligator mississippiensis, 27 

Ameiva sexlineata, 30 

— iessellata, 30 

Anguid^, 34 

Anolius carolinensis, 28 

Calamaria amoena, 49 

— dapsoidea, 49 

— striatula. 49 

Chelonia mydas, 2 

— caretta, 3 

— imbricata, 3 

Chelonid*, 2 

Cheloniira serpentina, 8 

— temmincki, 9 

Chirotes lumbricoides, 33 

Cistuda Carolina, 24 

— blandingii, 25 

Coluber alleghaniensis, . . 36 

— constrictor, 35 

— couperi, 41 

— doliatus, 41 

— eximius, 38 



REPTILIA. 

Page. 

Coluber getulus, 37 

— guttaius, 41 

— obsoletus, 41 

— occipltomaculatus, 41 

— pnnctatus, 39 

— quadrivittatus, . 41 

— rhombomaculatus, 41 

— sayi, 41 

— tesiaceus, 41 

— vernalis, 1. 40 

CoLUBERIDiE, 35 

Crocodilus macrorhyncus, 37 

Crotalid^, 53 

Croialophorus kirtlandi,. 57 

— miliarius,- 57 

— tcrgcminus, 57 
Crotalus adamanteus, 57 

— durissus, 55 

— orcgonus, 57 

Elaps fulvius, 58 

ElapsidjE, 58 

Emys concinna, 20 

— cumberlandensis,. . 20 



Page 

'Emys Jioridana, 20 

— geographica, 18 

— guttata, 13 

— liieroglyphica, 20 

— insculpta, 14 

. — megacepliala, 20 

— mobilensis, 20 

— muhlenbergii, 17 

— oregonensis, 20 

— palustris, 10 

— picta, 12 

. — pseudogeographica, 19 

— reticulata, 20 

— rubriventris, 16 

— serrata, 20 

— terrapin, 11 

— troosti, 20 

Gainalls neocesariensis, . 28 

Geosaurus mitchilli, 28 

Helicops abacurus, 50 

— erythrogrammus, 50 

Heterodon annulatus, — 52 

— niger, 52 



94 

Page. 

Heterodon platyrhinos, . . 51 

— simns, 52 

— tigrinus, 52 

Iguanid«, 28 

Kinosternon pensylvanicum, 21 

Lacertid^:, 30 

Leptophis saurita, 47 

— astivus, 48 

Lygosoma laterale, 30 

— quinquelineatum, 30 

Mosasaurus mojjor, 28 

OPHIDIA, 34 

Ophiosaurid^, 33 

Ophiosaurus ve7itralis, . . 34 

Pkrynosoma cornutnm,. - 31 

— coronatum, . 31 



LATIN INDEX. 

Page. 

Phrynosoma douglasii,- . 31 
— orbiculare, . 31 

Pifuophis melanoleucus, . 50 
Phstiodon erythrocephalus, 30 
Psammophis flagelliforinis, 50 
Rhinosioma coccinea, — 50 

SAURIA, 27 

SclNCID^, 28 

Scincus fasciatus, 29 

Sphargis coriacea, 4 

Stemothaerus odoratus, . . 22 

TESTUDINATA, 1 

Testiido Carolina, 26 

Trigonocephalus contortri.x, 53 

— piscivorus, 55 

— atrofuscus, 55 



Page. 

Trionyx bartra7ni, 7 

— ferox, 6 

— harlani, 7 

— muticus, 7 

Tropidolepis undulatus, . . 31 

— umbra, 33 

Tropidonotus dekayi, 46 

— erythrogaster, 47 

— fasciatus, . . 47 

— leberis, 45 

— nigcr, 47 

— ordinatus, . 47 

— rigidus, 47 

— sipedon, 42 

— tsenia, 43 

— taxispiloius, 47 



Amphiuma means, 88 

— trydactylum,. 88 

Amphuimid.e, 88 

Bufo americanus, 67 

— cognatus, 68 

— erythronotus, 68 

— lentiginosus, 68 

— quercicus, 68 

Cystignathus ornatus, 65 

— nigritns, - - 65 
Engystoma carolinensc, . 65 
Hyla rfeZJit'sccfls, 72 

— fe.moralis, 72 

— squirella, 72 

— versicolor, 71 

— viridis, 72 

Hylodes gryllus, 70 

— ocularis, 70 

— pickeringi, 69 

Menobranchus lateralis,. . 87 

Menopoma alleghaniensis, 89 



AMPHIBIA. 

Rana clamiians, 65 

— fontinalis, 62 

— haleciiia, 63 

— horiconensis, 61 

— palustris, 62 

— pipiens, 60 

— sylvatica, 64 

Ranid^, 60 

Salamandra auriculata,- _ 82 

— bilineata, 79 

— cirrigera, 82 

— coccinea, 81 

— '■ erythronota, . 75 

— fasciata, 77 

— fiisca, 82 

— glutinosa, 81 

— granulata, 78 

— guttoUneata,- 82 

— haldemani,. . 83 

— longicauda,. . 78 

— picta, 75 



Salamandra quadrimacu- 

lata, 83 

— rubra, 80 

— salmonea, 76 

— sinciput-albida, 82 

— subviolacea, . 74 

— symmetrica, . 73 

— talpoidea, . . 83 

Salamandrid^, 73 

Scaphiopus solitarius, 66 

Siren intermedia, 88 

— lacertina, 88 

— striata, 88 

SiRENIDTE, 86 

Triton ingens, 86 

— jeffersoni, 86 

— millepunctatus, 84 

— niger, 85 

— porphyriticus, 85 

— tigrinus, 83 



LIST OF PLATES 



or THE 



REPTILES AND AMPHIBIANS. 



Plate I. 
Fig. 1. The American Box Tortoise (Cistuda Carolina). 
2. Blanding's Box Tortoise (Cistuda blandingii). 

Plate II. 
Fig. 3. Tiie Pseudo-geographic Tortoise (Emys pseudogeographica). 
4. The Mud Tortoise (Kinosternon pensylvanicuin). 

Plate III. 
Fig. 5. The Salt-water Terrapin (Emys palustris). 

6. The Snapping Turtle, young, (Chelonura serpentina). 

Plate IV. 
Fig. 7. The Geographic Tortoise (Emys geographica). 
8. The Wood Terrapin (Emys insculpta). 

Plate V. 
Fig. 9. The Leather Turtle (Sphargis coriacea). 
10. The Painted Tortoise (Emys picta). 

Plate VI. 
Fig. 11. The Soft-shelled Turtle (Tnonyx ferox). 
12. The Spotted Tortoise (Emys guttata). 



96 LIST OF PLATES. 

Plate VII. 
Fig. 13. The Musk Tortoise (Sternothaenis odoratus). 
14. The Red-bellied Terrapin (Emys rubriventris). 

Plate VIII. 
Fig. 15. Muhlenberg's Tortoise (Emys muhlenbergi). 

16. The Brown Swift (Tropidolepis undulatus). 

17. The Blue-tailed Skink (Scincus fasciatus). 

Plate IX. 
Fig. 18. The Copper-head (Trigonocephalus contortrix). 
19. The Northern Rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus). 

Plate X. 
Fig. 20. The Black Snake (Coluber constrictor). 
21. The Chain Snake (Coluber getulus). 

Plate XI. 
Fig. 22. The Grass Snake (Coluber vernalis). 

23. The Yellow-bellied Snake (Tropidonotus leberis). 

24. The Ribbon Snake (Leptophis saurita). 

Plate XII. 
Fig. 25. The Milk Snake (Coluber eximius). 

26. The Pilot Black-snake (Coluber alleghaniensis). 

Plate XIII. 
Fig. 27. The Striped Snake, variety, (Tropidonotus taenia). 
28. The Hog-nosed Snake (Heterodon platyrhinos). 

Plate XIV. 
Fig. 29. The Ring Snake (Coluber punctatus). 

30. The Small Brown Snake (Tropidonotus dekayi). 

31. The Water Snake (Tropidonotus sipedon). 

Plate XV. 
Fig. 32. The Tiger Triton (Triton tigrinus). 

33. The Yellow-bellied Salamander (Salamandra symmetrica). 

34. The Crimson-spotted Triton (Triton millepunctatus). 

35. The Dusky Triton (Triton niger). 



LIST OF PLATES. 9t 

Plate XVI. 
Fig. 36. The Violet-colored Salamander (Salamandra subviolacea). 

37. The Grey-spotted Triton (Triton porphyriticus). 

38. The Red-backed Salamander (Salamandra erythronota). 

39. The Salmon-colored Salamander (Salamandra salamnea). 

Plate XVII. 
Fig. 40. The Blotched Salamander (Salamandra fasciata). 

41. The Long-tailed Salamander (Salamandra longicauda). 

42. The Blue-spotted Salamander (Salamandra glutinosa). 

43. The Red Salamander (Salamandra rubra). 

Plate XVIII. 
Fig. 44. The Hell-bender (Menopoma alleghaniensis). 
45. The Banded Proteus (Menobranchus lateralis). 

Plate XIX. 

Fig. 46. The Common Toad, young, (Bufo americanus). 

47. The Hermit Spade-foot (Scaphiopus solitarius). 

48. The Bullfrog (Rana pipiens). 

Plate XX. 
Fig. 49. The Shad Frog (Rana halecina). 

50. The Wood Frog, young, (Rana sylvatica). 

51. Pickering's Hylodes (Hylodes pickeringi). 

52. The American Toad, adult, (Bufo americanus). 

Plate XXI. 
Fig. 53. The Squirrel Tree-toad (Hyla squirella). 

53. a. The Northern Tree-toad (Hyla versicolor). 

54. The Wood Frog, adult, (Rana sylvatica). 
54. a. The Spring Frog (Rana fontinalis). 

54. h. The Scarlet Salamander (Salamandra coccinea). 

Plate XXII. 

Fig. 55. Tooth of the fossil Geosaurus (Geosaurus mitchilli). 

56. Section of a tooth. 

57. Tooth of the fossil Monitor (Mosasaurus major). 

58. Section of a tooth. 

59. Portion of the lower jaw of the Jersey Gavial (Gavialis neocesariensis). 

60. The Marsh Tree-toad (Rana palustris). 

61. The Cricket Tree-toad (Hylodes gryllus). 

62. The Northern Bullfrog (Rana horiconensis). 
Fauna — Part 3. 13 



98 LIST OF PLATES. 

Plate XXIII. 

Fig. 63. The Smooth Terrapin (Emys terrapin). 

64. Outhne of the last vertebral plate. 

65. Do. of do of E. palustris. 

66. The Granulated Salamander (Salamandra granulata). 

67. The Striped-back Salamander (Salamandra bilineata). 



ZOOLOGY 



OF 



NEWYORK, 



OR THE 



EJEW-YORK FAUIA; 



COMPRISING DETAILED DESCRIPTIONS OF ALL THE ANIMALS HITHERTO OBSERVED WITHIN THE 

STATE OF NEW-YORK, WITH BRIEF NOTICES OF THOSE OCCASIONALLY FOUND NEAR 

ITS BORDERS, AND ACCOMPANIED BY APPROPRIATE ILLUSTRATIONS. 



BY JMBS E. DE RAY. 



PART IV. FISHES 



ALBANY : 

PRINTED BY W. &. A. WHITE & J. VISSCHER. 

1842. 



PREFACE. 



In the General Introduction to this work, a kw facts were noted, to illustrate 
the peculiar position of this State in reference to the number and variety of its 
animal species. In continuation of this subject we may remark, that by means 
of the great lakes Ontario and Erie on our northern and western borders, we 
have numerous northern lacustrine fishes. Through Lake Champlain we have 
many northern fluviatile species ; by the Alleghany river ascend numerous wes- 
tern species ; and while our numerous rivers teem with those of fresh water, our 
extensive sea-board furnishes us with marine species ranging from the coast of 
Labrador to the shores of Brazil. It cannot therefore fail to be perceived that 
the Ichthyology of New- York will embrace a very large proportion of the Fishes 
of the United States ; and that the following pages can only be considered in the 
light of an outline, to be filled up, and enlarged and modified by the labors of 
future naturalists. 

The study of Fishes, or that branch of natural science which is termed Ich- 
thyology, has, until recently, attracted in this country less attention than any 
other. Almost the first positive knowledge of our fishes is derived from Linneus, 
who received many through Dr. Garden of Charleston, South Carolina. From 
the letters of Garden, we gather that he was an indefatigable collector in all 
departments of Natural History, and a man of eminent attainments. Cotempo- 
raneously with Garden, appeared the work of Catesby on the Natural History 
of Carolina, Florida and the Bahama Islands. This work is imposing in its form, 

Fadna, Part IV. b 



IV PREFACE. 

but is of little real practical value. The plates are grossly colored, and some of 
them are apparently drawn from memory. The text is meagre and insignificant.* 

In an unexpected quarter, appeared in 1787 an original work on the Fishes 
of America. We allude to the Natural History of Cuba, by Antonio Parra, the 
title of which will be found in our list of cited works. It is not exclusively con- 
fined to fishes, but embraces Crustacea, marine plants, etc. There are forty 
plates, illustrating seventy-one species of fishes, coarsely but vigorously executed 
by his son ; and as far as we have had occasion to compare them with the origi- 
nals, they are very correct. This work is exceedingly rare, and the copy in my 
possession is believed to be the only one in the United States. The text is brief, 
and of a jiopular character, without any attempt at classification or scientific 
arrangement. Notwithstanding these defects, it will always remain, from its 
original figures and its descriptions drawn from the recent sj)ecimens, a work of 
great value to naturalists, and more especially to those of the Southern Atlantic 
States. 

Pennant, an English writer on natural history, published in 1787 a supplement 
to his Arctic Zoology, which contains an enumeration of one hundred and thirty 
species of fishes, compiled chiefly from Linneus and Catesby. They are prin- 
cipally from the waters of South-Carolina and the Gulf of Mexico. A very few, 
scarcely exceeding six new species, are noticed more in detail, and these are 
chiefly from the collection of Mrs. Anne Blackburne, whose brother appears to 
have been a zealous collector for several years at Hempstead, Long island. 

In 1788, Schoepff, an army surgeon, who was in this country during the war 
of the revolution, published in the Transactions of the Friends of Natural History 
at Berlin, a memoir entitled " Descriptions of North American Fishes, chiefly 
from the waters of New-York." His paper is for the most part a meagre cata- 
logue of species from New- York and the gulf of Mexico, mostly identical with 
those previously described by Linneus. In common with many of the observers 
of that period, he had such a slavish deference to the great reformer of natural 
science, that he scarcely dared to pronounce upon the validity of a species unless 

* In takinn- a review of wliat lias been done in American iclithyology up to the period at wliich he wrote, Pennant breaks 
out into the following apostrophe: " How small a part is this of the zoology of our lost dominions ! May what I have 
" done be an inducement for some learned native to resume the subject ! and I shall without envy see my trivial labors lost 
'• in the immensity of new discoveries. Vain thought! for ages must pass, ere the necessary perfection can be given, 
" ere the animated nature wliich fills tlie space between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans can be investigated. Ages must 
" pass, before new colonization ran push its progress westwardly ; and even then, civilization, ease and luxury must take 
" place ere those studies in which use and amusement are so intimately blended can be carried into effect." 



PREFACE. 



it had received the Llnnean stamp of authority. One hundred and twenty spe- 
cies are enumerated, of which thirty only are accompanied witli detailed descrip- 
tions. The celebrated ichthyologist Bloch added a few notes to this memoir.* 

Bosc, and a few other naturalists, had communicated to Lacepede some isolated 
species after this period ; and Dr. Peck had described, in the Transactions of the 
American Academy of Arts and Sciences at Boston, a few more ; but, with these 
exceptions, our knowledge on this subject remained nearly stationarj- until 1814, 
when Dr. Mitchill published a small tract, which may be said to have given a 
new impulse to the study of American ichthyology. It contains original and 
detailed descriptions of forty-nine species, with a simple catalogue of twenty-one 
more. On the titlepage of this little tract, he states that " a very considerable 
number of these heginnings of an attempt are not even named in the present list, 
because they have not come to hand during the few weeks that have elapsed 
since its commencement." It does not, however, appear to have attracted much 
attention abroad, and is only cited in the latter volumes of the great work on 
Fishes of Cuvier and Valenciennes. About the same period he published in the 
American Medical and Philosophical Register, conducted by Drs. Hosack and 
Francis, a paper on the Cod-fishes of New-York, in which he enumerates eleven 
species and six varieties of that family. In December of the same year, he read 
before the Literary and Philosophical Society of New- York, a paper entitled 
" The Fishes of New- York, described and arranged ;" which was shortly after 
published in the Transactions of that Society. In this paper, which at that 
period was the most important and valuable essay on the fishes of the United 
States, he describes (deducting the foreign and doubtful fishes) one hundred and 
thirty-four species, illustrated by six copperplates, containing seventy small but 
quite recognizable figures.f In February, 1818, he published a supplement to 



* Schcepff appears to have bpcn a man of varicil attainments, and has left several works relating to the natural history 
of this country, the most important of which is his Historia Testudinum. He is tlic author of two volumes of travels in 
the United States, and of a work on its geology, under the following titles : 

1. Reise durch einige dermitllern und sudliclK'n vereiiiiglen Nord Americanischer Staatcn. 2 vols. Svo. Erlangen, 1783. 

2. Bcytiage sur mineralogischen kentiiiss dcr ostlichen Uieil voa IS'ord America und seiner geburgc. pp. 101. Erlangen, 1787. 

Neither of these, we believe, have been translated into our language. 

t This memoir is spoken of by Cuvier in the following terms : ' " Thus there had scarcely been in the eighteenth century 
any thing on the fishes of North America, except the work of Catcsby, and what had been inserted by Pennant in his 
Arctic Zoology. But in 1815, Dr. Mitchill, a learned physician of New-York, gave a history of tlie fishes in the vicinity 
of that city, in which he described one hundred ond forty-nine species, distributed after the system of Linncus, with well 



VI PREFACE. / 

this paper in the American Monthly Magazine, in which he describes forty-twa 
species, some of which had been figured in the previous essay, but without any 
description. If we subtract from these, four as doubtful or mere varieties, and 
eight from the Bahama islands, we have thirty additional species, making with 
those previously published a total of one hundred and sixty-four fishes from the 
coast of New-York. The work in which this supplement appeared was a lite- 
rary magazine of considerable reputation, but its circulation was limited, and it 
appears to have been little known or consulted either by our own or by foreign 
naturalists. 

Subsequent to this period, the communications of Dr. Mitchill on ichthyology 
were distributed through periodicals of every description, not even excepting 
weekly magazines and daily newspapers. As a matter of interest to the Ame- 
rican naturalist, we have, in Appendix A, given a list of Mitchill's species, col- 
lated from all these sources, and accompanied them with the names which they 
bear in the present work. It is no reflection upon the reputation of this natu- 
ralist, that these changes have been rendered necessary ; for at that day, ichthy- 
ology was little studied, and it was far from having attained its present accuracy. 
He appears to have trusted too much to the vague descriptions of foreign writers, 
and referred too hastily, descriptions of European to American species. In his 
case, however, it did not amount to a servile deference to authority; for even in 
his prehminary essay, he indicates new generic forms, some of which have been 
adopted in the great standard work of the present day. 

Nearly simultaneous with the first essays of Dr. Mitchill, appeared a new and 
important laborer in the field of American ichthyology. We allude to Mr. 
Charles A. Lesueur, an eminent French naturalist, who had accompanied Daudin 
as a draftsman in his exploring expedition. He lived several years in Philadel- 
phia, subsequently removed to the settlement of Mr. Owen at New-Harmony, 
and finally returned to France. His contributions are chiefly to be found in the 
Journal of the Academy of Natural Science, and the Transactions of the Ame- 
rican Philosojihical Society. He also contributed a few articles to the Annales 



executed though small figures of the most interesting. As he adopted but two of the genera subsequent to Linneus, his 
species are sometimes placed a little at random ; in the genus Esox, for example, he includes many heterogeneous species. 
Nor has he always unravelled the true nomenclature in the often confused works of European naturalists; but he has 
himself furnished in his descriptions the means of rectifying the errors which had escaped him, and his memoir is certainly 
the best which has appeared in this century on the fishes of the new world." Uistoirc d'Ichthyologie, p. 202. 



PREFACE. VII 

du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle of Paris. M. Lesueur at one time contemplated 
publishing a history of North American fishes, but I believe never advanced far- 
ther than to prepare a few plates and a few pages of letter press. Through the 
kindness of Mrs. Say, the estimable widow of our great American naturalist, I am 
indebted for a copy of this work as far as published. The part in my possession 
contains descriptions of Petromyzon ainericanus audi nigricans, Ammocetes bico/or, 
and Aclpenser rubicundufs ; the plates illustrate these species, and also Petromyzon 
lamottenii, Acipenser maculosus, measius, and two other sturgeons not named on 
the plate. Most of these are reproduced in the following pages ; and as the 
work of Lesueur is probably in few hands, I should have copied them all, had 
they been accompanied with the requisite descriptions. 

Pursuing a chronological order, we have next to mention a work which may 
be said to have created a new epoch in this department of science. We allude 
to the Natural History of Fishes, by Cuvier and Valenciennes, of which the 
first volume appeared in 1828, and which has now reached the sixteenth volume. 
To judge by the field already explored, it will probably require ten more 
volumes to complete the work. In this History, which may well serve as a model 
to future observers for its philosophical spirit and unrivalled accuracy of detail, 
are to be found many excellent descriptions of North American species. The 
many obligations I owe to this standard work, will be apparent in the following 
pages. 

In 1836, Dr. Richardson published a work, which, although limited to the 
fishes of the northern regions of America, is of great value to the ichthyologist 
of the United States. It contains original and elaborate descriptions of about 
sixty species, illustrated by twenty-four beautiful plates, and is one of the most 
important contributions to this department. This work is published at the ex- 
pense of the English government, and we may be allowed to hope that a similar 
enlightened liberality will be displayed by the government of the United States, 
in die publication of the results of the late Antarctic exploring expedition. 

The attention of the various Commonwealths of the Union having been di- 
rected to the examination and description of their various natural products, 
almost one of its first fruits appeared in 1835, in the form of a copious catalogue 
of the animals and plants of JNIassachusetts. In 1838, appeared under the aus- 
pices of the State of Ohio, a report by Dr. J. P. Kirtland on the Zoology of that 
State. It contains a catalogue of seventy-two species of fish ; all, of course, 
fluviatile or lacustrine. It is accompanied by numerous and valuable notes, illus- 



VIU PREFACE. 

trating the habits and characters of fishes. To the same author, we are indebted 
for several important papers in the Boston Journal of Natural History. In 1839, 
Dr. D. H. Storer, who had previously furnished several valuable papers on ichlhy- 
ology In the Journal just alluded to, jjublished a masterly report on the Fishes of 
Massachusetts. In this report, the author has enumerated one hundred and nine 
species, of which one hundred and four are accompanied by original and care- 
fully drawn up descriptions. This report is an invaluable document to the Ame- 
rican ichthyologist, and is every way worthy of its eminent author. Among the 
casual contributors to this department of science, we have to enumerate the 
name of a former Governor of this State, De-Witt Clinton ; of Mr. Wood of Phi- 
ladelphia ; of Messrs. Redfield, father and son ; and quite recently, of Mr. Hal- 
deman, of Pennsylvania. 

Having thus briefly alluded to the various sources from whence is derived our 
knowledge of the fishes of this country, the pleasing duty remains, of expressing 
my obligations to those who have assisted me in my solitary and arduous under- 
taking. Several years since, my friend Dr. Holbrook, so favorably known for 
his work on the Reptiles of the United States, contemplated publishing a work 
on the Fishes of Carolina. He collected many species, and caused them to be 
carefully drawn under his own eye, by the same artist who had so successfully 
figured the reptiles. These drawings, illustrative of fifty-two species, he placed 
in the kindest manner at my disposal, and they have enabled me to extend our 
acquaintance with the geographical distribution of many species. I feel much 
indebted to Dr. Storer for the instruction I have derived from his correspondence, 
and for the prompt and liberal aid he has afforded by furnishing me with several 
specimens for illustration and comparison. To Mr. I. Cozzens, Librarian of the 
Lyceum of Natural History, I am under many obligations for his assistance in 
collecting, and his accurate and practical discrimination of species. My thanks 
are also due, for several specimens from Lake Champlain, to Mr. Z. Thompson 
of Burlington (Vermont), who is occupied in publishing a work on the Natural 
History of Vermont, at the moment these sheets are passing through the press. 

In no department of the natural sciences is the want of good illustrations more 
strikingly felt than in the class now before us. Those which relate to American 
fishes are distributed through so many rare and expensive volumes as to render 
them difficult of access, and indeed entirely beyond the reach of a large majority 
of students. We ho[)e, therefore, that the figures of two hundred and fifty spe- 
cies, which appear in this work, will not be unacceptable to the American ich- 



PREFACE. ix 

thyologist. They are taken for the most j^art from living specimens, and care- 
fully colored on the spot. For those which are copied, due credit is given in the 
text, and the twelve last plates are almost entirely of this character. Where 
we have been unable to draw from a living specimen, and have been compelled 
to make use of a cabinet specimen, we have given merely an outline. 

Exclusive of the fossil fishes, we enumerate in the work four hundred and forty 
species, comprised under one hundred and fifty-six genera and thirty-two fami- 
lies. Of these, two hundred and ninety-four species belonging to this State, or 
the adjacent waters, are accompanied by detailed descriptions. In preparing 
the following pages, we have endeavored to compress our descriptions within 
the shortest possible compass consistent with clearness. Had this been the only 
department entrusted to us, we should have dwelt more on the anatomical details, 
and perhaps have been more diffuse on the habits and peculiarities of species.' 
Too litde, however, is positively known of their habits, and that little is mixed 
up with too much of the marvellous, to render it desirable or profitable to intro- 
duce them here. When it is, moreover, recollected that we are to traverse 
through the whole animal kingdom, we would fain indulge the hope that this 
imperfect attempt to enlarge our acquaintance with a single class may be received 
with a favor proportionate to the difficulties and extent of the task. 

J. E. DE KAY. 

The Locusts, Queens County. 
July 1, 1842. 



LIST 



or 



WORKS REFERRED TO IN THE DESCRIPTIONS OF THE FISHES. 



Ac. Sc. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 8vo. Philadelphia, 1817 et seq. 

AU>. Inst. Transactions of the Albany Institute. 8vo. Albany, 18'28-9. 

Ami. Lajc. Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New- York. 8vo. New-York, 1824 et seq. 

Am. Acad. Memoirs of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. 4to. Boston, 1785 et seq. 

Am. Phil. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society for promoting useful knowledge. 4to. Philadelphia, 

17S5 ct seq. 
Am. Month,. Mag. The American Monthly Magazine and Critical Review, edited by H. Bigelow and 0. L. HoUey. 

4 vols. 8vo. New- York, 1817 et 1818. 
Blochii, M. E. Systema Ichthyologia; Iconibus CX. Ulustrata, correxit J. G. Schneider. Berolini, 1801. 
Akerly, S. Economical History of the Fishes sold in the Markets of New-Tork. (Am. Month. Mag. Vol. 2.) 
Catesby, M. Natural History of Carolina, Florida and the Bahama Islands. FoUo. London, 1731-43. 
Clinton, De Witt. Some Remarks on the Fishes of the Western Waters of the State of New- York. Lit. and Phil. 
Soc. Vol. 1, p. 493. 
" " Description of a new species of fish (Clupea hudsonia). Ann. Lye. Vol. 1, p. 49, (figure.) 

" " Account of the Otsego Basse. Med. and Phil. Register, Vol. 3, p. 188, (figure.) 

CuviER ct Valenciennes. Histoire Naturelle des Poissons. 8vo. Paris, 1828 et seq. 16 vols. 1842. 
Hitchcock, E. Report on the Geology, Botany and Zoology of Massachusetts. 8vo. Amherst, 1835. Catalogue of 

the Fishes. 
KiRTLAND, J. P. Report on the Zoology of Ohio. 8vo. Columbus, 1838. 
Latrobe. Description of the Clupea tyrannus, etc. Am. Phil. Soc. Vol. 5, p. 77, (figure.) 
Lesheur, C. A. Descriptions of three new species of the genus Raia. Jour. Ac. Vol. 1, p. 41. 

" Short descriptions of five (supposed) new species of the genus Murena. lb. Vol. 1, p. 81. 

" Descriptions of two new species of the genus Gadus. lb. Vol. 1 , p. 83. 

" Description of a new species of the genus Cyprinus. lb. Vol. 1, p. 85. 

" A new genus of fishes proposed under the name of Catostomus, and the characters of this genus, with 

those of its species indicated. lb. Vol. 1, pp. 88 and 102. 
" Description of four new species and two varieties of the genus Hydrargira. lb. Vol. 1, p. 126. 

" Descriptions of several new species (Squalus, Salmo) of North American fishes, 

and 359. 
" Descriptions of several species of the genus Esox of North America. lb. Vol. I, p. 413. 

Fauna — Part 4. c 



XU LIST OF BOOKS. 

Lksueur, C. a. Description of a new genus, and of several new species of fresh water fish, inJigenous to the United 
States. lb. Vol. 2, p. 2. 
. " Descriptions of two new species of Exocctus. lb. Vol. 2, p. S. 

" Observations on several genera and species of fishes belonging to the natural family of Esoces. lb. 

Vol. 2, p. 124. 
" Descriptions of five new species of the genus Cichla of Cuvicr. lb. Vol. 3, p. 214. 

'■ Description of three new species of the genus Sciena. lb. Vol. 3, p. 351. 

" Description of a Squalus of a very large size, which was taken on the coast of New- Jersey. lb. Vol. 

2, p. 343. 
" Description of two new species of the genus Batrachoid of Lacepede. lb. A'ol. 3, p. 395. 

" Desciiption of several species of the Linnean genus Raia of North America. lb. Vol. 4, p. 100. 

" Description of two new species of the Linnean genus Blennius. lb. Vol. 4, p. 3Gl. 

" Description of several species of Chondroptcrygious Fishes of North America, with their varieties. 

Am. Philos. Soc. new series, Vol. 1, p. 380. 
Lit. find Phil. Soc. Transactions of the Literary and Philosophical Society of New-York. 4to. 1815 ct seq. 
Mease, J. Facts respecting the Rockfish or Streaked Bass (Labrax lineatus). Lit. and Phil. Soc. Vol. 1, p. 502. 
Med. 1171.1 Phil. Ni'g. The Ame;ii an Medical and Philosophical Register, I'ditcd by Drs. Hosack and Francis. 4 vols. 

8vo. Ne\v-York, 1814. 
AIiTriiH,!,, S, L. Report in part on the Fishes of New-York. 12mo. p. 38, New- York, .January, 1814. 

•• Arrangement and Description of the Codfishes of New-York. Med. and Phil. Reg, Vol.4, p. 018. 

" Memoir on Ichthyology. Lit. and Phil. Soc. Vol. 1. 

" The Fishes of New-York dcscrilicd and arranged. In a sup[ilement to the memoir on the same subject 

in the Literary and Pliilosophical Society of New-York. Am. Month. Magazine, Vol. 2, pp. 240 
and 321. 
" Descriptions of three species of fish. Journ. Ac. Nat. So. Vol.1, p 407. 

" Description of a new and gigantic species of the genus Cephalopterus. Ann. Lye. Vol. 1, p. 23. 

" Description of an extraordinary fish resembling the Stylephorus of Shaw. lb. Vol.1, p. 83. 

" Description of the Raia erinacea or Hedgehog Ray. Am. Jour. Sc. Vol. 9, p. 200. 

Parra, Antonio. Descripcion de diferentes piezas de historia natural, las mas del ramo niaritinio representadas en setento 

y cinco laniinas. 4to. En la Havana, 1787. 
Peck, W. D. Description of four remarkable fishes taken near the Piscataqua in Ncw-Haaipshirc. Am. Acad. Vol. 2, 

part 3, p. 40, (figures.) 
Richardson, J. Fauna Boreali-americana, or the Zoology of the northern parts of British America. Part 3, the Fish. 
4to. p. 327, London, 1830. 
" Report on North American Zoology. (Report of the Sixth meeting of the British Association. 8vo. 

London, 1837.) 
Redfield, W. C. Short notices of American fossil fishes. Am. Jour. Vol.41. 
Redi'IELd, J. H. Fossil fishes of Connecticut and Massachusetts, with a notice of an undescribcd genus. Ann. Lye. 

New-York, Vol. 4. 
SciicEPFF, J. D. Descriptions of North American fishes chiefiy from the waters of New- York. (Bcobachtungen, &c. 
von der GcsellschalT: naturforschender. Frcunde zu Berlin zweitcn bande, drittes stuck.) 8vo. Berlin, 
1788. 
Smith, J. V. C. Natural History of tlic Fishes of Massachusetts, embracing a practical treatise on angling. 12mo, 

Boston, 1833. 
Storer, D. H. Report on the Ichthyology of Massachusetts. 8vo. p. 202, Boston, 1839. 
Valenciennes. Sur le sous-genre Marteau (Zygsena). Mem. du Mus. d'Hist. Nat. Vol. 9, p. 223. 
Wood, W. W. Descriptions of four new species of the Linnean genus Blennius, antl a new species of Exocctus. 

Ac. Sc. Vol. 4, p. 278. 
Yarrel. History of British Fishes. 2 vols. 8vo. and Suppl. London, 1836. 



SYNOPSIS 



NORTH AMERICAN FAMILIES AND GENERA OF FISHES DESCRIBED IN THIS WORK. 



I. BONY FISHES. 

A. PECTINIBRANCHII. 
(a). Spine-rayed. 

C Pcrca, Labrax, Iluro, Pilcoma, Lucioperca, Serraniis, Centropristcs, 

1. Percid-e, -^ Grystes, Ccntrarchus, Pomotis, Bryltus, Aphredoderus, Uranoscopus, 

^ Sphyrsem, Bolcosoma. 
„ <) Trigla, Prionotiis, Dactyloptcrus, Cottiis, Hemitripterus, Scorpctia, Sebas- 

2. 1 RiGLiD.E, ^ jpg^ Uranidea, Aspidophorus, Cryptacanthodes, Gastevostcus. 

( Corvina, Leiostomus, Otolithus, Umbrina, Pogonias, Micropognn, Hcmu- 

3. SciENiDjj, ^ j^,^^ Pristipoma, Ltboles. 

4. SPARID.S;, Sargiis, Chrysophrys, Pagrus. 

5. Chetodontid.e, Ephippus, Pimelepterus. 

f Scomber, Thynnus, Pelamys, Cybiiim, Trichiurus, Xiphias, Naucrates, 
J Elacatc, Liohia, Trachinotus/Palinurus, Caran.x, Blepharis, Argyreyo- 

6. bcoMBRiDji, ..--j g^jg^ Vomer, Seriola, Tetmwdon, Coryphena, Lampugus, Rhombus, 

[_ Pteraclis. 

7. Tecthid^, Acanihurus. 

8. ATHER1NID.E, Athcrina. 

9. MUGILID.E, Mugi'. 

10. G0BID.E, Blennius, Pholis, ChasmoJes, Gimnollus, Zoarces, Anarrhicas, Gobius. 

1 1. LopHiD.E, Lopliius, Chironectes, Malthen, Batrachus. 

12. Labrid.e, Ctenolabrus, Tautoga, Xirichthys. 

(b). Soft-rayed. 

1. Abdominal. 

13. SiLURiD^E, Galeichthys, Arius, Pimclodus, Amblyopsis. 



XIV SYNOPSIS OF FISHES. 

'/ 
( Cyprinus, Gobio, Abramis, Labco, Catostomus, Stilbe, Leucisciis, Poecilia, 

14. OYPRiNiDiE, - ^ Lebias, Fundulus, Hydrargira, Molinesia. 

15. EsocidjE, Esox, Belonc, Scombereso.x, Exocetus. 

16. FisTULARiD^E, Fistularia. 

17. Salmonid^e, Salmo, Osmerus, Baione, Scopolus, Corregonus. 

18. ClupidvE, Clupea, Alosa, ChatcESSus, Elops, Butirinus, Amia. 

19. Sacrid^e, Lepisosteus. 

2. Sde-brachul. 

20. Gadid.«, Morrhua, Merlucius, Lota, Merlangus, Brosmius, Phycis. 

21. Planid^, Hippoglossus, Pleuronectes, Achirus, Plagusia. 

22. CvcLOPTERiD^, Lumpus, Liparis. 

23. EciiENEiDJE, -- Echcneis. 

3. Apodai,. 

24. Anguillidje, Aiiguilla, Conger, Ophidium, Fierasfer, Ammodytes. 

B. LOPHOBRANCHII. 

25. SyngnathidjE, Syngnathus, Hippocampus. 

C. PLECTOGNATHI. 

26. Gymnodontid*, Diodon, Tetraodon, Acanthosoma, Orthagoriscus. 

27. Balistid^, - Monocanthus, Aluteres, Balistes. 

28. OsTKAcioNiDiE, Lactophiys. 

II. CARTILAGINOUS FISHES. 

D. ELEUTHEROPOMI. 

29. STURioNiDiE, - Acipenser, Platirostra. 

E. PLAGIOSTOMI. 

„„ -, ( Carcharias, Lamna, Mustelus, Selachus, Spinax, Scvmnus. Zvgrena, 

30. Squalid^, ^ c »• ■□ • .■ ' • ^ 

' ( Squatina, Pristis. 

31. Raiid^, Raia, Pastinaca, Myliobatis, Cephaloptera. 

F. CYCLOSTOMI. 

32. PetromyzonidjE, — Petromyzon, Ammocetes. 



ERRATA. 

[Owing to the absence of the author while these pages were being printed, several inaccuracies have 
occurred. The reader is requested to correct the following more important errors.] 

Page 99, for "PI. XXIII. fig. 74," read "PI. XXIII. fig. 71." 

100, for '-PI. XX. fig. 66," read "PI. XX. fig. 56." 

101, insert under ''Spring Mackerel," "Scomber vernalis." 
124, for " PI. LXV." read " PI. LXXV." 

194, insert " PI. LXXVII. fig. 243." 

202, insert " PI. LXXVII. fig. 242." 

220, for "atricadua," read " atricauda." 

231, for " Cyprilurus," read " Cypsilurus." 

247, for "PI. LX. fig. 198," read "PI. LXXVI. fig. 240." 

257, 28th line, for " spears," read " spars." 

297, for "PI. XLIII." read "PI. XLVIII." 

325, for " PI. LV." read " PI. LVI." 



THE NEW-YORK FAUNA. 



CLASS V. FISHES. 

VERTEBRATED ANIMALS WITH COLD RED BLOOD ; BREATHING BY GILLS THROUGH THE MEDIUM 
OF WATER ; WITHOUT LUNGS. BODY COVERED MOSTLY WITH IMBRICATED SCALES OH 
PLATES, OR WITH A SMOOTH MUCOUS SKIN. MOVE IN WATER BY MEANS OF FINS INSTEAD 
OF FEET, WHICH VARY IN NUMBER. REPRODUCTION BY EGGS, WHICH ARE USUALLY FECUN- 
DATED AFTER E.XCLUSION. HEART UNILOCULAR, OR COMPOSED OF ONE AURICLE AND ONE 
VENTRICLE. HEAD VARIOUS ; NO NECK. AQUATIC. CHIEFLY CARNIVOROUS. 

Obs. The animals of this class are very numerous, and are readily distinguished from all 
others. About four thousand were assembled together by Cuvicr when he first began to study 
them, but the actual number now known is supposed to reach double that amount. 

Fishes have been divided into two great groups, viz. the Bony, and the Cartilaginous. 
The first comprises by far the greatest number of species. 

SUB-CLASS I. BONY FISH. 

Skeleton bony, the osseous matter being deposited in fibres. Sutures of the cranium distinct. 
With maxillary or intermaxillary bones, always one and generally both, pi-esent. Gill 
membrane with rays. 

Section 1. Pectinibranchii. 

Gills arranged in continuous rows like the teeth of a comb. Furnished with an opercle or 
gill cover, which is bordered with a loose 7nemhrane supported by rays. Jaws complete 
and free. 

Obs. This section embraces two orders, characterized chiefly by the presence or absence 
of spinous rays. 

Fauna — Part 4. 1 



NEW-YORK FAUNA, 



ORDER I. SPINE-RAYED. 

The first rays of the dorsal fin, or the entire first dorsal when two are present, with simple 
spinous rays. The first ray of the anal fin always spinous, and the ventral fins have also 
one or more of the anterior rays ahnost universally spinous. 

Obs. This order, which is designated in ichthyological works under the name of Acan- 
thopterygii, comprises seventeen families. In the waters of this State, we have the repre- 
sentatives of ten families. We commence with 



FAMILY I. PERCID.^. 

Edges of the operde or gill-cover, or of the preopercle {anterior gill-cover), and sometimes 
both, denticulated, or aimed with spines. The cheeks not cuirassed. Both jaws, the 
vomer and palatine bones, armed with teeth. 

Obs. a family rich in species, amounting nearly to six hundred ; a number of species 
greater than is to be found in the last edition of Linneus, including the whole class of fishes. 
The genera of this family alone are fifty-five in number, nearly equalling the genera employed 
by Linneus for his entire class. 

The characters assigned above are sufficiently distinctive, but we may here add, in more 
general terms, the following remarks on this family : Body oblong, more or less compressed ; 
covered with scales, generally hard, with their exposed surfaces roughened, and their free 
edges denticulated or serrated. Mouth moderately large. Gills well divided, and their mem- 
branes sustained by several rays, never less than five, and rarely above seven. Teeth in the 
jaws on a transverse line in front of the vomer, and almost invariably a longitudinal band on 
each palatine, and rounded patches on the pharyngeals ; occasionally on the tongue. No 
barbules, nor cirri or beards. Ventral fins for the most part under the pectorals ; occasion- 
ally in advance of it ; and in a few genera only, are they abdominal, or behind the ventrals. 

This family is remarkable for their beautiful forms, and the excellence of their flesh as an 
article of food. About one-fifth of the whole number of species inhabit fresh-water streams, , 
or occasionally ascend them ; and it is observable that some genera, which contain chiefly 
marine species, have a few fluviatile species, while the facts are reversed in other genera. 

All the fishes of this family, found in the United States or along its sliores, are included by 
Cuvier in his great work under the following genera, containing in the aggregate about forty 
species : 



FAMILY PERCID^ PERCA. 

Perca, Centropristes, Dules, 

Labrax, Grystes, Aspredodorus, 

HuRO, PoMOTis, Uranoscopus, 

LncioPERCA, Centrarchus, Sphyr,ena. 

Serranus, Bryttus, 

To these we have ventured to add indications of three others. 



GENUS PERCA. 

Body oblong, subcompressed. Ventrals beneath the pectorals. Gill membrane with seven 
rays ; opercle spiny ; preoperde with the posterior and basal margins toothed. Scales 
rough, not easily detached. Five soft rays to the ventral Jins. Two dorsals, or so deeply 
notched as to appear double. Teeth all minute, equal. Suborbital faintly serrated. 
Tongue smooth. 

THE AMERICAN YELLOW PERCH. 

Perca flavescens. 

PLATE I. FIG 1. 

Morone flavescens. MiTCHiLL, Report on the Fishes of N. Y. 

Bodianus flavescens. Id. Trans, Lit. and Phil. See. N. Y. Vol. 1, p. 421. 

La Perche jaundtre d'Amirique. Cut. et Val. Hist, des Poissons, Vol. 2, p. 46. 

Tlie American Perch. Richardson, Fauna Boreal. Amer. Vol.3, p. 1, pi. 74. 

The Common Perch. Stoker, Massachusetts Report, p. 5. 

The Yelloui Perch. KiRTLAND, Report on Zoology of Ohio, p. 168 and 190. 

Characteristics. Sides yellow ; six to eight dark vertical bands over the back. Pectorals, 
ventrals and anal, orange. Length 6-12 inches. 

Description. Body compressed, elongated, with a somewhat gibbous dorsal outhne. Scales 
small, adherent, ciliated on their free edges. Head above, and between the eyes, smooth. 
Lateral line, a series of tubes concurrent with the line of the back. Head sub-depressed ; 
and in the larger and older fish, the rostrum becomes more elongated, producing a concavity 
in the facial outhne. The first dorsal commences above the base of the pectorals. The 
first ray much shorter than the second ; the fourth, fifth and sixth rays longest, thence gra- 
dually diminishing to the last, which is very short. The space between the first and second 
dorsals is about 0'3 in extent. The second dorsal is composed of fifteen or sixteen rays ; 
the first two short and spinous ; in many individuals, there is but one spinous ray. The 
remaining rays are articulated, branched, very gradually subsiding from the anterior part. 
Pectorals moderate ; posterior margin slightly rounded, and composed of fifteen articulated 



4 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

rays. Ventrals slightly behind the pectorals. Anal beneath the second dorsal, of two spinous 
and eight articulated rays ; the first spinous ray shorter than the second. Caudal forked, or 
rather notched, with the tips somewhat rounded. Mouth moderate ; jaws even. Preopercle 
strongly toothed. The opercle serrated beneath, and with a spine on its posterior angle. 
Humeral bones grooved. 

Color. Above greenish and gold, with dark olive green. Vertical bands across the back, 
usually longest about the middle of the body, and gradually smaller towards the tail. Chin 
flesh-colored. Sides and abdomen golden yellow. Ventrals and anals bright orange. Pec- 
torals yellowish orange. Dorsals and caudal dusky brown ; the anterior dorsal tinged with 
light yellow, and with dark brown dashes along its length above the base of the fin. Pupils 
black ; irides golden. 

Length, 6'0- 12-0. 

Fin rays, D. 13.2.15; V. 1.5; A. 2.8; C. 17 f. 

The common Yellow Perch is one of the best known and widely distributed of all our 
fluviatile fislies. It may be considered as a northern fish, extending to the fiftieth parallel. 
Its geographical distribution has been much extended within a few years, by the artificial 
water channels created by the enterprise of several of our sister republics. Thus, in the 
State of Ohio, it was common in the small lakes in the northern parts of the State only, and 
in Lake Erie. Since the construction of the Ohio canal, we learn from Kirtland that it has 
found its way into the Ohio river, and may soon be observed in the Mississippi. It is com- 
mon in almost every pond and stream throughout the northern and middle States, and in all 
the great lakes. It is very closely allied to the P. fluviatilis of Europe ; and like that fish, 
is much esteemed by those who can not obtain salt-water species. It has occasionally been 
transported from one pond to another, with complete success. In 1790, Dr. Mitchill trans- 
ferred some of them from Ronkonkama to Success pond, a distance of forty miles, where 
they soon multiplied. In 1825, a similar experiment was made by transporting perch from 
Skaneateles to Otisco lake and Onondaga lake. In this latter case, the perch increased 
remarkably ; while pickerel, which were introduced at the same time, did not appear to 
thrive as well. The common dace and eel pout have also been transferred with complete 
success. They vary considerably in size in different localities. I have caught them in 
Otsego lake, weighing nearly three pounds, and have heard of them exceeding this weight. 
Cuvier has described two or three other species, which seem scarcely distinguishable from 
the perch just described. 



FAMILY PERCIDiE PERCA. 5 

THE ROUGH YELLOW PERCH. 

Perca serrato-granulata. 
PLATE XXII. FIG. 64. 
La perche u operculcs grams. Cuv. ct Val. Hist. Poiss. Vol. 2, p. 47. 

Characteristics. With roughened radiated hnes on the head. In other respects, resembhng 
the preceding species. 

Description. I have apphed this name to a yellow perch from Rockland county, which 
appeared to present the characters assigned to it by Cuvicr. I have nothing to add to the 
description given by that author. It is thicker than P. fluviatilis ; its cranium larger, and 
with roughened radiating striae. The opercle has likewise roughened radiating striaj, and 
is strongly toothed on its lower margin ; its upper lobe almost effaced, but its point is vei-y 
acute. In some individuals, the preopercle is smooth on two-thirds of its height, and has 
only a few near the angle ; . whilst in others, there are teeth throughout the whole extent. 
Those on the lower margin are always more minute and numerous than in the European 
species. The subopercle is toothed on two-thirds of its margin. 

Length, 6-0- 12-0. 

Fin rays, D. 14.2.13; P. 13 or 14; V. 1.5; A. 2.7; C. 17. 

The colors offer nothing essentially different from those of the preceding species, except 
that the dark blotches on the first dorsal are scarcely visible. 

THE ROUGH-HEADED YELLOW PERCH. 

Perca granulata. 
PLATE LXVm. FIG. 220. 
La perche a tcte grame. Cuv. et Val. Hist. Poiss. Vol. 2, p. 48, pi. 9. 

Characteristics. Head roughened by granulations, disposed in radiating striae on the parietals. 
A black spot on the four last rays of the first dorsal. 

Description. Teeth of the vomer more robust than in P . fluviatilis . Scales nearly smooth 
on their margins : The opercle feebly striated, and with few dentations. Six distinct and well 
defined bands. If the figure may be trusted for its coloring, the lower half of the ventrals, 
and the whole caudal, are blood red. The vent is near the anal fin. 

Fin rays, D. 15.2.13; P. 15; V. 1.5; A. 2.8; C. 17. 

I have never met with this species, and insert it on the authority of Cuvier, who received 
it from New- York through MM. Milbert and Lesueur. 



6 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

THE SHARP-NOSED YELLOW PERCH. 

Perca acuta, 
plate lxviii. fig. 222. 

La Perche a mttseau pointu. Cut. ct Val. Hist. Poiss. Vol. 2, p. 49, pi. 10. 
The Sharp-nosed Perch. Richardson, Fauna Bor. Am. Vol. 3, p. 4. 

Characteristics. With seven dark bands, between which are an equal number of spots or 
irregular bands. 

Description. Lower jaw elongated ; snout pointed. Minute dentations on the preopercle, 
and even on its lower edge ; a few, moderately strong, on the preopercle, immediately be- 
neath its point. The last ray of the first dorsal, and the first of the second dorsal, very short. 
The vent nearly equidistant between the ventral and anal fins. 

Color. Seven dark vertical bands descending on the sides ; and between them, seven half 
bands more or less regular, or merely spots on the dorsal region. 

Length, 8-0. 

Fin rays, D. 13 or 14.2.14; P. 14; V. 1.5; A. 2.7; C. 17. 

Sent to Cuvier from Lake Ontario. 



THE SLENDER YELLOW PERCH. 

Perca gracilis. 
Xa Perche grele. Cuv. et Val. Hist, des Poissons, Vol. 2, p. 50. 

Characteristics. Body elongated, with a small black spot on its first dorsal. Opercle not 
dentated. Length four inches. 

Description. Body less elevated than in the preceding species, and its facial outline less 
concave. No dentations on the opercle, and those on the preopercle very minute. Spinous 
ray of the second dorsal extremely feeble and short. Its bands and half bands as in the 
preceding, but less unequal among themselves. 

Length, 4"0. 

Fin rays, D. 12.1.13; P. 12; V. 1.5; A. 2.8; C. 19. 

This species was obtained from Skaneateles lake, Onondaga county, by Cuviei'. It is 
doubtless mixed there with the true Yellow Perch, of which I have obtained specimens from 
that lake. 



FAMILY PERCID^ LABRAX. 7 

EXTRALIMITAL. 

P. nebulosa. (Haldeman, Ac. Sc. Vol. 8, p. 330.) Body slender, slightly compressed; scales 
small, strongly serrated; tail truncated; pectorals very long; branchial rays 6; lateral line 
straight; yellowish brown, with dark transverse bands. D. 14.1.5; P. 14; V. 7; A. 11; C. 18. 
Length 5*5. Susquehannah River. 

P. minima. (Id. ib. p. 330.) Spots instead of bands. Dorsal with nine rays. Length 2-0. Sus- 
quehannah. 

Obs. Both these species are arranged by Mr. Haldeman under a subgenus of Percidae, which 
he terms Perci/io., characterized by six branchial rays ; preopercle smooth on its margin ; opercle 
ends in a spine, and with the cheeks scaly ; teeth all fine, and placed on the maxillaries and vomer. 

GENUS LABRAX. Cuvier. 

A disk or hands of teeth on the tongue. Suborbital and humerus without denticulations . 
Two points on the opercle. Two dorsal Jins distant and separated. Teeth on both jaws, 
on the vomer and palatines. Cheeks, preopercle and opercle scaly. Preopercle notched 
or denticulated below, serrated behind. 

THE STRIPED SEA BASS. 

LiBRAX LINEATUS. 

PLATE I. FIG. 3. — (STATE COLLECTION.) 

Sckiia hncata. Bloch, pi. 304. 

Perca, Rock-fish, Striked Bass at Nem-York. ScHOEPFF, Beobachwngen, etc. p. 160. 

Perca saxatiUs. Bloch, Schneid. p. 89. 

P. seplenlrionatis. Id. p. 90, pi. 20. 

Centropome Taye. Lacepede, Hist. Nat. des Poissons, Vol. 4, p. 255. 

Rocms striattis. MzTCHiLL, Report in part on the Fishes of New- York, p. 25. 

PercamitchiUi. Id. Trans. Lit. and Phil. Society of New-York, Vol. 1, p. 413, pi. 3, fig. 4. 

Rock-fish. Mease, Ib. Vol. I, p. 502. 

Le Bar raye, Labrax lineatus. Gov. et Val. Hist. Poiss. Vol. 2, p. 79. 

The Striped Bass, L. lirieatus. Stoker, Massachusetts Report, p. 7. 

Characteristics. Brown above, silvery beneath. From seven to nine blackish longitudinal 
stripes on each side of the body. Length from one to four feet. 

Description. Body cylindrical, tapering. Head and body covered with large adhesive 
scales. Lateral line obvious, running through the fourth stripe and nearly straight. Head 
somewhat obtusely pointed. Eyes large, and about two diameters apart. Nostrils double, the 
posterior largest. Gill openings ample. Lower jaw longest. Teeth numerous in the jaws 
and palatines. Teeth on the tongue most obvious on its sides. Opercle with two spines on 
its posterior margin, of which the inferior is largest. Preopercle finely denticulated along its 
lower margin. The first dorsal commences behind the pectoral, and above the latter rays of 



8 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

tlie ventral fins : it is composed of nine spinous rays, of which the first is very short, the 
second longer, the third and fourth longest, subequal ; thence rather suddenly decreasing to 
the last. A simple ray is interposed in the very short interval between this and the second 
dorsal, which is composed of twelve branched rays. The first branched ray is longest ; the 
others gradually become smaller to its termination, which is anterior to the end of the anal fin. 
The pectoral fins arise a short distance behind the branchial aperture ; are short, obliquely 
subtruncate, and composed of sixteen rays. The ventral fins originate slightly behind the 
pectorals, with the first ray short, robust and spinous. The anal fin arises under the fourth 
ray of the second dorsal ; the three first rays are short, spinous and robust. The portion with 
branched rays resembles in shape the second dorsal, but extends beyond it. Caudal fin 
broadly lunate. 

Color. Bluish-brown or bluish above, silvery on the sides and beneath. Along each side 
are from seven to nine inequidistant black parallel stripes ; the upper series of stripes pro- 
ceed directly to the base of the caudal fin, the lower ones terminate above the anal. These 
stripes are occasionally indistinct, sometimes interrupted in their course, and more rarely each 
alternately a continuous stripe, and a row of abbreviated lines or dots. Pupils black ; irides 
silvery. 

Length, 6-0 -48-0. 

Weight one to seventy pounds, and even more. 

Fin rays, D. 9.1.12; P. 16; V. 1.5; A. 3.11 ; C. 17 f 

This is a pretty generally distributed species among us, and aflTords a savory article of 
food. They take the hook with great freedom, and afford much sport to the angler. They 
are more frequently, however, taken with the seine. They may be seen in our markets 
during the whole year ; and although the larger fish may be considered as coarse and dry, 
yet the smaller ones are exceedingly delicate eating. 

The geographical limits of the Striped Bass appear to extend from the capes of Delaware 
bay to the coast of Massachusetts. I am strongly inclined to suspect the Bar-fish of Richard- 
son to be merely the first Var. P. mitchilli, interrupta, of Mitchill, characterized by rows of 
spots, five above and five below ; the lateral line so regularly interrupted and transposed as 
to appear like " ancient church music." Mitchill's variety has " the parallelism of the lines 
" broken ; and their integrant parts, the specks and spots, resemble confused rows of printing 
" types." Should the supposition of their identity be correct, the geographical range of the 
Striped Bass extends from Delaware bay to the Gulf of St. Lawrence. 

Dr. Mitchill has truly and concisely remarked that this bass is a salt-water fish, ascending 
fresh-water streams to breed during the spring, and for shelter during the winter. According 
to the observations of Mease, they make their appearance along the coast in large scholes,* 

* Schale, a word of Saxon origin, denoting a company of fish, and frequently corrupted into school and shoal. We take this 
occasion to state that the word bass is probably of Dutch origin, and applied to sea perches ; and it appears to have been adopted 
into our language anterior to the time of Willughby. In itself, it may have been corrupted from paartch or perch. 



FAMILY PERCID.E LABRAX. 9 

about the beginning of September. They keep between the outer bar and the beach, where 
they are caught by the seine in large quantities for the New- York and Philadelphia markets. 
From the same writer, we learn that they ascend rivers as far as the depth of water will per- 
mit, and lie among the bushes. Sometimes, from heavy rains, or the sudden melting of 
snow, the fish are forced from their abode back again to the salt water, and remain there until 
the freshet subsides, when they invariably reascend. They ascend high up the Hudson river, 
and have been taken under the Cohoes falls of the Mohawk. The larger individuals, called 
Green-heads, never ascend fresh-water streams. Along the coast, they enter creeks and inlets 
at night with the flood tide, in order to feed, and return with the ebb. Advantage is taken of 
this circumstance, by stretching a seine across the outlet, when great numbers are taken. 
As the weather grows colder, they penetrate into bays and ponds connected with the sea, 
where they imbed themselves in the mud. Near Sag-harbor, Suffolk county, I noticed one 
of these ponds, which was a source of great annual profit to the owner. 

This species, it will be noticed above, has had the fortune to receive many names. Dr. 
Mitchill, who was unacquainted with the labors of his predecessors, imposed upon this spe- 
cies, with characteristic simplicity, his own name. It is known under the various popular 
names of Striped and Streaked Bass, Rock-Jish, and oftener Rock. 

SchcepfF observes of this species, that " it is very common, and caught during the whole 
" year on the coast of New-York. They are brought into the market (dead) in great abun- 
" dance during the winter." " There are other fish in the same waters, which in shape, size 
" and color, completely resemble the striped bass, except that they have no lateral stripes 
" whatever. It is supposed that they are the same, and that they do not, until they are two 
" or three years old, take those stripes which sufficiently distinguish them from all others. 
" The linnean characters of Perca aspera apply to the above named fish, but it is clearly a 
" new species." It is probable, that in the latter paragraph, Schcepft' alludes to some species 
of Pogonias. 

From the avidity with which the striped bass seizes a hook baited with soft crab, clams, 
and the smaller cnistacea, it is probable that they form no inconsiderable portion of its food. 



THE RUDDY BASS. 

Labrax rupus. 

PLATE III. FIG. 7. — (STATE COLLECTION.) 

Perca, River Perch at Nm-Yori. ScHCEPFF, Beobachtungen, &c. 1788, p. 159. 

Morane rufa. Mitchill, Report in part, p. 18. 

Bodianus rufus. Id. PhiL Tr. Vol. 1, p. 420. 

Le pelit Bar d'Ammjue. Labrax mucronalus. Ccv. et Val. Hist. Poiss. Vol. 2, p. 86, pi. 12. 

Labrax mucromtus. Stoker, Massachusetts Report, p. 8. 

Characteristics. Dark bluish above, with a reddish hue over the whole body, fading into a 
reddish on the sides ; no lateral stripes. Length eight to ten inches. 
Fauna — Part 4. 2 



10 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

Description. Body deep, compressed. Dorsal outline somewhat gibbous. Head small, 
with a sloping facial outline. Nostrils double, the posterior much the largest. Scales den- 
ticulate ; all minutely punctured. Lateral line distinct, and nearly concurrent with the dorsal 
outline. Scales on the suborbital and opercle. Preopercle serrate on its posterior and inferior 
margins. Opercle with a flat acute point beneath, and a more obtuse one above, separated from 
each other by a deep emargination ; its edge membranous. A deep straight suture behind 
the orbit. Upper jaw protractile ; a band of minute teeth on the lower jaw and intermaxil- 
laries. Tongue subacute, punctate with black, smooth in the centre and at the tip ; a band 
of velvet-like teeth on the sides. The two dorsals connected by a slight membrane. The 
first dorsal composed of stout spines, more or less curved ; the first very short, the second 
twice its length, and the tliird still longer ; the fourth and fifth longest of all. The second 
dorsal longer than high ; the first ray straight, spinous, about two-thirds of the length of 
the next branched rays : the form of this fin is quadrangular, the rays diminishing very 
gradually in length to the last. Pectorals broad ; the upper rays longest. Ventrals in advance 
of the origin of the first dorsal ; its first ray stoutly spinous. Anal fin with three spines, the 
first of which is very short, and capable of being directed forwards. Caudal fin deeply 
emarginate. 

Color-. Dark bluish above, with a reddish hue over the whole, fading into yellowish or 
orange on the sides. Head with brilliant metallic reflections. Lips and chin rosaceous. The 
base of the pectorals dark brown, the fins themselves being yellowish. Ventrals reddish at 
their bases ; the remaining fins brown. 

Length, S-O-IO'O. Depth, 2-0-3-0. 

Fins, D. 9.1.12; P. 15; V. 1.5; A. 3.10; C. 17 |. 

This is a very common fish in our markets during the winter months, and early in the 
spring. They come into our markets from New-Jersey and Long Island, where they are 
obtained in brackish streams. Dr. Akerly, in his economical history of the fishes sold in 
the New-York markets, states that it is only fit for chowder. I have very little doubt but that 
is the species described by SchcepfT; and as his memoir on the fishes of New-York is not 
easily attainable in this country, and has never been translated, the following notice of this 
species may be acceptable to our ichthyologists. 

'• Perca — Perch, River Perch at New-York. 
"Head sloping; front scaly. Nostrils two, the largest near the inner angle of the eye. Eyes 
yellow. Upper jaw movable ; the under somewhat projecting. In both jaws, and in the fore part of 
the palate, are small brisdy teeth. Tongue oblong, triangular, rounded at the point, and rough on both 
edges. Gill covers scaly ; the upper dentate on its margin. Br. rays 7. Body compressed, oblong, 
and broadest between the first rays of the dorsal and the ventrals. Back brown, changing to blue and 
green. Belly white and shining. The imder lip, throat, gill membranes (often the pectoral and anal) 
red : this is occasioned by the blood shining through the tender membrane. Tail trifurcate. Ventrals 
placed at the extremity of the breast bone. Lateral line straight. All the scales fringed on their mar- 
gins (ciliata;). Dorsals two. D. 9.13; P. 15; V. 1.6; A. 3.12; C. 18. 



FAMILY PERCID^ — LABRAX. 1 1 

" This perch, which nearly equals in size our river perch, inhahits the coast of New- York and Long 
Island, in and at the mouths of fresh-water streams. It wants the six black lines and the black mark 
at the end of the dorsal, which characterize the European fresh-water perch. The first dorsal, more- 
over, has but thirteen (nine ?) rays." 



THE LITTLE WHITE BASS. 

LaBRAX P.4LLIDUS. 

PL.\TE I. FIG. S. — (STATE COLLECTION.) 

Morotie pallida. ^IiTCHiLL, Keport on the Fishes of N. Y. p. 18. 
Bodiamis pallidtis. Id. Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. N. Y. Vol. 1, p. 420. 

Characteristics. Body compressed, small, light-colored. First ray of the posterior dorsal 
nearly as long as the second. Opercle with a single spine. Length 3-4 
inches. 

Description. Body much compressed. The back, anterior to the dorsal fin, carinate ; head 
declivous ; scales rounded, minutely pectinate, readily detached, extending over the cheeks 
I and to the interobital space. Lateral line concurrent with the back. Nostrils double ; the 
posterior obliquely ovate. Fine velvet teeth on the maxillaries, intermaxillaries and palatines ; 
and with a strong lens, a band of teeth may be traced on each edge of the tongue. Opercle 
" with a single flat spine, and a pointed membrane extending beyond it. Preopercle angular, 
- serrated. Interopercle with a minute flattened spine ; humerus without a spine. Dorsal ap- 
parently double, but connected by a low membrane : the anterior portion consists of nine 
spinous rays, of which the fourth is longest ; the first very short, the second and eighth 
subequal. The first ray of the posterior portion spinous, long, nearly equalling in height the 
first branched ray ; the upper margin of this fin descends more abruptly than in the preceding 
species. Pectorals placed just anterior to the origin of the ventrals, feeble ; the first ray short 
and rudimentary, the second long and simple, the remainder branched. Ventrals situated 
beneath the first rays of the dorsal fin ; its first ray spinous, shorter than the second, third 
longest. Anal fin with three spinous rays, of which the first equals in length the first ray 
of the anterior dorsal ; the second and third more than double the length of the first. Caudal 
fin deeply emarginate. Air-bladder simple. 

Color. Light bluish above, and paler beneath ; sides and abdomen white. Base of the 
ventrals and anal fins faint pinkish. Some of the scales dark-colored, so as to represent a 
few irregular, interrupted horizontal bands along the sides ; this appearance, however, is 
scarcely perceptible when the fish i.s just drawn from the water. 

Length, 4 "5. Depth, 1'5. 

Fins, D. 9.13; P. 17; V. 1.5; A. 3.7: C. 17 f. 



12 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

This pigmy bass is commonly known with lis under the name of White Perch. I have 
the authority of Dr. Mitchill himself for tlie identity of the species. There are, however, 
several grave errors in liis description, some of which he assured me were typographical. 
I am inclined to suspect that it has been confounded by preceding writers with the mucronatus 
just described. Cuvier's iigure of this last named species agrees better with the paUidus, 
with the exception of the first ray of the second dorsal, which is represented as short ; while 
the description, " L'epine de sa seconde dorsale est presque aussi longue que le premier rayon 
" mou qui la suit," corresponds entirely with the characters of the White Perch. There 
are other discrepancies, such as the want of cilias or dentations to the scales, which scarcely 
apply to either species. Like the preceding species, it inhabits salt and brackish waters ; but 
as far as my observations have extended, is invariably a smaller species, being in fact a 
diminutive fish, and rarely brought to market for food. It occurs only in the spring, while 
the Ruddy Bass, or Salt-water Perch as it is sometimes called, is very robust, and is common 
throughout autumn and winter. The Little White Bass, or White Perch, may be readily 
distinguislied from the other by its light color, small size, and very compressed body. 

THE SMALL BLACK BASS. 

Labrax nigricans, 
plate l. fig. ico. — (state collection.) 

Characteristics. Dark colored, with a tinge of yellowish. First dorsal more elevated than 
the second. Length, 6-10 inches. 

Description. Body compressed ; back elevated. It has the general form of the Yellow 
Perch, but the frontal outline is more abruptly descending. Scales subquadrate, rounded 
behind, and minutely denticulated on their free margins (see figure). They extend over the 
opercular bones and suborbital, rising upon the soft rays of the dorsal, anal and caudal fins ; 
on the nape, they extend anterior to the eyes. Lateral line very distinct, and nearly concur- 
rent with the dorsal outline, from which it is distant about one-third of the depth of the body. 
Eyes very large, and near the facial outline. In a preserved specimen, a straight suture is 
observed extending backwards from the eye towards the upper portion of the branchial aper- 
ture. This is not visible, or but indistinctly, in the living individual. The upper portion of 
the orbit prominent. Nostrils double : the posterior obliquely oval, largest ; the anterior 
round, and furnished with a valvular membrane. Preopercle with its angle rounded, and 
strongly serrate on its horizontal and ascending margins. Opercle with a flat spine or point, 
separated by an emargination from an indistinct point above it. On the posterior part of the 
opercle, is a distinct vertical bony suture, near the ascending branch, and parallel with the 
preopercle. A band of velvet-like teeth in the upper and lower jaws ; a semilunar patch of 
teeth on the vomer ; a nan-ow band on the palatines, and a gi'oup of similar teeth on the 
pharyngeals. Tongue broad, and punctate with black, with rounded patches of excessively 
minute teeth on its sides and tip. The first branchial are pectinate. 



FAMILY PERCIDJE — LABRAX. 13 

Tlie first portion of the dorsal fin stoutly spinous ; the first ray very short ; the second as 
high again ; the third, fourth and fifth highest : in individuals of a small size, the fourth ray 
is highest. The spinous portion is connected with that behind by a low membrane ; its first 
ray is long and spinous, the remaining rays branched, and ending a short distance before the 
termination of the anal : the upper edge of this fin emarginate. Pectoral fins long and nar- 
row, arising anterior to the origin of the first dorsal fin, and its tip extending as far back as 
the eighth spinous ray of that fin. Ventral fins stout and broad ; the first ray spinous, the 
second ray with a short filament. Anal fin emarginate, with three spinous rays, the first very 
short ; the first four branched rays longer than the last spinous ray. Caudal fin furcate ; its 
tips subacutely rounded. 

Color. The general hue is deep brownish-black, more intense on the head and upper part 
of the body. In the older specimens, there is a strong brassy hue throughout ; occasionally 
dark longitudinal parallel streaks on the upper part of the body. Pupils black ; irides yellow. 
Base of the fins light greenish-yellow ; edge of the membrane of the spinous dorsal black. 
Upper portion of the membrane of the posterior dorsal fin transparent, and separated from the 
yellow portion at the base by a tolerably well defined dark band. Membrane of the anal fin 
dark towards the tips of the rays. 

Length, 6-0 -12-0. Depth, 1-5 -3-5. 

Fins, D. 9 or 10.1.12; P. 16; V. 1.5; A. 3.8; C. 15 f. 

This species, which is apparently undescribed, is commonly known under the name of 
Black Perch, and is found in various deep fresh-water ponds in Queens and Suffolk counties. 
When weighing one or two pounds, they are esteemed good eating. They, however, rarely 
reach this size, being for the most part about six inches in length. Individuals have, how- 
ever, been taken fifteen inches long. They rise to the fly, and afford much amusement to the 
sportsman. 

THE WHITE LAKE BASS. 

LiBRAX ALBIDCS. 
PLATE LI. FIG. 165. 

Characteristics. Bluish white, with a few narrow dusky lines. Anal fin with twelve soft rays. 
Second dorsal scarcely emarginate. Length 10-15 inches. 

Description. Body compressed ; back arched ; the portion anterior to the dorsal fin conve.x 
to the nape, where it becomes slightly concave, with the rostrum produced. Scales extending 
over the opercular pieces to the interorbital space, and on the base of the second dorsal, pec- 
toral, anal and caudal fins. The scales (see figure) are large, subquadrate, rounded and 
ciliated on the free margins, reticulated on the exposed surface ; truncated in front with four- 
teen radiating plaits on the concealed portion. Lateral line rather straight, not concurrent 



14 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

with the dorsal outline. Head small and pointed. Eyes large, O'S in diameter, and slightly 
more than their diameters apart. Nostrils double, contiguous, vertical, shghtly in advance of 
the orbits. Suborbital scaly. Preopercle with about fifty stout teeth on the posterior margin, 
more robust on the rounded angle, smooth beneath. Opercle with two small spines separated 
by a deep notch, which is filled up by membrane. Lower jaw slightly longest ; both with 
bands of small subequal acute teeth : similar, but smaller teeth on the vomer and palatines ; 
a small oblong patch of minute teeth on each side of the tongue, and a larger rounded patch 
of similar teeth at its base. 

The first dorsal fin composed of nine spinous rays, arising at a point vertical to the origui 
of the ventral : the first spine short, not exceeding a quarter of an inch in length ; the second 
twice the length of the first ; the third more than twice the length of the second ; the fourth 
and fifth subequal, longest ; thence gradually diminishing in size to the last, which is more 
slender and rather longer than the first. The second dorsal arises a short distance behind, 
and perfectly distinct from the first ; composed of one spinous and thirteen branched rays. 
The spinous ray is robust, and half the length of the first articulated ray, which, with the 
two followmg, are longest ; the last ray longer than the two or three preceding : this is not 
faithfully rendered in the figure. Pectoral fins small, pointed, of seventeen rays ; the upper 
simple, short ; the third and fourth longest. Ventral fins slightly behind the base of the 
pectorals, robust, with one stout sharp spine and five branched rays ; the tips with a tendency 
to filamentous. Anal slightly emarginate, with three spinous and twelve branched rays ; these 
rays, as well as those of the second dorsal fin, have elongated scales extending towards the 
tips. The first spine is short, the second twice the length of the first, and the third rather 
longer than the second, but not more than half the lengtli of the first soft ray. Caudal fin 
deeply lunate, with scales ascending high on the rays. 

Color. Bluish white above the lateral line, with a few narrow parallel dusky streaks above 
and beneath this line. Sides and belly white. Pupils black; irides white, intermixed with a 
little brown. Dorsal, caudal and anal fins brownish, tinged with blue. Pectoral fins whitish, 
tinged with olive green. Ventral fins light transparent bluish, tipped with white. 

Length, 10-5. Depth, 3-0. 

Fins, D. 9.1.13; P. 17; V. 1.5; A. 3.12; C. 17 |. 

This is a very common fish in Lake Erie, and is known at Buffalo under the name of 
White Bass. It readily takes the hook, and is esteemed as an article of food. 

(EXTRA-LIMIT AL) 

L. notatus. (Richardson, F. B. A. p. 8.) Ten parallel series of lines, forming regularly abbre- 
viated spots. D. 9. 1 . 12 ; V. 1.6; A. 1.12; C. 17. Length one to two feet. River St. Law- 
rence. 

L. muUilineatus. (Cuvier & Valen. Vol. 3, p. 488.) Sixteen longitudinal lines along the sides. 
D. 9.1.13; P. 14; V, 1.5; A. 3.12; C. 17. Length 15 inches. River Wabash. 



FAMILY PERCID^. 15 



GENUS HURO. Ciivier. 



With most of the characters of the Genus Perca, hut wanting de7i.ticulati.ons on the bones 
of the head, and more especially on the preopercle. Opercle with two small flat points. 

THE BLACK HURON. 

HURO NIGRICANS. 

PLATE LXIX. FIG. 224. 

Huro nigricans. Cov. & Val. Hist, des Poissons, Vol. 2, p. 124, pi. 17. 
Perca {Huro) nigricans. Richardson, Faun. Boreal. Am. Vol. 3, p. 4. 

Characteristics. Back and sides dark, with a faint greyish longitudinal streak through each 
row of scales. Length sixteen inches. 

Description. General form that of the Perch. Greatest depth of the body under the first 
dorsal, and equal to one-third of the length of the body. Scales large, .smooth, covering the 
head as far as the orbit, and extending also on the opercles. Lateral line tubular, concurrent 
with the dorsal outline. Head flattened above, with striae diverging to the orbits. Lower 
jaw directed obliquely upwards, and projecting 0-25 beyond the upper. Velvet-like teeth on 

the jaws, vomer and palatines. Tongue . The bony opercle has an acute oblique notch 

on its posterior margin, producing two thin points. The branchial membrane, according to 
Cuvier, with seven rays. Richardson enumerates but six. The first dorsal small ; its third 
ray longest, the fourth and fifth nearly as long. The second dorsal an inch behind the first, 
and one-third higher ; the two first rays spinous, short ; the first ray articulated, simple ; the 
remainder branched. In the only specimen hitherto examined, the rays of this fin were in- 
jured, but Cuvier supposes that there must have been twelve or thirteen : only eight were 
visible. Pectorals with the first ray very short. Ventrals immediately beneath them. Anal, 
with its branched rays, equal in height to those of the second dorsal. Caudal slightly emar- 
ginate, with its tips rounded. 

Color, taken from a dried specimen. Back and sides dark, with a faint longitudinal streak 
through the centre of each row of scales. Belly yellowish white. 

Length, 17' 5. 

Fins, D. 6.2.8 or 12; P. 15; V. 1.5; A. 3.11 ; C. 17 f 

This is a remarkably firm and well-flavored fish, taken readily with the hook during the 
summer months in Lake Huron, where it is called Black Bass. It will probably be found in 
Lake Erie, and of course within the limits of the State. As I have not seen it, I have availed 
myself of the description and figure given by Cuvier and Valenciennes. Its history is yet 
imperfect ; nor, with our present knowledge, can we assign it positively its proper place in 
the family. 



16 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

GENUS PILEOMA. 

With tivo distirict dorsals. Preopercle smooth. Opcrcle 'pointed, loith a feeble flattened 
spine. Ventrals with five soft rays. Teeth uniform in size. 

Obs. In order to prevent confusion, I have deemed it proper to place this small species in 
a separate group ; believing, with Cuvier, that such a course is to be preferred, rather than 
to change the characters of another genus in order to force it into a group to which, in other 
respects, it may be a total stranger. I am unable to satisfy myself as to its true position in 
this family, but its smooth operclc would seem to indicate its vicinity to the genus Hiiro. 

THE CHAMPLAIN PICKERING. 

PiLEO.MA .SEMIFASCIATUM. 
PLATE L. FIG. 162. — (STATE COLLECTION.) 

Characteristics. Small. Olive green, with numerous bands of a darker hue over the back. 
Length two to four inches. 

Description. Body oblong, cylindrical. Scales moderate, denticulated, very small on the 
preopercle, larger on the opercle, nearly uniform on the remaining parts of the body ; thir- 
teen rows above and eight below the lateral line, enumerated in the centre of the body. 
Lateral line distinct and nearly straight. Head small, sloping. Eyes rather large, with the 
supra-orbital margins prominent. B ranchial membrane with seven flattened rays. Preopercle 
nearly rectangular, smooth. Opercle terminating in a soft flat point ; just anterior to this 
point, is a small flat spine. Lower jaw shortest ; gape moderate. Jaws armed with feeble 
subequal teeth ; indistinct vestiges of teeth on the vomer and palatines, more manifest on the 
pharyngeals. 

The first dorsal fin commences above the base of the ventrals, and is composed of eleven 
subequal spinous rays, the posterior rays gradually diminishing in length. At an interval of 
0*2, commences the second dorsal, higher than the first, and containing fifteen branched rays. 
Pectoral fins broad and rounded. Slightly behind this fin, arises the ventral, which is long and 
pointed. Anal fin longer than high, originating a little behind the commencement of the second 
dorsal, and composed of twelve aimulated rays. Caudal broad, and very slightly emarginated ; 
in some individuals, nearly even. 

Color. The general hue is pale greenish-olive, becoming lighter towards the abdomen. A 
series of about twenty dark olive or brownish stripes across the back, alternately but not 
regularly longer, and becoming dilated on the vertebral line. Gill-covers metallic green and 
gold. Pupils purplish ; irides silvery. A dark round spot at the base of the caudal. Dorsals 
dark brownish, resulting from numerous minute dark spots on their membranes. Caudal fin 
with four or five dark vertical bands. 



FAMILY PERCID^ — LUCIOPERCA. 17 

Length, 2-0 -4-0. Depth, 0-3 -0-5. 

Fin rays, D. 13.15; P. 15; V. 1.5; A. 12; C. 15 |. 

I obtained this beautiful Httlc fish at Westport on Lake Champlam, where it appeared to 
be very abundant. It is numerous also in many streams in that vicinity. It readily takes tlie 
hook, and is extremely active and voracious. Its popular name in that district is the Little 
Pickerel, or Pickering, which is also apphed to many other species. 

GENUS LUCIOPERCA. Gesner, Cuvier. 

Ventrals beneath the jyectorals, with five soft rays. Tivo dorsal fins. Canine or long teeth 
mixed ivith smaller ones. 

This genus includes a few fresh-water fishes from the northeastern parts of Europe, from 
Asia and North America. Its name indicates the united characters of a perch and pike. In 
this State, we describe two species. 

THE YELLOW PII^-PERCH. 

LnclOPERCA AMERICANA. 

PLATE L. FIG. 103.— (STATE COLLECTION) 

Perca vilren, The Ghss-ei/e. Mitchill, Suppl. Am. Month. Mag. Vol.2, p. 247, 

Lucioperca amcricana, Le Sandre iV Amhitine. Cuv. et Val. Hist. Poiss. Vol. 2, p. 122. jil. 16. 

L. id., Tlie American Sandre. Richardson, F. B. A. Fishes, p. 10. 

The OIcow or Horn-fish. Id. lb. p. 14. 

L. lucioperca, Salmon of the Ohio, Pike of the Lake. Kiktlaxd, ZooI. Ohio, p. 100. 

Characteristics. Greyish tinged with yellow. A black mark on the posterior part of the 
spinous dorsal. Lower edge of the opercle smooth. Length, 12 to 18 
inches. 

Description. Body elongated, cylindrical, tapering ; profile of the head in a gently sloping 
straight line to tlie extremity of the snout. Scales moderate, subquadrate, ciliate on the 
rounded free margin, with six radiating plaits in front. Lateral line nearly straight from the 
upper edge of the gill-cover to the tail, including in its course ninety-five scales. Orbits large, 
oval, 0.7 in their antero-posterior diameters. Nostrils double ; the anterior with a valvular 
orifice. Preopercle serrated by a series of distant spines, directed upwards on the posterior 
margin, and forward, beneath. Opercle with a slender flat terminal spine, beyond which is a 
pointed membrane. Branchial rays seven. Mouth wide, extensible ; the lower jaw received 
into the upper. A series of acute recurved teeth in both jaws, and on the vomer and palatines. 
Two very long and conspicuous teeth, resembling canines, in front of eacii jaw ; tiiose of the 
lower received into cavities above. Teeth on the vomer minute ; the anterior on each pala- 
tine very large and conspicuous. Tongue smooth, pointed, free. 

Fauna — Part 4. 3 



18 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

The first dorsal fin arises at a point vertical to a line between the bases of the pectoral and 
ventral fins, and is composed of thirteen long and slender spinous rays : some authors have 
enumerated fourteen. The first rays are an inch long ; the second, nearly a third longer ; 
thence subequal to the eighth, when they rapidly subside to the last, which is attached to the 
body by a broad black membrane. The second dorsal fi:i with one short simple subspinous 
ray, and twenty-one articulated rays : it arises half an inch behind the first dorsal ; its ante- 
rior soft rays longest, thence gradually diminishing, and ending half an inch posterior to the 
termination of the anal fin. Pectorals somewhat pointed, 1 ■ 8 long, and composed of fourteen 
rays, the tip reaching beneath the eighth ray of the spinous dorsal fin. Ventral fins placed 
slightly behind the pectorals, and composed of one stout spine of five branched rays ; its tips 
reach a point equidistant between its base and the vent. Caudal fin furcate, with numerous 
accessory rays. 

Color. Yellowish olive above the lateral line ; lighter on the sides ; silvery beneath. Head 
and gill-covers mottled with green, brownish and white. Chin pale flesh-color. Pupil dark 
and vitreous ; irides mottled with black and yellowish. Membrane of the spinous dorsal 
transparent, with a few dark dashes ; the upper part of the membrane tipped with black ; 
posterior portion of the membrane, including the two last rays, black. The soft dorsal fin 
light yellowish, spqtted with brown in such a manner as to form irregular longitudinal dusky 
bars. Pectoral fins yellowish olive, with maculated brownish bars. Ventral fins transparent 
yellowish. Anal fin of the same color, with a broad whitish margin. Caudal fin with irre- 
gular dusky bars. 

Total length, 14-5. Greatest depth, 2-2. 

Length from the snout to the point of the opercle, 3" 5. 

Fins, D. 13.1.21; P. 15; V. 1.5; A. 1.14; C. 17 |. 

This is the Common Pike, Pickerel, Pickering, Glass-eye and Yellow Pike of the Great 
Lakes, and of most of the streams and inland lakes in the western parts of the State. In 
Ohio it has received the name of Salmon. The ordinary common names give no correct idea 
of its character. It is a true Perch, although its form and habits suggest very naturally the 
idea of a Pike. I have therefore apphed to it a name which indicates its true position, and is 
a translation of its classical appellation. 

The Pike-perch is exceedingly voracious, and is highly prized as food. It is caught readily 
with the hook, and appears to prefer as bait the coimnon fresh-water cray-fish (Astacus 
bartoni). The best time for fishing is in the dusk of the evening, with a great length of line 
out, and keeping it gently in motion. The foot of rapids, or beneath mill-dams, appears to 
be its favorite haunts. In the heat of summer, it seeks the deepest parts of lakes, or in 
streams in the coolest parts concealed under weeds or grass. According to Dr. Kirtland, it 
is one of the most valuable fishes for the table, found in the western waters, and sells readily 
at a high price. It is found in such quantities about the Maumee river, as to induce fisher- 
men to take it as an article of cominerce. At Lake Huron, it spawns in April or May. It 
is occasionally much larger than the dimensions of the one described above. In Chautauque 



FAMILY PERCID^ — LUCIOPERCA. 19 

lake, I was informed of one whicli was tliirty inches long. It had swallowed a duck, wliich 
had thrust its head through the gill openings of the fish, and having tlius destroyed it, both 
were found dead on the shore. 

The Pike-perch is found from the Ohio, through all the great lakes, and through the rivers 
of the fur countries up to the fifty-eighth parallel of latitude. Fishermen enumerate in our 
State three species or kinds : The Blue Pike, which I have seen, and consider as an aged 
individual of the present species ; the Yellow Pike, just described ; and the Grey Pike, 
which I consider as specifically distinct. Under the name of Perca vitrea, Mitchill has 
described a species which may apply to this or the following, but the description is too vague 
to enable me to adopt his previous name. 

THE GRAY PIKE-PERCH. 

LnclOPERCA GBISEA. 
(ST.ITE COLLECTION.) 

Characteristics. General hue gi-eyish. Membrane of the spinous dorsal fin without the black 
spot. Invariably smaller than the preceding. Length ten to twelve inches. 

Description. Form of the head, body and opercles resembling entirely the preceding. The 
first dorsal with fourteen, and the second with eighteen rays. Anal with thirteen rays. 

Color. Color yellowish, strongly tinged with grey. Opercular bones, and summit of the 
head greyish. The first dorsal fin light-colored, tinged with yellowish, and with a rounded or 
irregular blue-black spot on the membrane between each ray. The second dorsal of the 
same color, with a series of similar spots forming two or more irregular bars. Pectoral fins 
yellowish, with a few dark spots. Ventrals yellowish, immaculate. Anal whitish, transpa- 
rent. Caudal fin with ahernate transverse bars of bluish brown and faint yellowish. 

Length, 10-0- 12-0. 

Fins, D. 14.1.17; P. 15; V. 1.5; A. 13; C. 17 f. 

This species is found with the preceding, but is never larger than as given above. It is 
equally prized as an article of food. 

(EXTRALIMITAL.) 

L. canadensis. (Griffith's Cuv. Vol. 10, pi. 1, p. 275. PI. 68, fig. 221.) Dark olive green above; 
beneath whitish ; a few pale yellow spots on the sides below the lateral line. Lower margin of 
the opercle with .five acute spines. Length 14 inches. River St. Lawrence. 



V 



20 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

GENUS BOLEOSOMA.* 

Two dorsal fins. Opercle scaly, icilh a single spine. Preopercle smooth on the margin. 
Six branchial rays. Nape depressed, contracted. 

THE TESSELLATED DARTER. 

BoLEOSOMA TESSELLATl'M. 
PLATE XX. FIG. 57. — (STATE COLLECTION.) 

Characteristics. Small, brownish, witii oblong quadrate spots on its back and sides. Length 
two to three inches. 

Description. Body cylindrical, tapering, covered with rough scales, which extend over the 
opercular bones. Scales moderately large for the size of the fish, rounded ; truncated and 
plaited in front, ciliate on the free margin. Lateral line tubular, broadly and regularly con- 
cave, nearly medial. Head small. Nape smooth, and depressed at the basal line as if 
strangulated ; thence ascending to the interorbital space, and descending rapidly to the tip of 
the snout. Eyes large, contiguous, O'lS in diameter, and less than their diameters apart; 
the space between deeply furrowed. Nostrils double ; the posterior near the edge of the 
orbit, the anterior with valvular margins. Opercle with a pointed membrane behind ; and in 
advance of this, a small but robust spine. The preopercle with a smooth margin, and rounded 
at its angle. Branchial membrane with six rays. Mouth small, terminal, slightly protractile. 
Very minute card-like teeth in the jaws, forming two or more series. Equally minute teeth 
on the vomer, and anterior portion of the palatines. Tongue smooth. No swim-bladder. 

Dorsal fins two ; the first commencing on the anterior third of the head and body ; the first 
dorsal with nine spinous rays ; the first ray slightly shorter than the second ; the third, fourth 
and fifth, subequal, longest ; thence gradually diminishing to the last, which is supine, and 
nearly hidden in tlie depression which contains the fin. The second dorsal fin arises 0' 2 
behind this last, and contains fourteen branched rays longer than high ; highest in front, where 
it exceeds in height the spinous dorsal, and gradually diminishing behind, ending beyond the 
termination of the anal. Pectorals pointed, hastate, the tip reaching the end of the first 
dorsal ; composed of thirteen rays, the fiftli and sixth longest, the inferior ray shortest. Ven- 
trals small, arising posterior to the base of the pectorals ; composed of one simple and five 
branched rays, of which the third is longest. Anal nearly as long as high, composed of ten 
rays, of which the first two are short. Vent under the origin of the second dorsal fiit. 
Caudal fin even, and is a powerful instrument, 0" 45 in length. 

* From ^oXij, a dart or jaccUn. and C^jhk, body. 



FAMILY PERCID.E SERRANUS. 21 

Color. Olive brown, with from five to seven oblong quadrate black spots on the back along 
each side of the dorsal fin. Another series of spots, similar in shape, size and color, alonf 
the lateral line, and varying in number from seven to nine on each side. A short vertical 
black line from the eye, directed obliquely forward, and a similar black dash extending from 
the eye to the nose. Fins transparent ; the rays spotted with light brownish, forming narrow 
bars. Pupil black ; irides brown. 

Length, 2-5. Depth, 0-4. 

Fmrays, D. 9.14; P. 13; V. 1.5; A. 10; C. 17 f. 

This singular and beautiful little fish docs not appear to have been hitherto described. It 
is usually seen at the bottom of clear springs or streams, lying for a while perfectly still near 
the bottom, and then suddenly darts off with great velocity at its prey. This habit has ac- 
quired for it the popular name of Darter. Another name, Grcmd.ora7ichee, is given to it in 
this State by the descendants of the Dutch colonists, but of its meaning I have obtained no 
satisfactory explanation. It occurs in most of the fresh-water streams of the State. 

I find among the Percidm, no genus with which this can be satisfactorily arranged, nor 
indeed is there any combining the characters of two dorsals with six branchial rays. Ethe- 
ostoma, a loosely constructed genus, which is cited by Kirtland (Boston Journal, Vol. 3, p. 
347), approaches it in the form of its head, but its opercles are said not to be scaly. 

GENUS SERRANUS. Cuvier. 

With a single dorsal. Canine teeth mingled with others. Preopercle minutely denticulate. 
Opercle tvith one or tivo spines ; generally loith scales on thejaivs. 

Obs. This genus, established by Cuvier, embraces at present about one hundred and ten 
marine species. The preopercle, in many species, becomes so minutely denticulate as to 
appear entirely smooth. The jaws also jiresent remarkable varieties ; some species having 
them covered with large scales, whilst in others they are scarcely visible. This and all the 
succeeding genera of the family Percidre have a single dorsal fin. 

THE C4R0PER. 

Serranus ertthrogjster. 
plate xix. fig. 5s. 

Characteristics. Olive brown above ; beneath red. Dorsal and caudal, ventral and anal fins 
bordered with blue, and edged with dusky. Length two feet. 

Description. Body oblong, subcompressed, deepest at the origin of the dorsal fin, thence 
tapering .gradually to the tail. Height, to its length, as one to three and a half. Body 
covered with small quadrate oblong rough scales, ciliated on the margin with about eight 



22 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

radiating plates on the anterior surface. The scales cover the opercular bones, and the lower 
jaw, where they are small, long, narrow and elliptical, and are also on the bases of the fins. 
Lateral line concurrent with the dorsal outline. Head large ; its outline sloping in a regular 
but slight curve to the snout, and, measured to the point of the opercle, is one-third of the 
total length. Eyes large, near the facial outline, and 1-0 in diameter. Nostrils double, con- 
tiguous, subequal ; the anterior with a valvular membrane on its posterior margin. Pre- 
opercle denticulated minutely on the upper part of the ascending branch, more strongly 
towards the angle, which is rounded, and, with the lower margin, smooth. Opercle terminat- 
ing in a flat membranous point : on its surface, 0* 5 in advance of its tip, is a flat lancet-shaped 
spine ; beneath this, and slightly in advance, is a second spine of the same size and shape ; 
and near the upper angle of the branchial aperture is a third, more obscure, and rounded. 
Mouth large, protractile, extending back beneath the orbits. Lips fleshy. Teeth small, 
acute, conic, recurved, distributed in two bands in the jaws, with an intervening free space 
in the centre ; the teeth in the posterior series are larger as they approach the centre of the 
jaw ; the exterior series is composed of longer, very acute, more robust, and distant teeth- 
Vomer, palatines, pharyngeals, and branchial arcs covered with acute bristly teeth. 

The dorsal fin commences eight inches from the end of the snout, or above the point of the 
opercle, and contains eleven robust spinous rays received into a furrow, and sixteen flexible 
rays : the fii'St spinous ray short, less than half the length of the second ; the third longest ; 
the tenth shorter than the eleventh. The soft portion of the dorsal rounded, equalling in 
height the longest spinous rays ; it terminates beyond the end of the anal. Pectorals placed low 
down, rounded, with one simple and fifteen branched rays, with a scaly fold on the superior 
part of its base behind. Ventrals placed slightly behind the base of the pectorals, pointed, 
triangular, with one robust spine and five branched rays ; the posterior ray attached to the 
abdomen by a membrane. Vent about an inch in front of the anal fin, which has two spines 
and ten soft rays : the first short, robust, acute ; the third simple, scarcely spinous, and 
enveloped in membrane ; the remainder branched. This fin commences under the second 
ray of the soft portion of the dorsal, and is high and rounded, equalling in height the longest 
spinous rays of the dorsal. Caudal broad, crescent-shaped, and composed of sixteen rays. 

Color. Brownish olive, with a reddish tinge. Jaws, chin, branchial membrane, abdomen, 
pectoral and ventral fins, and base of the anal fin, of a beautiful sahnon-red, more or less 
brilliant. Literior of the mouth of a bright blood-red. Dorsal, anal and caudal fins brownish- 
black, with a bluish submargin bordered with black more or less deep : this black color is 
more intense on the caudal fin. Pupils black ; irides yellow. This is the general distribu- 
tion of the colors in the particular individual described above ; but in thirty or forty others 
which I have examined, the general color is brownish, slightly tinged with red, the abdomen 
exhibiting most of the latter color. 

Length, 24 "0. Greatest depth, 7*0. 

Fms, D. 11.16; P. 16; V. 1.5; A. 2.10; C. 16. 



FAMILY PERCID^ SERRANUS. 23 

This beautiful fish, which is not unusual in our markets in June and July, where it sells 
from six to twelve cents per pound, is called by the fishermen, Groper and Red Groper. It 
is a southern species, and is brought hither from the reefs of Florida ; but I have been 
assured by intelligent fishermen, that it is occasionally, but very rarely, taken off our coast. 
Dr. Holbrook informs me that it is brought into the Charleston market from Florida, in the 
months of January, February and March. It bears a general resemblance to Hemulon ; but 
all its characters combine to place it in this family, and under Serranus, or rather to that 
subdivision {Merou) which has not yet received a distinct appellation, but which is charac- 
terized by the lower jaws being covered with fine scales. Its flesh is rather tough, and held 
in little estimation. 



(EXTRA-LIMITAL. ) 

S. morio. (Cuv. and Val. Vol. 2, p. 285.) Browniish above, reddish beneath; maxillaries and 

branchial membrane red; pectorals orange; ventral spotted with red; anal with three spines. 

Length two and a half feet. Antilles. 
Obs. Tills appears closely allied to the preceding. Cuvier states that he has received it from 

New- York, through Mr, Milbert. 
S. acutirostris. (Id. Vol. 2, p. 286.) Entirely browi. Snout more elongated than in the other species. 

Preopercle very minutely denticulated. Length two feet. Charleston. 

Obs. In the collection of drawings of the fishes of Carolina, obUgingly communicated by Dr. 

Holbrook, are two species similar to the above, but apparently undescribed. 
S. fascicularis. (Id. Vol. 2, p. 245.) With 5-6 longitudinal bands. Preopercle with two groups 

of radiating spines on the lower part of its posterior margin. Three transverse lines on the summit 

of the head. LenE:th 6-10 mches. Charleston, S. C. 



24 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

GENUS CENTROPRISTES. Cuvier. 

A single dorsal Jin. All the teeth on the jaws, vomer mid palatines, velvet-like. Preopercle 
serrated. Opercle spinous. The snout, jaw and branchial membrane without scales. 

THE BLACK SEA BASS. 

Centropristes nigricans. 

PLATE II. FIG. 5. — (STATE COLLECTION.) 

Perctt, Blacli-fish ill New-York. ScHOirFF, Beobacht. Naturf. Fr. Vol.8, p. IGl. 

Coryphwna nigresccnx. Bloch, Syst. posth. p. 207. 

Lulimms trilohus. Lacepede, Hist. Poiss. Vol.4, p. 246, pi. IG, fis. 3. 

Perca raria. MiTCHiLL, Report in part, etc. p. 10. 

P. id.. Sea Basse. Id. Lit. and Phil. Soc. N. Y. Vol. 1, p. 415, pi. 3, fig. G. 

Le Ccntrnjjristc noir, Centrojjristes nigricans. Cuv. et VaL. Hist. Poiss. Vol. 3, p. 37, pi. 44. 

C. id., The Black Perch. Stop.er, Fishes of Massachusetts, p. 9. 

Characteristics. Uniform bluish-black. Dorsal fin mottled with white. Caudal fin, when 
perfect, trilobate. Length, 6-12 inches. 

Description. Body oblong, compressed, somewhat carinatcd on the back before the dorsal 
fin. Scales subquadratc, cilialc, with radiating plaits on the radical surface, and festooned 
on the anterior margin ; they extend over the opercle, suborbitals, and high up on the caudal 
fin ; eighteen are counted vertically, and fifty-four along the lateral line : this line is concur- 
rent with the dorsal outline. Preopercle distinctly denticulated on its whole margin. Opercle 
with a sharp spine, and above it another, which in young individuals is almost effaced. Eyes 
large, and near the frontal outline. The nostrils are double, in the same plane with the 
upper border of the orbits, and nearer to the orbits than to the snout ; the posterior largest, 
oval ; the anterior with a valve. Teeth velvet-like throughout ; several series on the jaw, of 
which the outer row is largest. Tongue pointed, smooth, free. 

The dorsal fin commences above the base of the pectorals, and ends beyond the termination 
of the anal. The spinous rays have each of them a membranous slip attached to their tips ; 
this portion of the fin is lower than the branched rays, which form an elevated and rounded 
fin. The first two spinous rays are short; the third longest. A series of scales rise up on 
the membrane between the rays of this fin, for nearly one-fifth of its lieight ; and the same 
occurs on the anal and caudal fins. The pectorals broad, and reaching to the vent. Ventrals 
rounded. Anal fin with three spines and seven branched rays, which latter are high and 
obtusely rounded. The caudal fin, although usually described as rounded, is in fact trilobed ; 
but the rays of the tips are so exceedingly delicate, that they usually present a ragged appear- 
ance difficult to describe. I searched among many individuals, before I could find one as 
complete as the imperfect one figured above. In the youngest and smallest specimens, this 
imperfection is quite as manifest as in others. When perfect, the tips end in a delicate 
elongated point, and the middle of the fin is rounded. 



FAMILY PERCIDiE CENTROPRISTES. 25 

The stomach of the Black Sea Bass has four cascal appendages. The generative organs 
are double, both in the male and female. The air-bladder is large and simple. There are 
twenty-four vertebrae. 

Color. A uniform bluish-black, sometimes vs^ith a bronzed appearance. Dr. Mitchill 
describes this species as " regularly speckled with black and white from the head to the tail." 
The deeper color of the edges of the scales gives a regularly reticulated appearance to the 
whole surface of the body. The fins, excepting the pectoral, are of a light blue color. The 
dorsal fin distinctly, and the anal fin more faintly, mottled with pale blue. 

Length, 6-0- 12-0. 

Fin rays, D. 10.11; P. 18; V. 1.5; A. 3.7; C. 17 |. 

This is one of the most savory and delicate of the fishes which appear in our markets from 
May to July. Its most usual name with us is Sea Bass, although it is sometimes called 
Blue-fish, Black Harry, Hannahills and Black Bass. Farther south, it is named Black- 
fish. Its geographical range appears to be extensive along our coast. It is found on the coast 
of Florida, and its northern limits appear to be bounded by Cape Cod on the coast of Massa- 
chusetts. We learn from Dr. Storer, that it is caught in great numbers at Martha's Vineyard, 
lor the New- York market. It is a southern species, ranging northward in the early part of 
the summer, and returning in the autumn. From causes which we are unable to explain, it 
sometimes happens that its northern migration is obstructed to a considerable extent. 

(EXTRALIMITAL.) 

C. trifurca. (Cuv. et Val., Vol. 3, p. 43.) With seven blue bands. The third and fourth dorsal 
spines with fleshy slips, as long as the spines themselves. S. Carolina. 



Fauna — Part 4. 



26 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

GENUS GRYSTES- Cuvier. 
Opercle spinous^ Preopercle entire. A single dorsal. All the teeth uniform, velvet-like 

THE GROWLER 

Grystes salmoides. 

PLATE LXIX. FIG. 223. 

While Salmon. Smith, Hist. Virginia. 

Labre salmoide. Lacep. Vol. 4, p. 710, pi. 5, fig. 2. 

Cickla vahabilis. Lesueur, Acad. Sc. as cited by Cuvier. 

Grystes satiTwides, Le growler salmoide. Cuv. ct Val. Vol. 3, p. 54, pi. 45. 

Characteristics . Deep greenish brown, with a bluish spot on the point of the opercle. Young.. 
with numerous longitudinal lines. Length 6 - 24 inches. 

Description. Greatest depth, to its length, as one to four nearly ; its thickness not quite 
half of its depth. Profile not very declivous. Lower jaw longest, with four or five pores 
under each of its branches. Minute teeth in broad bands. Opercle terminates in two mode- 
rate points, of which the uppermost is short. Branchial rays six, and occasionally seven ; a 
notable variation, but which is positively established. Humeral bone smooth. Scales ciliate, 
moderate ; ninety in a longitudinal scries, and thirtv-six to forty in a vertical line. Scales 
only on the opercular bones and cheeks ; small ones on the soft portions of the dorsal, anal 
and caudal fins. Lateral line concurrent with the back. Dorsal fin commences about the 
middle of the pectorals ; the fourth ray highest. Pectoral and ventral fins small. Caudal fin 
slightly crescent- shaped. 

Color, in the adult, deep greenish-brown, with a bluish-black spot on the point of the 
opercle. Young, with from twenty-five to thirty brownish longitudinal bands, which appear 
to become effaced with age. 

Length, 6-0 — 24*0. 

Fin rays, D. 10.13 or 14; P. 16 ; V. 1.5; A. 3.11 or 12; C. 17. 

The above description, from Cuvier, would seem to imply the existence of two species 
He received them from New-York, from Carolina, and from the Wabash (Indiana). Those 
from New-York varied from six to nine inches, and had six branchial and fourteen soft dorsal 
rays. The Wabash specimens varied from five to sixteen inches in length. In Carolina, it 
attains a length of two feet, is considered as excellent food, and passes under the name of 
Trout. I have seen neither the species nor the description of C. variabilis, cited by Cuvier 



FAMILY PERCID.*:. 27 



GENUS CENTRARCHUS. Cuvier. 

Preopercle not denticulated. Velvet-like teeth in the jaws, front of the vomer, on the pala- 
tines, and base of the tongue. Angle of the opercle divided into two flat points. Anal 
spines usually numerous. Body oval, co?npressed. A single dorsal. 

Obs. This is a numerous group in the United States. 



FRESH- WATER BASS. 

Centrarciius ;enecs. 

PLATE II. FIG. 1. — (STATE COLLECTION.) 

Ctclda atnea. Lesueur, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc. Vol. 2, p. 214, pi. 12. 
CentTarcus tcncus. Cuv. et Val. Hist, des Poiss. Vol. 3, p. 84. 
Cicktamnca, Rock Bass. Kirtland, Zool. Ohio, p. 16S and 190. 

Characteristics. Dark greenish bronze, with .5-6 series of irregular subquadrate spots on the 
sides below the lateral line. Anal fin with six spinous rays. Length 
6-10 inches. 

Description. Body short, compressed ; its height rather exceeding the length of the head 
measured to the posterior angle of the opercle. Head scaleless between and anterior to the eyes. 
Scales small on the preopercle, larger on the opercle ; slight indications of serratures about 
the angle of the preopercle. Scales adherent ; on the sides, large and rounded, and, under 
the lens, denticulated on their free margins, truncated and plicated at their bases. Thirteen 
rows of scales below the lateral line, and about six above ; they ascend upon the bases of the 
dorsal, anal and caudal fins, forming a sort of sheath as in the family Scienidffi. Lateral line 
concurrent with the back, and composed of a series of single tubes ; in some individuals, I 
have noticed this line to be distorted in a very anomalous manner. Eyes very large, and 
rather prominent. Nostrils small and double. Opercle with the rudiments of a double angle 
on the posterior margin. Lower jaw somewhat longest. Teeth small, subequal, conical, 
recurved ; on the jaws, vomer, palatines and pharyngeals. Stomach with from five to seven 
short cffical appendages, and filled with the young of a species of Astacus or crayfish. 

Dorsal fin long, commencing above the ventrals, and composed of eleven spinous and twelve 
articulated rays : the first, second and third rays of the spinous portion successively longer ; 
the remainder subequal, and all acutely spinous : the articulated portion rounded, with longer 
rays ; the sixth, seventh and eighth exceeding the others in height. The pectorals broad and 
rounded, composed of fourteen rays. Ventral fins placed just behind the pectorals, and com- 
posed of one weak spine and five multifid rays, the last connected to the body by a broad trans- 
parent membrane. Anal fin compound ; arising under the eighth spinous ray of the dorsal fin, 
and comprising six spinous and eleven articulated rays ; the first spinous ray very short, the 



28 NEW- YORK FAUNA. 

articulated portion oblong and rounded. Caudal fin eniarginate, with the tips rounded. The 
scales on the base of this fin ascend high up on the membrane. 

Color. The general appearance of this fish is a dark greenish bronze. Head above dark 
bottle-green. Back, above the lateral line, of the same color. Gill-covers metallic green. A 
dark spot above the posterior angle of the opercle. The sides below the lateral line with six 
or more longitudinal series of subquadrate dark spots. Pupils dark purple, with a narrow 
golden ring ; the remainder of the eye blue and reddish. Dorsal fin light green, with lighter 
spots on the rays. Membrane of the caudal fin darker than the rays. Ventral and anal fins 
tipped with bright blue. Pectorals light olive-green. 

Length, 6-0 -S'O. Depth, 2*0 -3-0. 

Fin rays, D. 11.12; P. 14; V. 1.5; A. 6.11 ; C. 17 §. 

This description was drawn up from several specimens which I obtained in Lake Cham- 
plain, where it is called Rock Bass. It is an edible species, and readily takes the hook. 
This species occurs abundantly in the great lakes, and in the larger streams in the western 
counties of the State. Since the completion of the Erie and Champlain canals, it has made 
its appearance in the Hudson river. The C. ceneus of Richardson, which was recognized by 
Cuvier, exhibits some difference, particularly in the serratures of the lower margin of the 
preopercle, which almost incline us to the belief that our species is undescribed. It is possible, 
Irowever, that these may be variations depending on age or locality. If it be C. ceneus, the 
characters of the genus will require to be changed. 

THE BLACK FRESH-WATER BASS 

CeNTRARCHOS FASCIAT0S. 

PLATE HI. FIG. 8, 

Cichla fasciata. Lesueur, Jour. Acad. Sc. Vol. 2, p. 216. 

C ohioensis. Id. lb. p. 218. 

C. minima. Id. (Young?) 

The Black Bass of the Lake and of the Ohio. Kirtland, Zool. Ohio, p. 191. 

Characteristics. Large. Anal fin with three spines. Color dusky bluish ; often with trans- 
verse bands. Length, 12-15 inches. 

Description. Body compressed. Back arched, gibbous. Profile descending obliquely 
to the rostrum, which is moderately prolonged. Scales large, truncate, and with radiating 
plaits at the radical portion ; the free portion small, rounded, concentrically striate, minutely 
denticulate on the margin. Scales on the opercle large, with a single series on the sub- 
opercle ; much smaller on the preopercle, and ascend high up on the membrane of the soft 
dorsal and caudal fins. The intra-orbital region, and the jaws, scaleless. Lateral line con- 
current with the back. Eyes moderate. Nostrils double, vertical, contiguous ; the anterior 
on its posterior border, with a membranous valve ; near these, a few open pores. Opercles 



FAMILY PERCID^ CENTRARCHUS. 29 

pointed with a loose membrane. Lower jaw somewhat advanced, witli a single series of 
from eight to ten distant pores beneath. Both jaws armed with a broad patch of minute, 
conic, acute, recurved teeth. An oblong patch of rasp-like teeth on the vomer, and a long 
band of similar teetii on the palatines. A transverse membrane in the anterior part of both 
jaws. A small patch of minute teeth on the centre of the tongue, which is free, and thin on 
the margins. Branchial arches minutely toothed on the upper surface near the tongue, with 
long, serrate, spinous processes above. Pharyngeal teeth in rounded patches. Branchial 
rays six. 

Dorsal fin commences slightly behind the pectorals. The anterior portion consists of nine 
stout spines, received into a sheath below ; the first is shorter than the second, which again 
is not so long as the third, and this latter is subequal with the remainder. A small and not 
very evident depression separates it from the other portion, which consists of one spinous and 
fourteen branched rays : it terminates above the end of the anal. This portion of the dorsal 
fin is high, and somewhat rounded ; the second simply articulated, not branched, and the 
three posterior rays successively shorter. The pectorals under the posterior angle of the 
opercle, broad, and obtusely pointed. It contains eighteen rays, of which the fifth, sixth 
and seventh are longest. Ventral fins placed slightly behind the pectorals, and composed of 
five robust branched rays. Anal fin higher than long, commencing under the third soft ray 
of the dorsal, and composed of tlu'ee spinous and twelve articulated rays, of which latter, 
the fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh are longest ; the first spinous ray very short, the second 
slightly longer, and the third double the length of the preceding. Caudal fin emarginate ; 
tips rounded, and composed of sixteen flat, robust, multifid, and six accessory rays on each 
side. 

Length, 13-5. Of head, 4-0. Greatest depth, 4-2. 
Fin rays, D. 9.1.14; P. 18; V. 5 ; A. 3.12; C. 16 |. 

This species is common in the gi-eat lakes, and in the numerous smaller ones in this State, 
where it is generally known under the name of Black Bass. The species appears to differ 
very much in different localities, not only in color but in form ; and according to Dr. Kirtland, 
the same individual will change its color repeatedly in a short space of time, if confined in a 
vessel of water. The specimen from which I had drawn up my description, was from Oneida 
lake ; and until I had examined many others at Buffalo and Oswego, I supposed it to be 
specifically distinct from Lesueur's species. It is very probable, nevertheless, that there are 
several species yet to be detected, which pass under the general name of Black Bass. 



30 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

THE OBSCURE FRESH-WATER BASS. 

CENTRAnCHUS OBSCDBliS. 

PLATE XVIL FIG. 48. — (CABINET OF THE LYCEUM.) 

Characteristic. Body not gibbous. 

Description. Body compressed, regularly arched above, not gibbous, highest along the 
spinous portion of the dorsal fin. Scales small, orbicular, concentrically striate on their free 
surfaces, covering the head and body, and rising very slightly on the base of the dorsal. 
Lateral line tubular above the upper margin of the opercle ; makes a curve downwards over 
the point of the opercle, then rises a little anterior to the first spinous ray of the dorsal, and 
then becomes concurrent with the line of the back. Head moderately small, and somewhat 
pointed ; sloping gradually to the nape, thence ascending more rapidly to the dorsal ray. 
Eyes very large. Nostrils double, distant, the posterior largest ; a small mucous pore be- 
neath the anterior nostril. Lovi^er jaw longest. Numerous fine teeth in both jaws, very acute, 
and recurved ; forming many rows in front, and fewer on the sides of the jaw. Still more 
minute teeth on the vomer and palatines. Opercular bones scaly ; the opercle with a membra- 
nous margin, and terminating in a flat point, which is occasionally double. 

The dorsal fin arises behind the base of the pectorals, composed of nine spinous and thirteen 
simple rays. The first spinous is shortest ; the first of the soft portion simple ; the remainder 
articulated, and much higher than the spinous portion : it is coterminal with the anal fin. 
Pectorals oblong, and composed ot sixteen rays ; the upper ray subspinous, simple. Ventral 
fin pointed, contiguous, composed of one spinous and five branched rays. Anal rounded, of 
three spinous and twelve branched rays ; the first spine short, the others gradually longer. 
Caudal fin emarginate, of seventeen entire and three accessory rays on each side. All the 
rays of this fin are broad and compressed, with scales ascending high up towards their extre- 
mities. 

Color. A general greenish-brown or dark-olive, with faint metallic bronze on the upper 
parts ; beneath lighter. 

Length, 6-0-8-0. 

Fins, D. 9.1.12; P. 16; V, 1 .5; A. 3.12; C. 17 f. 

This species, which I do not find exactly described, was obtained from Onondaga creek, 
where it is called, with many others, Black Bass. The Cichla minima of Lesueur may pos- 
sibly prove to be the young of this species. 

(EXTRA-LIMITAL) 

C. pentacanthus. (Cuv. et Val. Vol. 3, p. 88.) Dorsal fin with ten, and anal with five spines. Five 
inches. River Wabask 



FAMILY PERCID^ — POMOTIS. 31 

C. hexacanthus. ■ (Id. Vol. 3, p. 88, and Vol. 7, p. 458.) Dorsal lowest in front; anal high and long 
D. 8.16; P. 12; V. 1.5; A. 6.18. Length 12 inches. Wabash rivir. 

C. sparvides. (Id. Vol. 7, p. 459.) Anal higher than in any other species of the genus. Fourteen 
, series of black points along the sides. D. 12.13; A. 9.15. Length seven inches. South-Caro- 
lina. 

C. irideus. (Id. Vol. 3. p. 89.) Fins spotted with browTi; dorsal with a large round, black spot, bor- 
dered with yellow or orange. D. 11.14; A. 7. 16. Length six inches. South-Carolina. 

C. gulosus. (Id. Vol. 3, p. 498, and Vol. 7, p. 459.) Mouth exceedingly large. Brilliantly colored. 
D. 10.9; A. 3.8. Length eight inches. South-Carolina, Mississippi. 

C. virides. (Id. Vol. 7, p. 460.) Green, with scattering black spots. Resembling C. aneus in form. 
D. 11.10; A. 3.8. Length eight inches. Carolina. 

GENUS POMOTIS. Cuvier. 

A few denticulations, more or less obvious, on the borders of the preopercle. Palatines and 
tongue smooth, and without teeth. Minute teeth on the jaws, vomer and pharyngeals. 
Branchial rays six. Opcrcle with an elongated membrane at its angle. 

Obs. This is an exclusively American genus, and composed entirely of fresh-water fishes. 
It is very closely allied to the succeeding genus. The type of this genus was originally made 
a Labrus by Linneus, Lacepede and others ; but in calling it a Perch, the common people, 
according to Cuvier, exercised more discernment than naturalists. 

THE COMMON POND-FISH. 

POMOTIS VDLGARia. 

PLATE LI. FIG. 166. 

Labras auntus. LiN. 

Spams, Goldfish. ScH(EPFF, Loc. cit. Vol. 8, p. 150. 

Morone maculata. MiTCHiLL, Report in part. '^, ■■ 

Labrus aurilus. In. Tr. Lit. and Phil. Soo. N. Y. Vol. 1, p. 403. 

Le Pomotis cammun, P. vulgaris. Cuv. et VaL. Hist. Poiss. Vol. 3, p. 90, pi. 49. 

The Northern Pomotis, P. id. Richardson, Faun. Bor. Am. Fishes, p. 21, pi. 76. 

Fresh-water Sun-fish, P. td. Storer, Fishes of Massachusetts, p. 11. 

Characteristics. Green mixed with olive, and numerous dull reddish spots over the body. 
Appendix of the opercle black, bordered behind with scarlet. Length six 
to eight inches. 

Description. Body much compressed, oval, deepest about the fourth dorsal spine. Fore- 
head sloping to the mouth. Scales large, adherent, oval, even, and subdentate on the con- 
cealed margin. Lateral line concurrent with the back. Head small, one-sixth of the total 
length. Eyes large, circular, and near the facial outline. Nostrils double ; the anterior 
tubular. Mouth small, protractile, with very minute crowded teeth on the jaws, vomer and 



32 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

pharyngeals. Preopercle obsoletely crenated, visible under a lens. Opercle terminating in 
a bony obtuse point, which is still farther prolonged by an attached membrane. Dorsal fin 
compound ; the spinous portion with subequal rays, except the first, which is somewhat 
shorter than the following ; the soft portion high and rounded. Pectorals long, subtriangular, 
pointed, reaching to the soft portion of the dorsal. Caudal fin emarginate. 

" Color. Greenish-olive above, with irregular points of red, and broader yellow or reddish 
brown spots disposed in very irregular series. Ranges of brighter spots on the bluish oper- 
cles, radiating from the region of the mouth. On the posterior prolongation of the opercle is 
a black spot, terminating behind in bright scarlet. 

In Indian lake, Lake Janet, and others in that vicinity, I noticed a remarkable variety of 
the P. vulgaris, about four inches long. The appendix was black, margined with light blue ; 
sides beautifully punctate with blood red ; abdomen bright yellow ; opercles longitudinally 
striate with blue. 

Length, 4-0- 6-0. Depth, 2-0 - 3-0. 

Fin rays, D. 10.12; P. 12; V. 1.5 ; A. 3.9; C. 17 f. 

This beautiful little fish has derived one of its popular names, viz. Sim-Jish, from the 
glittering colors it displays while basking in the sun. The numerous spots on its body has 
occasioned it to be called liy the whimsical name of Pumpkin-seed, in some districts of the 
State. In Massachusetts, it is often called Bream. It is of no value as an article of food, 
but is often caught for amusement. 

The Common Pond-fish has a wide geographic range, extending from Lake Huron through- 
out the eastern States. According to Dr. Kirtland, it occurs in the western waters. Along 
the Atlantic, it is found as far south as Carolina, and probably still farther south. 

THE BLACK-EARED POND-FISH. 

POMOTIS APPENDIX. 

Labrus appendix. MiTCHiLL, Suppl. Mem. Am. Month. Mag. Vol. 2, p. 247. 

Characteristics. Body sombre colored, beneath whitish. Appendix entirely black. Length 
five or six inches. 

Description. Body more robust, thick and chubby than the preceding ; and the prolonga- 
tion of the opercle broader, and much longer. Mouth larger, with a wide gape. Pectoral 
fins broader, and more rounded. Branchial or gill membrane with five rays. 

Color. Scales less variegated than in the preceding. Throat and belly pale and whitish. 
The prolongation of the opercle marked with black only. 

Fins, D. 10.11; P. 13; V. 5 ; A. 3.10; C. 19. 



FAMILY PERCID^ — POMOTIS. 33 

The above characters would seem to announce a new species. I have never met with it, 
and have adopted the description of Mitchill. Its broad appendix distinguishes it from P. 
solis, mentioned beneath. 

{EXTRA-LIMITAL.) 

P. ravandi. (Crv. et Val. Vol. 7, ji. 465.) Back mucli arched ; denticulations very fine at the angle 
of the preopercle. D. 10.11; A. 3.9. Length eight inches. South-Carolina. 

P. holbrooki. (Id. lb. p. 466.) Very large black spots on the soft rays of the dorsal; 'preopercle very 
finely denticulated. A. 3.11. Length nine inches. South-Carolina. 

P. incisor. (Id. lb. p. 467.) A single black spot on the soft rays of the dorsal appendix; long. D. 
10.10; A. 3.9. Length six inches. New-Orleans. 

P. gibbosus. (Id. lb. p. 467.) Longitudinal series of blackish spots along the back ; membrane of the 
opercle wide and striate. D. 10.11; Ai3.ll. Length eight inches. Charleston. 

P. soils. (Id. lb. p. 468.) With no spots or stripes on the body or fins ; appendix very long and nar- 
row. D. 10.11; A. 3.10. Neio-Orleans and New-York. 

P. catesbei. (Id. lb. p. 469.) Brown and oblique lines on its cheeks ; blackish points on the dorsal 
and anal fins. Body elongated. D. 10.11; A. 3.9. Length four and a half inches. Phila- 
delphia. 

Genus Bryttus, Cuvier. A narrow band of velvet teeth on the outer edge of each palatine. The 
form and all the other characters of the preceding. 

Obs. Cuvier, to whom we are indebted for this genus, observes that it is impossible to find a 
greater resemblance than between this and Pomoiis, the above character being the only one by 
which they can be contradistinguished. The three species following may prove to be simple 
varieties. 
B. punctatus. (Gov. et Val. Vol. 7, p. 462.) Black points on its cheeks and the sides of the abdo- 
men; first soft ventral ray filiform; appendix narrow, and not much elongated. D. 10.11; A. 
3.8. Length five and a half inches. South-Carolina. 
B. reticulatus. (Id. lb. p. 463.) Bright yellowish-green; base of each scale darker, so that the body 
appears as if covered with a net work. D. 10.11; A. 3.11. Length seven inches. South- 
Carolina. 
B. unicolor. (Id. lb. p. 464.) Only three or four teeth on the anterior part of the palatines. Fins 
unspotted. Color uniform. D. 10.11; A. 3.9. Length six inches. Pennsylvania, South- 
Carolina. 



Fauna — Part 4. 



34 NEW- YORK FAUNA. 

GENUS DULES. Cuvier. 

Six branchial rays. No canine teeth. Preopercle denticulated. Opercle with two or more 
fiat spines. 

Obs. Tliis genus is allied closely in its forms and other characters to Centropristes, but is 
separated by the number of its branchial rays. Its species inhabit the seas of the torrid zone, 
but occasionally wander along our coast. 

THE COACHMAN. 

Doles acriga. 
PLATE XIX FIG. 54 — (CABINET OF THE LYCEUM.) 
Lc Doules cocker. Dales auriga. Ciiv. el Val. Hist. Poiss. Vol. 3, p. 112, pi. 51. 

Characteristics. Third ray of the dorsal iin elongated into a filament. Length four and a half 
inches. 

Description. Body compressed, arched ; height less than one-third of its length. Scales 
large, rounded, concentrically striate. Lateral line distinct, concurrent with the back. Sum- 
mit of the head scaleless. Eyes large, less than one-third of their diameter apart, with two 
slio'ht furrows between. Preopercle with the denticulations fine, and crowded on the ascend- 
ing margin ; large and more distant beneath. Opercle with two flat pointed spines, not 
extending beyond the margin ; a rounded denticulated process above them. Lower jaw long. 
Fine velvet teeth on the jaws, vomer and palatines ; on the upper jaw, in front, they are 
somewhat larger, but equal, and according to Cuvier, cannot be considered as canines. 
Dorsal fin undivided ; commences over the branchial aperture ; the first two spinous rays 
short ; the third a long slender filament, as long as the interval between the base of tlie pec- 
toral and caudal fins ; the spinous portion of this fin equalling in length, but not as high as 
the soft portion. Pectorals broad and long. Ventrals beneath them. Anal fin with its second 
spinous ray longer than the first and third. Caudal fin nearly even, rounded. 

Color. Yellowish-grey, with three or more dusky vertical bands. Ventral fins tinged with 
blackish towards their tips. 

Length, 4 "5. 

Fin rays, D. 10.13; P. 17; V. 1.5; A. 3.7; C. 17 |. 

This species can only be regarded in the light of an accidental visitor. I observed it several 
years ago in the collection of Mr. Hamilton, who informed me it had been taken in the harbor 
of New-York. From notes made at the time, it appears that I regarded it as a new species, 
under the name of SeiTunus signifer. Upon comparison, however, with a specimen in the 
Cabinet of the Lyceum from the island of Jamaica, I am satisfied that it is identical with the 
species described by Cuvier. It is a tropical species. 



FAMILY PERCID^. 35 



GENUS APHREDODERUS. Lesueur. 

Six branchial rays. Teeth velvet-like. Denticulations on the two edges of the suborbital. 
Preopercle denticulated. Opercle with a spine at its angle. Ventral fins without a spi- 
nous ray. Vent under the throat. 

Obs. This genus is founded on a species first observed in the neighborhood of Philadelphia, 
and referred, after a very slight examination, to Scolojjsides of Cuvier, a genus of the family 
Scienidce. The presence of teeth on the palatines excludes it, however, from this family. 
Subsequently Lesueur again saw it at New-Orleans, and elaborated its characters under a 
new genus Aphredoderus of the family Percids. This genus is in fact one of the most sin- 
gular of the whole family, by the position of its vent, and the absence of a spine to the ventral 
fin. But one species has yet been detected. 

THE SPINELESS PERCH. 

Aphredoderus sayanus. 
PLATE XXI. FIG 62. 

Scolopsis saynnus. GiLLIAMs, Joitr. Acad. Nat. Sc. Vol. 4, p. 81, pi. 3. 
Apliretlodcnis gibbostts. Cuv. et Val. Hist. Poiss. Vol. 9, p. 448, pi. 278. 

Characteristics. Dusky ; beneatii light yellowish. Gibbous. Length three to five inches. 

Description. Body oblong, thick, subcompressed. Back elevated, descending with an equal 
curve from the soft rays of the dorsal to the nape. Depth to total length as one to four nearly. 
Scales small, rough, rounded and ciliated ; forty-five to fifty are counted in a longitudinal series. 
The lateral line very slightly curved, nearly straight, and passing near the middle of the body. 
Head flattened above. The anterior portion of the suborbital has a bony crest, supporting 
two or three spines, which are continuous with the denticulated crest of the upper margin, so 
that the lower margin of the orbit is smooth, while the upper two-thirds of the margin is rough ; 
two crests form a longitudinal furrow between them. Preopercle wide, finely denticulated) 
with its angle rounded, and covered with six rows of scales. Opercles large, scaly, with a 
smooth margin, but a short robust spine near its angle. Eyes moderately large. Nostrils 
double ; that near the margin of the orbit large, with an anterior valvular luembrane ; the 
anterior somewhat smaller, tubular. Lower jaw longest. Numerous conic incurved teeth on 
the jaws, anterior part of the vomer, palatines and pharyngeals. Tongue smooth ; its end 
rounded and free. Branchial rays six. At the angle formed by the fold of the branchial 
membrane, is placed the vent. 

Dorsal fin high, commencing an inch and a half from the end of the snout, and placed in 
the middle third of its body ; it has three, and according to Gilliams four, spinous rays ; the 
branched rays higher than the others, nearly subequai, the last somewhat shorter. Ventrals 



36 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

slightly behind the base of the pectorals, and containing no spinous ray. Anal fin commences 
just before the termination of the dorsal, and has three short spinous rays. Caudal rounded, 
nearly even. Stomach very small. Intestine traverses the long abdominal cavity with three 
turns, and ends in the vent, under the throat. Six cascal appendages. Urinary bladder small, 
oblong. Kidneys long and narrow, communicating directly with the bladder. Air-bladder 
very large, rounded at the ends, simple. 

Length, 3- 0-4- 5. 

Radial formula, Br. 6 ; D. 3.11; P. 12; V. 0.7; A. 3.7; C. 17. 

This curious little species is also exceedingly rare, but four specimens having been obtained. 
Although I have not met with it in this State, yet its already ascertained wide geographic 
range leaves no doubt but that it will be detected here. In the Histoire des Poissons, the 
two individuals described are arranged without hesitation as belonging to the same species ; 
and Lesueur, who drew them both, assigns a new name, forgetting in this instance the abso- 
lute rule of priority. The very doubtful propriety of naming species after individuals, leads 
me to regret that I must restore the original name. It is worthy of remark, that Lesueur, 
who drew and engraved the first specimen described by Gilliams, neglected noticing the very 
peculiar position of the vent ; a circumstance equally unobserved by its describer. By a 
typographical error in this latter description, twenty-seven rays are attributed to the anal fin. 

Little is known of its habits. It appears to prefer muddy pools, shaded by trees. At 
New-Orleans, it is called by the Creoles Tetard de Saint Domingue. 



FAMILY PERCIDiE. 37 

GENUS URANOSCOPUS. Linncus, Cuvicr. 

Head large, cubical, flattened above. Branchial rays six. Velvet teeth on the jaivs, vomer 
and palatines . A spine on the humeral bone. Eyes vertical. Ventrals jugular, or placed 
in advance of the pectorals, tohich are large. Lateral line ascends, and runs near the 
base of the dorsal fin. 

Obs. Iu addition to these characters, many species have a long fleshy filament within the 
mouth in front of the tongue, which they are apparently enabled to thrust forth at their plea- 
sure, and use as a bait for other fishes. The fishes of this genus, from their large and 
roughened head, and the size of their suborbitals, were for a long time arranged with Cottus, 
Scorpmna, and other genera of the family Triglida;. Cuvier, however, discovered that the 
suborbitals are not, as in that family, articulated with the ascending branch of the preopercle, 
but with a bony plate above, which forms a part of the tympanic bone. The genus is suscep- 
tible of subdivision into two sections, according as they have one or two dorsal fins. 

For a long time, it was supposed that the American shores of tlic Atlantic did not furnish 
a single specimen of this genus. Major Lc Conte has, however, detected a beautiful little 
species on the coast of South-Carolina. 

THE UNARMED URANOSCOPE. 

Uranoscopds anoplos. 
plate xxii. fig. 65. — (state collection.) 

h^Uraiwscopc aiwphsc, U. anoplos. Cuv. et Val. Hist. Poiss. Vol.8, p. 493. 

Characteristics. Cheeks smootii and unarmed, no projecting filament from within the mouth. 
Length two inclies. 

Description. Form typical. Head flattened. Body entirely whhout scales. Lateral line 
distinct, ascending to the first dorsal, and running close along the base of the dorsals tlirough- 
out their whole length, when it rapidly descends to the middle of the tail. The suborbital 
forms a long and slender process, which descends obliquely downwards and backwards ; its 
posterior portion very narrow ; and as the limit of the preopercle is also very narrow, the 
anterior portion of the cheeks are naked, a character unlike what is observed among its con- 
geners. Lower edge of the preopercle smooth. Opercle wide, slightly convex, with radiating 
striae. A broad loose transverse membrane beneath the lower jaw, covering the base of the 
branchial rays. The rudiment of a transverse ligament within, but no fleshy filament. Eyes 
large, vertical, one diameter and a half apart. Nostrils with subtubular margins, " 2 apart. 
Minute acute recurved teeth on the jaws in several series. Teeth also on the vomer and pala- 
tines of the same character. Two small tuberosities on the nape, 0"2 behind the eyes. 

The first dorsal fin arises 0"6 from the end of the snout, and is composed of four minute 
spines ; the first three coimected by a low membrane ; the posterior postrate, and nearly 



38 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

concealed in the skin. Second dorsal fin higher ; gradually rising to the fifth ray, and 
descending again from the ninth ray. Pectorals long, reaching opposite the sixth ray of the 
second dorsal. Ventral fins contiguous, of six rays, of which the internal is longest, being 
0-4 in extent. Anal fin not as high as the second dorsal, composed of twelve rays, and 
ending slightly beyond the termination of the dorsal. Caudal fin nearly even, with simple 
rays, projecting beyond the membrane, and composed of eleven entire and four accessory 
rays on each side. 

Color. Back above greenish, and, with the extremity of the lower jaw, minutely pimctate 
with black. First dorsal fin blackish. Pectorals greenish ; the remaining fins while, tinged 
with yellow. 

Length, 2-2. Depth, 0-6. 

Fin rays, D. 4.1.12; P. 19; V. 1.5; A. 12; C. 11 f. 

I have nothing to add to the history of this species, except that it has not yet been observed 
north of Carolina. I am indebted to Major Le Conte for an opportunity to examine this 
species. Through the carelessness of the engraver, the figure is represented of the natural 
size. I have little doubt but that one or more species will be found on the coast of this State. 
Mr. I. Cozzens, who is well acquainted with this genus, informs me, that some years since, 
he saw a specimen six inches in length, caught in the harbor of New-York. It had the 
exsertile filament mentioned above. He endeavored, but without success, to obtain the speci- 
men, which he subsequently ascertained had been sent to England. 



FAMILY PERCIDJE. 39 

GENUS SPHYRiENA. Cuvier. 

Body elongated, with tivo distant dorsals. Lower jaw longest ; both with long teeth. Ven- 
trals post-pectoral, or placed toivards the middle of the body. 

Obs. The fishes included iindcr this genus have long been arranged under the family 
EsocidK, and indeed their general form and habits would lead one to associate them with the 
Pikes. They are, however, true Acanthopterygians, or fishes with bony rays ; have two 
dorsal fins, and the intermaxillaries extend over the entire edge of the ujsper jaw. They 
have also numerous cscal appendages, and their ventral fins are abdominal. Cuvier, in liis 
last great work, places them at the end of the Percids, from which, liowever, they must be 
separated, as he observes, together with Faralepis and Pohjnemus, by a considerable interval. 
These three genera will, in all probability, form a distinct family. Most of the species of 
the genus Sphyrtena, at certain seasons, are very poisonous ; producing, when taken as food, 
vomiting and convulsions, and sometimes terminating in death. 



THE NORTHERN BARRACUTA. 

SpHR;ENA BOREALIS. 
PLATE LX. FIG. 106. — (STATE COLLECTION.) 

Characteristics. Small. Greenish above ; lateral line yellow. Operclc with a single point. 
Length eight inches. 

Description. Body elongated, subcylindrical. Depth one-eighth of the total length. Scales 
very small, adherent, orbicular, with minute concentric strias ; and under a strong lens, radiat- 
ing striae may be observed : they extend over the opercular bones. The course of the lateral 
line is very slightly sinuous, but nearly straight, and is manifested by a series of rather large 
scales, under the posterior edges of which arc short tubes. Head produced, flattened, smooth, 
channelled above, rather more than one-fourth of the total length. Opercle large, emarginate, 
opposite to the base of the pectorals, pointed above and rounded beneath. Eyes large, oval, 
0'4 in diameter, and about a diameter apart. Lower jaw longest, and furnished at the tip 
with a fleshy process. Teeth acute, pellucid, conspicuous on both jaws. In the lower jaw 
they are large, distant behind, and becoming smaller and more crowded towards the front, 
where two very large teeth are placed, and received into a cavity in the upper jaw. There 
arc also two large incurved teeth in the upper jaw on eacli side, and numerous minute teeth 
along the edges of the intermaxillaries. Three long and slender teeih on tiie palatines of each 
side, and beyond them numerous minute teeth. On the tongue, also, are numerous recurved 
teeth. 

The first dorsal fin commences at a point equidistant between the tip of the pectorals and 
the base of the ventrals : it is obscurely triangular, its height equal to its base, and composed 



40 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

of five very slender rays ; the first rather longer, and more slender than the others ; the last 
connected to the back by a broad membrane. At the distance of one inch from the membrane 
of this fin, arises the second dorsal, slightly anterior to the origin of the anal : this fin is 
highest in front, emarginate, and comprises ten rays ; the first slender, subspinous, simple ; 
the others branched. The pectoral fins short, and composed of fourteen rays ; the two supe- 
rior short and simple. Ventral fins feeble, short and rounded, placed under the first dorsal ; 
composed of one very slender, simple, and five branched rays. Anal fin similar in shape, 
though somewhat higher than the second dorsal, and placed beneath it. Caudal fin deeply 
forked, and comprises nineteen complete rays. 

Color. When recent, green above ; shining white beneath. The course of the lateral line 
indicated by a yellow line, which, in modified lights, gives a polished silvery reflection. 
Upper part of the head olive brown ; sides silvery. Caudal fin bordered with yellow. The 
other fuis white ; second dorsal fin faint greenish. Irides silvery, tinged with yellow. 

Total length, 8-0. Length of head, 2-4. 

Fin rays, D. 5.1.9; P. 14; V. 1.5; A. 1.9; C. 19 f. 

This is a very active and voracious little fish. A number of them were caught in the harbor 
of New-York, and placed in a vessel with several other species. In a few hours, they had de- 
stroyed them all, and then commenced devouring each other. It has not been very commonly 
observed, owing to the difficulty of capturing them ; but I have reason to believe that they are 
not very rare. In its size, color and opercle, it differs very much from its great congener, the 
dreaded Barracuta of the South. The short notice of the S. quachmicho {Hist. Poiss. Vol. 3, 
p. 342), renders it almost impossible to determine how far it is allied to our species. It 
certainly caimot be confounded with the 5'. becune of the same authors. It appears in August 
and September. 

Of the Genus Polynemus, which follows, I have observed no species on the coast of New- 
York. Dr. Mitchill has indeed given a short notice of a species, which he names Polynemus 
tridigitatus, but I am induced to believe that it belongs to another family. 

No species of the Genera Mullus and Upeneus, constituting the Family MuUidce, have, 
to my knowledge, ever been seen on the coast of North America. 



FAMILY PERCIDiE. 41 

GENUS LEPISOMA. 

Body and fins scaly. Fleshy filaments along the basal line of the head, and on the orhits. 
A single dorsal fin. Branchial rays six. Teethin the jaws, vomer and palatines. Ventrals 
before the pectorals. 

Obs. It is with much hesitation that I place this genus at the end of the jugular section of 
this family. In its general aspect, it might readily be referred to the families Scienids or 
Labridfe ; but the presence of vomerine and palatine teeth exclude it from them. 

THE CIRROUS LEPISOMA. /Z,;,^ ^^ c^^f-^-.^.^.U 

LepISOMA ClRRHOnJM. 
PLATE XXX. FIG. 94. — (CABINET OF THE LYCEUM.) 

Characteristics. Soft portion of the dorsal higher and shorter than the spinous part. Length, 
six and a half inches. Florida. 

Description. Body oblong, compressed, gradually tapering behind. Height at the pectoral, 
to its total length, as one to four nearly ; at the tail, as one to twelve and a half. Scales 
moderate, rounded, finely striate on their free surfaces, with a smooth membranous margin, 
and with about twenty radiating plaits ; the scales cover all parts of the body, and ascend far 
up the dorsal, caudal and pectoral fins. Tiie lateral line commences at the upper angle of 
the branchial aperture, curves above the pectoral fin, and rather abruptly descends opposite 
the ninth dorsal ray, when it goes off straight : it is composed of a scries of short tubes ; the 
scales through which it passes are notched on their edges. Head somewhat arched on its 
facial outline, corrugated, and destitute of scales. Along the basal line of the head, on each 
side, are nine or ten fleshy processes, ending in bifid or trifid filaments, two-tenths of an inch 
long. Another fleshy process arises from beneath the upper inargin of the orbit, which sub- 
divides into six or eight smaller processes, each of which terminates in several slender fila- 
ments, not thicker liian the finest thread, and some of them more than half an inch long. 
Eyes moderately large, 0.3.5 in diameter, and rather less than their diameters apart. The 
posterior nostril small, with a valvular margin ; the anterior with a fleshy valve, through 
which is pierced the nasal aperture; its posterior elongated, and terminating in six or eight 
filaments. Opercle and preopercle rounded and smooth on their margins. Branchial mem- 
brane large, extending loosely around the throat, with six rays ; the upper ray projecting 
behind the opercle in the form of a spine ; a membrane subtended between this, and a weak 
subspinous process near the upper angle of the aperture. Lips fleshy. The mouth ample, 
opening as far back as the posterior margin of the orbits. Chin with numerous mucous 
pores. The lower jaw with a series of about thirty teeth ; those in front, stout, blunt, sub- 

Fauna — Part 4. 6 



42 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

equal and conical ; on the sides, three or four, shorter, and conical, followed by more acute 
and distant teeth resembling those in front. Three series, containing about twenty smaller 
acute recurved teeth in front, behind the outer row. Tongue free, subacute, and corrugated. 
In the upper jaw, in front, is a series of equal conical slightly recurved teeth, somewhat 
longer than those below, smaller on the sides ; behind the outer row, in front, is a patch of 
minute crowded teeth. Similar teeth in bands on the vomer and palatines. On the anterior 
part of the vomer, is a very large solitary tooth. Pharyngeals also covered with teeth. 

The dorsal fin commences slightly posterior to llie margin of the preopercle, and reaches 
nearly to the base of the caudal fin. It contains eighteen nearly equal robust spines, and 
twelve articulated rays nearly twice the length of the spinous part. All parts of this fin are 
so covered with small oblong scales, as to give it quite a peculiar appearance. The pectorals 
arise beneath the fourth dorsal ray, and the tip reaches to the third anal ray ; it is broad, 
obtusely rounded, its rays protruding beyond the membrane, and covered high with small 
oblong scales. The venlrals arise near the inferior fold of the branchial membrane, and are 
composed of two long articulated rays, and a short rudimentary one on each side ; their tips 
reach to within a quarter of an inch of the vent. Anal fin arises under the tenth dorsal ray, 
and terminates beneath the eighth ray of the soft portion of that fin. Its simple rays are 
sub-equal to the thirteenth ray, where they become longer ; the sixteenth and seventeenth 
longest. Caudal fin nearly even, rounded ; nearly equalling in length the ventral rays. 

Color. Of this I can say nothing, as the fish had been preserved in spirits for many years. 
It appears to have been of a uniform dark brown, without spots or stripes, the head appearing 
somewhat darker. 

Length, 6'5. Depth, 1'5. Width anterior to the pectorals, 0'7. 
Fin rays, D. 18.12; P. 14 ; V. 3 ; A. 19; C. 10 |. 

This remarkable species was brought from Florida about fifteen years since, and deposited 
in the Cabinet of the Lyceum, where it is labelled Sciena fasciata. I have learned nothing 
of its habits. 

Of the second family, Mullida, I am not acquainted with any representative on the coast 
of North America. The M. barbatus, introduced into Smith's History of the Fishes of Mas- 
sachusetts, does not exist on the coast of America. 



FAMILY TRIGLIDJE TRIGLA. - 43 



FAMILY III. TRIGLIDM. 

Suborbital bone extending over the cheek, and articulating behind loith the preopercle. Head 
mailed or otherwise armed. 

Obs. This family has many of the characteristics of the preceding, but is at once distin- 
guished (as may be distinctly perceived in the figure of the Dactylopterus volitans) by the 
great development of the suborbital plates, which unite with the preopercle and cover the 
cheeks. Hence the term " Joues cuirassees," which has been translated mailed cheeks, and 
also loricati. We see no good reason for not adopting a name derived from some well known 
member of the family, and thus preserve a uniformity in the nomenclature of the class. 

The family Triglidas is allied on the one hand by Uranoscopus, which has its suborbitals 
largely developed, to the Percidae, and on the other to the succeeding family of Scienidas, by 
the absence of teeth on the vomer and palatines. It is divided by Cuvier and Valenciennes into 
twenty-nine genera ; and they describe seventeen species, belonging to eight genera, on the 
coast and in the rivers of the United States. 

GENUS TRIGLA. Cuvier. 

Two dorsal fins ; the first spinous, the second flexible. Body scaly. Tliree detached rays 
under the base of each pectoral fin. Head nearly square. The suborbitals nearly covering 
the whole cheek, projecting more or less beyond the snout, and united firmly to the pre- 
opercle. Teeth small, pointed, numerous, in both jaws, and in front of the vomer. Bran- 
chial rays seven. 

Obs. But one species has been detected on our coast, where it appears to be an occasional 
visitor only. 

THE RED GURNARD. 

TniGLA CUCOLDS. 

PLATE LXX. FIG. 225. 

Trigla cucTilus. Lin. 

Polynemus Iridigilatus. MiTCH. Lit. and Phil. Soc. Vol. 1, p. 449. 

La Rouget cmanim, T. cuculus. Cuv. et Val. Hist. Poiss. Vol. 4, p. 26. 

Characteristics. Rose-red. Lateral line unarmed, and crossed throughout its length by lines 
not reaching below the middle of the sides. Length 8-12 inches. 

Description. Body tapering, cylindrical, elongated. Back nearly straight. Head square, 
descending obliquely from the orbits to the point of the snout, and granulated. Nose with 
four projecting tooth-like processes on each side, belonging to the large suborbital plates; two 
or three small spines on the upper part of the orbits. The surscapular bone projects back- 



44 NEW-YORE FAUNA. 

wards, but not beyond tlie opercle. Opercle emarginate above, and ending in two points ; 
the superior directed obliquely upwards ; the lower scarcely longer, and is directed back- 
wards. Preopercle flat, narrow above, enlarged beneath, with a slight ridge directed back- 
wards, and ending in a small spine underneath the opercle. Mouth moderate, with a band 
of low even moderate teeth on the jaws, and a small transverse band on the anterior portion 
of the vomer. Tongue smooth. Lateral line nearly straight, unarmed, bifurcating near the 
tail. It is crossed by numerous short straight elevated lines. Scales over the body, small, 
oval, ciliate. Dorsal ridge strongly toothed. 

The first dorsal fin triangular, and composed of nine robust spinous rays ; the anterior 
minutely denticulated ; the second longest, and it ends slightly in advance and above the vent. 
The second dorsal commences near the first, and is coterminal with the anal, containing 
eighteen subequal and (with the exception of the first) branched rays. Pectorals equal the 
head in lengtli, are rounded, and comprise ten rays. There are three free articulated rays 
adjoining, and under the base of the pectoral fins. Ventral fins as long as the pectorals, and 
placed beneath them ; the first is a short spine, and all are enveloped in a strong membrane : 
it comprises seven rays. Anal opposite the second dorsal, and somewhat shorter than that 
fin : it includes sixteen or seventeen subequal rays. Caudal fin crescent-shaped, with eleven 
entire, and four or five accessory rays on each side. 

Color. Above, on the head, back, dorsal and caudal fins, bright red. Belly, ventral and 
anal fins, silvery, tinged with reddish. Pectorals bluish. 

Length, 8-0 — 14-0. 

Radial formula, D. 9.18; P. 10 + 3 ; V. 1 .6 ; A. 16 ; C. 11 f. 

Not having seen this fish myself on the coast of New-York, I have adopted the description 
from Cuvier and Valenciennes. They mention having received " a specimen from New- York, 
" which so much resembles the T. cucidus, not only in all its generalities, but even in its 
" most minute details, that it is very difiicult for us not to consider it as the same species ;" 
but they add, " as our specimen was not recent, it may possibly present some distinctive 
" characters." 

There is great reason to believe that Dr. Mitchill had this species in view, when he made 
the short note of the Polynemus tridigitatus as cited above. I find no other mention of it 
among his numerous writings. His Polynemus sexradiatus belongs to the genus Dyctalop- 
terus. It is possible that Smith had this species in view, when he describes the Mullus bar- 
hatus on the coast of Massachusetts. 

The Red Gurnard is a well flavored fish, and highly esteemed in Europe. It feeds chiefly 
on Crustacea. 



FAMILY TKIGLIDjE. 45 

GENUS PRIONOTUS. Cuvier. 

Pectorals very large, and luitli numerous 7-ays. A belt of velvet-like teeth on the palatines. 

Obs. This is strictly an American genus, with many of its characters in common with 
Trigla. Thus, the head is square, and covered with bony plates ; body elongated, rounded ; 
two dorsal fins ; teeth in the jaws, and in front of the vomer ; gill openings ample ; tliree 
free fleshy processes at the base of each pectoral fin. 

THE BANDED GURNARD. 

Prionotus lineatos. 

PLATE IV. FIG. 12. — (STATE COLLECTION.) 

Trigla lineata. Gurnard or Sea Robin. MiT. Lit. and Phil. Vol. 1, p. 430, pi. 4, fig. 4. 

Xe I'rionote striie, P. strigalus. Ccjv. et Val. Hist. Poiss. Vol. 4, p. 8G. 

The Sea Robin, Gurnard, Gruntcr, Pnonotus id. Storer, Mass. Report, p. 12. 

Characteristics. A broad reddish brown line along the sides, below the lateral line. Length 
12-18 inches. 

Description. Head large, broader than the body, and composed of seven distinct bony 
plates ; the first, which is roughened, covers the whole anterior and superior part of the head, 
and terminates beliind in two robust spines. The anterior lobes of the snout obtuse, scarcely 
emarginatc. Small spines over the eyes, at their anterior and posterior angles. A strong 
spine at the base of the preopercle, continued from a serrated bony carina. Opercle trian- 
gular, with two spines at its posterior extremity ; the superior directed upwards ; the inferior 
largest, and directed backwards : the surface of the opercle with radiating granulations. Eyes 
large, near the facial outline. Nostrils small, intermediate between the eyes and snout. Upper 
jaw projecting ; both armed with numerous small teeth ; those on the palatine arranged in a 
narrow belt or band. Humeral bone with a ridge, and terminating in a naked spine. Lateral 
line curves downwards from the upper part of the gill openings. Scales small. Three long 
fleshy processes arise under the base of the pectorals, the longest of which is nearly half the 
length of those fins. 

The first dorsal fin is placed in a groove, and arises rather behind the branchial aperture ; 
it is composed of nine stout rays : the first serrated along its whole length ; the two follow- 
ing partially serrated ; the third and fourth rays longest ; the last very small. The second 
dorsal fin arises a short distance behind the first, and is composed of twelve subequal rays. 
The pectoral fins, which are so large as to form one of the generic characters, extend to the 
middle of the second dorsal : it is very broad, obtusely pointed, and, e.xclusive of the fleshy 
processes which arc by some authors considered as forming a portion of this fin, it comprises 
thirteen rays. Ventral fins placed beneath the pectorals, with one short spinous and five soft 



46 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

rays. Anal fin with eleven subequal rays, and coterminous with the dorsal. Caudal nearly- 
even, slightly lunated. 

Color. Dark brown above, passing into slate, with numerous irregularly distributed darker 
blotches. Sides and abdomen cream-colored, with ferruginous blotches more or less conspi- 
cuous. Lateral line brownish. A broad reddish brown longitudmal band extends from under 
the spine of the humeral bone, along the sides of the body, beneath the lateral line, to the 
tail ; at its posterior extremity, it becomes a series of interrupted short lines and spots. First 
dorsal light-colored, with a black irregular spot between the fourth and sixth rays. Pectorals 
very dark, with numerous transverse reddish bars. Anal and caudal fins reddish. 

Length, 9-0- 18-0. 

Fin rays, D. 9.12; P. 13 + 3; V. 1.5; A 11 ; C. 15. 

This species is not uncommon, and is known under the various popular names of Grunter, 
Gurnard, Sea Robin, and Flying Fish. As the description of Mitchill is perfectly recogni- 
zable, I see no reason why his name, which, although inapplicable to a Trigla, has not been 
anticipated under Prionotus, should not be retained. The banded gurnard is seldom eaten 
as food. 

THE WEB-FINGERED GURNARD. 

Prionotus carolinus, 

PLATE V. FIG. 15. FIG. — Upper side of the head. — (STATE COLLECTION.) 

Trigla Carolina. LiNNEUs, Mantissa, p. 528. Fide Cuv. ct Val. 

Trigla palmipes. Web-fingered Gurnard. IVllTCHILL, Lit. and Phil. Soc. Vol. 1, p. 431, pi. 4, fig. 5. 
Le Prionote de la Caroline, Prionotus carolinus. Gov. et Val. Hist. Poiss. Vol. 6, p. 90. 
Web-fingered Grunter, P. carolinus. Storer, Mass. Report, p. 14. 

Characteristics. Pectoral processes dilated at their extremities ; the first ray of the second 
dorsal crenated. Length twelve inches. 

Description. Body cylindrical, tapering towards the tail. Scales small, subquadrate, with 
radiating stris on the concealed surface, and with denticulations on the external edges. Late- 
ral line following the slightly concave curve of the back, from which it is 0'8 distant. Head 
depressed, abruptly declivous, with a deep depression between the eyes, and ending in a 
bilobate snout. Each projecting lobe is furnished on its anterior margin with short blunt 
spines, in one or more series, projecting over the upper jaw. These lobes are separated by 
a distinct interval, are prolongations of the suborbital bones, and are covered by strong asperi- 
ties. A distinct furrow from the infero-anterior portion of the orbit, on each side, defines the 
internal boundaries of these bones. \n this furrow, at a distance of three quarters of an inch 
from the end of the snout, may be observed on each side the small nostrils ; and at a short 
interval behind, the second pair. Orbits stoutly spinous in front. The spines vary in number 
from two to four, are directed backwards, and may be considered as partially protecting the 



FAMILY TRIGLID^ PRIONOTUS. 47 

eyes. The upper edge of the orbit trenchant, with serratures ; and from this proceed back- 
wards two nearly parallel spinous ridges, the inferior shortest, the superior ending in a spine 
opposite the second ray of the first dorsal. The preopercle triangular, with a long slender 
spine at its lower angle, directed backwards, and at right angles to its posterior margin. 
Opercle with radiating furrows, and one slender triangular spine, which is serrated along its 
upper edge ; and another shorter one above, concealed in the membrane. The humeral bone 
furnished with a stout spine, its broad base being marked with a series of depressions and 
elevated serratures. The first branchial arch with long sets or rakers ; the others with a 
series of alternate tubercles. Tongue broad at its base, and smooth, terminating in front in a 
small abrupt tip. A band of fine incurved card-like teeth on the intermaxillaries, separated 
in the centre by a distinct interval. A similar, but continuous band on the lower jaw. An 
arcuated interrupted band of card-like teeth on the palatines. The teeth on the pharyngeals 
disposed above in four irregular patches ; beneath, in a single triangular patch on each side. 

The first ray of the first dorsal shorter than the second, and with it strongly crenate ; the 
third and fourth subequal ; the last scarcely appearing above the surface, but connected with 
the preceding by a low membrane, and very near the second dorsal : all these rays are stoutly 
spinous, and may almost be entirely hidden in a deep furrow. The second dorsal fin is not 
so much elevated ; its first ray crenated. Pectorals very large and broad, reaching to the 
fifth ray of the second dorsal ; its first ray slightly spinous. The fingers or fleshy processes 
varying in length from 1 "5 to 2*3 inches, the inferior shortest, the upper longest : they serve 
as important organs of touch, as the nerves leading to them are e.xceedingly large. Venlral 
beneath the pectorals, with the tip of its longest rays extending as far back as the antepenul- 
timate ray of the first dorsal ; its first ray short and subspinous ; fourth and fifth rays sub- 
equal and longest. Anal higher than the dorsal, with rays simple, or feebly divided at the 
tips ; coterminal with the dorsal, but commences under the second ray of that fin. Caudal 
fin slightly crescent-shaped, with numerous accessory rays. Vent equidistant between the 
anterior digitated process and the termination of the anal fin. The air-bladder double, ellipti- 
cal, placed side by side, and communicating with each other at their middle portions by a large 
opening ; on their inferior surfaces, they are covered by a long and broad gland. 

Color, of the body, gi-cyish, or rather chocolate-brown. Branchial membrane bluish. Dor- 
sal and anal fins with pale oblique bars. The first dorsal fin with a dusky subocellate spot 
between the fourth and fifth rays. Pectorals and caudal bluish. Pectoral digitations brown 
near the base, then reddish brown, and yellow towards the tips, where they are margined 
with brilliant gamboge yellow, which becomes effaced at the extremity. Pupils black ; irides 
yellow. Four to six obscure brownish bands across the back, becoming obsolete on the sides. 
Inside of the mouth white in front, deep black behind. 

Length, 1.3 'O. Greatest depth, 3'0. 

Fin rays, D. 10.14; P. 14 ; V. 5 ; A. 12; C. 11 |. 



48 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

This is a very rare species. In the course of twenty years, I have not met with more than 
six or eight individuals. The last one I examined, had its stomach completely distended with 
remains of crabs, among which I detected the Crangon septem-spinosus and Plalyonichus 
ocellatus. It is evident from the phrase of Linncus, " digito longior," that he described from 
a young individual. Among the drawings of Dr. Ilolbrook of the fishes of Carolina, I notice 
this, which must be considered as a southern species, occasionally only reaching these lati- 
tudes. It occurs, however, still farther north at the island of Nantucket. 

THE SPINOUS GURNARD. 

Pbionotus tribulus. 
PLATE LXX. FIG. 226. 
he Prionote chaussetrape, Prionohis tribulus. Cuv. et Val. Hist, des Poiss. Vol. 4, p. 98, pi. 74. 

Characteristics. Pectoral reaching the end of the anal fin. All the spines of the head acute, 
and flattened like sword-blades. Length 8 inches. 

Description. Body shaped as in the preceding. A small spine in the centre of the radia- 
tions on the large suborbital. All the spines of the head, and especially those on the posterior 
parts of the orbits, and on the point of the surscapulary bone, more distinct than in the pre- 
ceding, and are sharpened and compressed like sword-blades ; the preopercular and clavicular 
spines are, moreover, broader and more acute : this is most obvious in the males. The band 
of palatine teeth exceedingly narrow. The pectoral fin equals almost the length of the body, 
reaching to or even beyond the end of the anal fin. 

Color, much as in the preceding. The first dorsal fin has a black spot between the fourth 
and sixth ray. The second with two black spots along its base ; one from the fifth to the 
seventh, the other between the fourth and sixth ray. Pectorals blackish, more especially on 
the interior, where the upper border is whitish. Body brownish above, lighter beneath. 

Length, 6-0 -8-0. 

Fin rays, D. 10.13; P. 13 + :$ ; V. 1.5; A. 12; C. 11. 

Cuvier states that he has received numerous specimens of this species from New- York. I 
have never seen but very small individuals, which I had confounded with P. lincatus. It 
ranges from New-York to Charleston, and is probably found in the intertropical seas. 

[EXTRA-LIMITAL) 

P. punctatus. (Gov. et Val. Vol. 4, p. 93.) Two small spines on each side of the snout. Fins 
spotted. Length 12 inches. Antilies. 



FAMILY TRIGLIDiE. 49 

GENUS DACTYLOPTERUS. Cuvier. 

The pectoral fins excessively developed, and composed of two jwrtions, forming a large fin 
which serves as a wing. Head flat, granulate. Body covered with hard carinated scales. 
Preopercle armed with a long spine. Ventrals ivith but four soft rays. Teeth in the 
jaivs, hut not on the vomer or palatines. 

Obs. This genus, as now restricted by Cuvier, comprises but two species ; one from the 
Indian ocean, and the other known from tlie earhest antiquity, and common in the Mediterra- 
nean sea. This latter is also found along the shores of South America, and is not uncom- 
monly brought by the gulf stream along our coast as far even as the Banks of Newfoundland. 

THE SEA SWALLOW. 

Dactylopterus volitans, 

PLATE XVII. FIG. 16. Back of the head and scales enlarged. — (STATE COLLECTION.) 

Trigla volitans. LiN. p. 498. 

Morcielago. Parra, Descripcion, &c. p. 25, pi. 14. 

Polynenms stxradiatus. MiTCHiLL, Mem. pi. 4, fig. 10. Supplement Month. Mag. Vol. 2, p. 323. 

Le Dactylopthe commune D. volitans. Cdv. et Val. Hist. Poiss. Vol. 4, p. 117. 

Characteristics. First ray of the dorsal slightly longer than the succeeding ; a short triangular 
crest between the first and second dorsals. Length six inches. 

Description. Body cylindrical, tapering towards the tail. Head cubical or four-sided, wider 
than high. Length of the head, to the total length, as one to five. Body covered with rough 
solid scales, dentate on their free margins, and with a prominent crest on each, which is finely 
toothed (see figure). These crested scales become effaced on the abdomen. They are evi- 
dent on the back, but become most conspicuous in five or si.\ rows along the flank, which 
gradually coalesce, the upper and under row becoming more and more elevated, until they 
terminate in two highly crested plates on each side of the tail. Sixty-five scales are enume- 
rated from the opercle to the tail, and thirty-four from the dorsal to the centre of the abdomen. 
Head broader than high, flattened above with a broad furrow between the orbits, descending 
nearly vertically in front ; the whole helmet being covered with deep granulations. The 
suborbital bones advance, and nearly approach in front, their whole margins being strongly 
crenated ; posteriorly they terminate in two points, with a broad emargination between them ; 
the one above forming a portion of the orbit ; the other beneath longer and more acute, termi- 
nating at the inner angle of the preopercle. The preopercle terminates in a long stout spine, 
which extends beyond the base of the pectorals, with a prominent ridge on its surface, fur- 
nished with teeth directed forwards ; its lower margin is likewise dentate. The sur-scapulars 
terminate on each side above in a very robust broad spine, which reaches as far as the penul- 
timate ray of the first dorsal (see figure). On the surface of each spine is a strong crenate 

Fauna — Paut 4. 7 



50 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

ridge. The opercle itself is very small, and covered witli scales. Gill openings small, with 
si.x branchial rays, which are difficult to be counted. Mouth small, not terminal ; the lower 
jaw shortest, and both with fleshy hps. Teeth minute, short, conical, forming a patch of 
three or four rows on each side of the jaws. Card teeth on the pharyngeals ; palate smooth. 
Eyes large, ■ 4 in diameter, and ' 7 distant from each other. Nostrils double ; the inferior 
small and tubular. 

The fii-st dorsal fin composed of two nearly free and flexible filaments, which are nearly abreast 
of each other, and united near the base by a low membrane ; closely contiguous to these, but 
not united to them by a membrane, follow four feebly spinous rays, united together by a mem- 
brane, and the rays diminishing in length backwards. Both this and the following fin are 
lodged in a groove. Between this and the second dorsal is a short immovable triangular crest, 
the " stiff spiny stump " of Mitchill. The second dorsal fin is composed of eight simple 
articulated rays, the two last of which are bifid ; it terminates over the end of the anal. The 
pectorals may be described as consisting of two portions ; the anterior 1 " 3 long, of six rays, 
with their tips free, and the fourth and fifth rays longest ; the posterior portion, or pectorals 
proper, extends nearly to the base of the caudal fin, and rounded. This contains thirty rays ; 
they increase in length to the ninth ; the nine following are subequal, when they rapidly de- 
crease in length, the five or six ultimate ones being exceedingly short and rudimentary. The 
ventral fins are placed under the base of the pectorals ; the first simple ; the remaining four 
articulated; the third 1"2 in length, and longest ; the last ray very short and feeble. The 
anal fin commences under the third ray of the second dorsal, and contains six subequal rays. 
Caudal fin crescent-shaped, of ten entire articulated rays, and five accessory rays on each 
side ; the last of the accessories more than half the length of the external ray. 

Color. Light brown above, (darker on the summit of the head,) with irregular darker spots. 
Sides silvery, with flesh-color, which latter is predominate beneath. Dorsals grey, with 
brown spots on the membrane of the first, and the rays of the second annulated alternately 
with brown and lighter. The posterior pectorals blackish, with bluish iridescent spots ; the 
anterior dark brown, varied with black. Ventrals and anal fins flesh-colored. Caudal fin 
light brown, with irregular brownish bands. 

Length, 6-0. Depth, TO. 

Fin rays, D. 2.4.1.8; P. 6.30; V. 1 .4 ; A. 6; C. 10 |. 

This curious species, which presents so many striking anomalies in its structure, was first 
noticed on our coast by Parra in his Description of the Aquatic Animals of Cuba in 1787. 
Dr. Mitchill, in his Memoir on the Fishes of New-York in 1814, gave a good figure of this 
species ; and in his supplement to this memoir, in the American Monthly Magazine in 1818, 
furnished a detailed description which sufficiently establishes its identity with D. volitans. I 
am inclined to think that five is the normal number of rays in the first dorsal ; as in three 
others whicli I obtained in the harbor of New- York, I found constantly that number. In these 
cases, however, there was but one free ray in front, terminating in a fleshy filament. The 
subiect of our examination was caught in a net in the harbor, in the month of August. If 



FAMILY TRIGLID^ COTTUS. 51 

our species be identical with that of Europe, it has a wide geographical distribution. On the 
American coast, it ranges from Brazil to Newfoundland. 

By means of its immense pectorals, it is enabled to spring from the ocean, and support 
Itself for some time in the air. This is often done to escape its enemies. It feeds on various 
small Crustacea. 



GENUS COTTUS. Cuvier. 

Body without scales. Veiitrals under the pectorals, and u-ith three or four rays. Teeth 
velvet-like, on the jaws and anterior imrt of the vomer ; palatines smooth. Head large, 
depressed. Body gradually tapering to the tail. Opercle or preoperclc armed with 
spines, occasionally both. Dorsals distinct, or slightly connected. Branchial rays six. 
No air-bladder. 

Obs. Cuvier has enumerated and described sixteen species. A few inhabit fresh-water 
lakes and sireams, but the greater part are oceanic, inhabiting the northern seas. 

THE COMMON BULL-HEAD. 

COTTCS VIRG1NIANU.S. 

PLATE V. FU;. 13. — (STATE COLLECTION) 

Scorpiiis virginianus. WiLLUGHBY, Hist. Pise. App. p. 25, pK 10, fig. 15. 

Cottus scorpius, Sea Toad. ScHCEPFF, Beobachtungen, etc. Vol. 8, p. 145. 

Eighleen-spmed Bull-head, C. \8-spinosus. MiTCH. Lit. and Phil. Soc. Vol. 1, p. 380. 

Le Grand Chahoi.':scau a 18 epincs de VAmeriqiie du nmd. Cnv. et Val. Hist. Poiss. Vol. 4, p. 181. 

The Common Sculpin, C. virgi72iaii.us. Storee, Fishes of Massachusetts, p. 18. 

Characteristics. Very large. Spine of the preopercle reaching the point of the opercle. 
Pectorals very broad, and rounded. Length, 12-18 inches. 

Description. Head broad, channelled above, and equal to one-third the length of the 
body. The head is furnished with robust recurved spines in the following order : One near 
each nostril ; one over each orbit, and one on the nape of the neck on each side. In addition 
to these, there are three on the preopercle, the uppermost of which is an inch long, the lower 
directed forwards ; and one on the subopercle, which in fact makes a total of twenty spines 
instead of eighteen. Gape of the mouth very large, and capable of still farther dilatation at 
the will of the animal. Fine card teeth on both jaws, in broad bands ; also on the vomer. 
Tongue broad and smooth. Eyes large, and furnished with prominent orbits. Nostrils 
small and tubular. The body diminishes gradually from the head, and becomes compressed 
towards the tail. 

The first dorsal fin spinous, longer than high ; the second ray longest. A very short inter- 
val separates it from the second, which is long, not as elevated as the first, and feebly 



52 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

spinous ; the fourth ray longest. Pectorals very broad, rounded, and composed of seventeen 
rays. Ventrals long and feeble. Anal fin nearly even, and almost as long as the second 
dorsal. Caudal fin long, even, undivided. 

Color. This is subject to great variation in different individuals, but the following is the 
most usual appearance : Body marbled with black and green above, sometimes with deep 
olive ; beneath whitish, occasionally bronzed, or with a tinge of yellow. Eyes yellow and 
brovraish. Dorsal fins with brown spots disposed in oblique bars, which are most apparent 
on the membrane of the second dorsal. The first dorsal dark brown, with black spots, and 
- varied with white ; the posterior part of the membrane of this fin constantly light-colored, 
tinged with greenish. Pectoral fins yellow, or rather buff-colored, with brownish concentric 
bands. Ventrals white, tipped with yellow. Anal fin frequently barred like the second dorsal. 
Caudal fin dull yellowish, with broad parallel brownish bars ; yellow on its outer margin. 

Length, 12-0- 18-0. 

Radial formula, D. 8.16; P. 16 ; V. 3 ; C. II. 

This species, which, on account of its uncouth form, is regarded with aversion by fisher- 
men, is nevertheless not a bad article of food. In fact, when freshly taken from the water, 
and irritated, they do present rather a formidable appearance. The head is swollen to twice 
its usual size by the distension of the branchial membrane ; the spines stand out prominently, 
and the rays of all the fins become erect. It is known under the various popular names of 
Sculpin, quere Scorpio?i ? Sea Robin, Bull-head, Sea Toad, and Pig Fish; the latter from 
its croaking noise when drawn from the water. It ranges from Virginia to Newfoundland, 
and perhaps still farther north. 

THE BRAZEN BULL-HEAD. 

COTTUS JENEUS. 

PLATE VI. FIG. 19. — (STATE COLLECTION.) 

The Brazen Bull-head, Coitus reneus. MiTCHiLL, Lit. and Phil. Soc. N. Y. Vol. 1, p. 380. 
Le Chaboisseau bronze, C. id. Cvv. et Val. Hist. Poiss. Vol. 4, p. 189. 
The Brazen Bull-head, C. id. Stoker, Fishes of Massachusetts, p. 20. 

Characteristics. Lateral line rough, with asperities beneath it. Dorsals nearly equal in height. 
Length 5-6 inches. 

Description. Head broad, flat, and deeply channelled between the orbits, which are large 
and prominent. The spines about the head nearly similar in number and situation with those 
of the preceding species, but not so obvious or distinctly pronounced. One or two small 
spines at the commencement of the lateral line, which is very distinct, straight, and rough 
to the touch. The dorsal fins united, but the connection not always very obvious ; the first 
ray of the second dorsal much shorter than the succeeding : this fin reaches nearly to the 
caudal. Lower jaw much shorter than the upper. On the gill-cover, a trifid spine : one 



FAMILY TRIGLID^ COTTUS. 53 

directed upwards and backwards, and is the longest ; the second directed downward, and 
the third smallest. The opercle itself terminates in a long slender spine. The tips of the 
pectoral extend beyond the first dorsal. Tail even, slightly rounded. 

Color. Above dark brown, obscurely mottled with black ; sides mottled with reddish brown 
and black ; beneath yellowish white, or with patches of white and orange. Sides of the 
cheeks brazen. All the fins yellowish or light brownish, with interrupted brownish bars. 

Length, 5 • - 6 • 0. 

Fin rays, D. 10.15; P. 15; V. 3 ; A. 10; C. 12 f. 

This species is frequently taken with the hook in Long Island sound, and the harbor of 
New- York. It rarely exceeds six inches in length, and is usually not more than four. Mit- 
chell's enumeration of the fin rays nearly accords with our own, except in the caudal fin, where 
the discrepancy arose no doubt from his having included the accessory rays. A specimen in 
the Cabinet of the Lyceum, named by Dr. Mitchill himself, leaves no doubt as to the identity 
of the species. It bears, however, a striking resemblance to the C. huhalis of Euplirasen 
(Mem. Acad. Stockhol. 1786), and which is also figured by Cuvier, pi. 78. 

The geographic range of this species is at present limited to the coasts of Massachusetts 
and New-York. It probably ranges farther north. 

THE SMOOTH-BROWED BULL-HEAD 

COTTUS MITCHILLII. 

PLATE XVII. FIG. 47. — (STATE COLLECTION.) 

Cotlus Scorpio ? Mitchill, Lit. and Phil. Soc. Vol. 1, p. 381. 
C. milchilU. Cdv. et Val. Hist. Poiss. Vol. 4, p. 188. 

Characteristics. Orbits unarmed. Preopercle with four spines. Anal fin with eleven rays. 
Length two to three inches. 

Description. Body deepest at the origin of the first dorsal, and less than one-third of its 
total length. Lateral line prominent, curved, concurrent with the back. Head sloping, ex- 
cavated on the nape, broadly channelled between the eyes, and descending in an arched 
manner to the snout. Two minute spines directed backwards on the basal line of the head ; 
another pair anterior to the orbits, and so placed as to be nearly between, but rather within a 
line drawn between the anterior and posterior nostrils. Preopercle with four spines ; the 
upper 0-1 and longest, directed upwards, the next backwards, the third downwards, and the 
fourth obliquely forwards : the first is furnished with a fleshy slip. Opercle with a spine above 
forming a ridge on the surface, and a pointed membranous flap beyond ; and another smaller 
directed downwards, and nearly opposite the centre of the base of the pectorals. Orbits 
0-2 in diameter, and distant half their diameters, their planes forming less than a right 
angle with the plane of the base of the lower jaw. A spine on the supra-scapulary, and 



54 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

another stouter on the upper portion of the humeral bone. Nostrils tubular. Lower jaw 
received within the upper, and both with numerous sharp incurved minute teeth, which 
may be traced on the vomer. Tongue with faint asperities. 

The first dorsal fin arises 0-9 from the end of the snout, and contains ten feebly spinous 
rays : the first is shorter than the second, and the three last are successively shorter ; it is 
connected by a low membrane with the second, which rises immediately behind it (in the 
figure this is not shown) : it comprises fourteen rays, and ends beyond the termination of the 
anal fin. Pectorals broad, with sixteen rays ; the inferior shortest, and gradually increasing in 
length to the ninth ray. Ventral fin with three subequal rays, reaching nearly to the vent. 
The anal fin commences under the second ray of the posterior dorsal, and contains eleven 
rays, nearly as high as the dorsal. Caudal fin long, nearly even, with nhie complete and 
four accessory rays on each side. 

Color. Yellowish, more or less bright, with confluent bars and blotches over the back and 
sides. All the fins with interrupted black bars. The ventrals more distinctly marked with 
three black bars. Head and cheeks brownish olive. 

Length, 3 '3. Greatest depth, 0-9. 

Fin rays, D. 10.14; P. 1(5; V. 3; A. 11 ; C. 9 f. 

I suppose this to have been the species intended by Mitchill under the name of C. scorpio, 
and to which Cuvier has given the name of C. mitcliiUi. It can scarcely be (as that distin- 
guished ichthyologist has suggested) the young of the large Common Bull-head. The spines 
of the preopercle and the radial formula render it highly probable that it is a small and dis- 
tinct, but hitherto neglected species. It has the habits of the preceding, and is commonly 
taken with the hook, in company with the Pluronectus planus, and other flat fishes. 

THE GREENLAND BULL-HEAD. 

COTTCS GRtENLANDICUS. 

PLATE IV. FIG. 10. 

Cottus scorpius. Fabricius, Fauna Grocnlandica, p. 156, 

Coitus quadricornis. App. to Parry's 1st and 3d Voyages. 

Cottus grcfnlandicus. Cdv. et ViL. Hist. Poiss. Vol. 4, p. 156. 

Greenland Bull-head, C. grcenlandicus. Richardson, F. B. A. Vol. 3, p. 46 ; and p. 297, pi. 95, fig. 2. 

Greenland Scutpifi, C. Id. Storer, Massachusetts Report, p. 16. 

Characteristics. A quadrangular area on the head, bounded by four tubercles. Circular 
while spots on the abdomen. Length twelve to fourteen inches. 

Description. Head with several spines ; those on tlie summit blunted ; those on the gill- 
covers longer, with projecting sharp points. Nasal spines recurved, three inches long. At 
the posterior superior angles of the eyes, a strong slighlly recurved spine, stouter than the 
nasal ones. Two erect stronger spines on the occiput : between these and the preceding, is 



FAMILY TRIGLID^ COTTUS. 55 

a quadrangular depression. The preopercle has three spines, two of which are placed at its 
upper angle ; tlie superior of these spines is much the largest, and points upward ; the third 
and smallest is directed downward. Opercle with two spines ; the larger at its upper angle ; 
the other at its lower angle, much smaller. A prominent scapular spine. Eyes circular, 0" 5 
in diameter. Gape of the mouth very large. Upper jaw longest. Jaws armed with nume- 
rous very small teeth. Nostrils tubular ; three lines in front of the eyes. 

The first dorsal fin arises above the branchial ajDCrture, and is composed of ten rays ; the 
second dorsal fin is nearly continuous with it. Pectoral fin broad, extending beyond the end 
of the first dorsal ; the underside of many of its rays granulate. Ventral fins small. Height 
of the anal fin, half of its length. Sides of the body, above and beneath the lateral line, 
roughened by granulated tubercles. 

Color. Above dark brown, with large clay-colored blotches on the top of the head and on 
the gill-covers, with a few smaller ones on the back and sides. Small circular yellowish spots 
on the sides, towards the abdomen.. Large circular perfectly white spots on the abdomen, 
beneath the pectorals. First dorsal fin dark brown, variegated with yellow ; second dorsal 
brown, with several oblique yellowish bars. Anal fin yellowish, with narrow oblique brown 
bars. Caudal with blackish rays, the membrane yellowish. 

Length, 13-0- 14-0. 

Fin rays, D. 10.18; P. 17; V. 3; A. 13; C. 16. 

I have never met with but one specimen of this species, which was captured near Hellgate. 
It was too much injured for description, and I have therefore availed myself of the excellent 
account furnished by Dr. Storer. I am indebted for the figure to Dr. Richardson. 

It is very abundant on the coast of Massachusetts, and as its name imphes, extends to the 
arctic circle. It is probable that this coast is its extreme southern limit. It is exceedingly 
voracious, devouring small fish, crabs, sea eggs, etc., but is held in no estimation as an article 
of food. 

{EXTRALIMITAL) 

C. cognatus. (Richardson, F. B. A. Vol. 3, p. 40.) Dark brov\Ti ; sides clouded. Allied to C. 

gobio of Europe, but the dorsal and anal fins higher. D. 8. 18; P. 15; V. 1,4; A. 14; C. 15. 

Length, 4 inches. Great Bear Lake. 
C. polaris. (Sabine, App. Parry's 1st Voy.) Light, with minute dusky spots. Two strong spines 

before and between the eyes. D. 6 or 8. 15 ; V. 5 ; A. 15 ; C. 12 or 14. Length, 2 inches. 

Polar Seas. 
C. hexacornis. (Rich. F. B. A. Vol. 3, p. 44.) With six club-shaped erect processes on the head. 

D. 7.13; P. 16; V. 3; C. 12. Length, 6 or 7 inches. Coppermine River. 
C porosus. (Cnv. et Val. Vol. 8, p. 498.) Body covered with small pores. A series of small bony 

plates between the lateral hne and dorsal. D. 11.1.16. Length, 6 inches. Northern Seas. 



56 NEW-yORK FAUNA. 

GENUS HEMITRIPTERUS. Cuvier. 

Head find body with numerous fleshy slips. Velvet-like teeth on the jaws, vomer and pala 
tines. A single dorsal, deeply divided, or separated into tivo fins. 

Obs. Of this genus, I am not aware that more than one species has been observed on our 
coast, although the varieties dependent on color are numerous. It appears to hold an inter- 
mediate station between Cottus and Scorpio ; and the species to be now noticed, has been 
placed in either genus by various writers. 

THE AMERICAN SEA RAVEN. 

HeMITRIPTERUS AMERICANOS. 

PLATE VI. FIG. 16. 1 NATURAL SIZE. — (CABINET OP THE LYCEUM.) ' 

Acadian Bull-head. Penn. Arct. Zool. Vol. 3, p. 118? 

Cotlits hispidus et tripterygius. Bi.. ScHN. pi. 13 ; Diet. Sc. Nat. Vol. 11, p. 15. 

Scorpena flava, Yellow Scorpma. MiTCHILL, Lit. and Phil. Vol.1, p. 382, pi. 2, fig. 8. 

ScoTpena purpurea? ctrufa? Id. Am. Monlh. Magazine, Vol.2, p. 245. (Varieties.) 

H. americanus. Ccv. et Val. Hist, des Poiss. Vol. 4, p. 268, pi. 84. 

H. id. Griffith, Cuv. An. Kingdom, Vol. 10, p. 141, pi. 53, fig. 3, a. 

The Sen Raven, H. americanus. Stoker, Fishes of Massachusetts, p. 23. 

Characteristics. Yellow or blood-red ; varied with brown. Length, one to two feet. 

Description. Body oblong, cylindrical, tapering rapidly to the tail. Head large, with 
irregular cavities, knobs and elevations. Supra-orbital margin elevated, and furnished with 
two strong spines ; four rows of irregular spines extending from the orbits to the nape. 
Above the snout, an elevated crest on each side, with spinous projections, and a broader 
intermediate eminence. From several of these prominences, arise various cutaneous digi- 
tated cirri or slips ; ten or twelve of these are also pendant from the lower jaw. Summit of 
the head very concave between the orbital crests. Surface of the body covered with a granu- 
lated skin ; on which, more particularly above the lateral line, are disposed in rows small 
conic tubercles. Preopercle with three spines, the lowest being very small. Opercle termi- 
nating in a blunt point, and with elevated spinous ridges on its surface. Branchial membrane 
six-rayed. Jaws equal and rounded. Card teeth in both jaws, on the vomer, palatine and 
pharyngeal bones. Tongue smooth and large. Lateral line indicated by a series of tuber- 
cles, and concurrent with the dorsal outline. 

The first dorsal fin, or rather the spinous portion, commences well on the nape, somewhat 
anterior to the ventrals, and extends to a point above the origin of the anal fin ; the first ray 
longest ; the second and third suddenly decreasing to the fourth and fifth, which are low and 
subequal ; from these, the rays lengthen through the sixth, seventh, eighth and ninth, which 
are subequal, when the rays again shorten to the last : the tips of most of these rays are 
furnished with fleshy slips or appendages. The second dorsal arises so immediately behind 



FAMILY TRIGLID^ — HEMITRIPTERUS. 57 

the first, as to have been considered but one by some writers : indeed, in the specimen before 
me, it is actually connected by a membrane : this fin terminates above the end of the anal ; 
its middle rays are longest, nearly equaling in height the first rays of the anterior dorsal.' 
The pectoral fins wide, oval, and attached obliquely behind the gills, the tips of the longest 
rays extending to the space between the first and second dorsals. Ventral fins small, and 
composed of a short, stout and blunt spine, and of three soft rays, of which the middle is 
longest. Anal fin equaling in extent the second dorsal ; the rays are longest behind. Caudal 
fin very slightly rounded, nearly even. 

Color. The whole surface of the head, body and fins, of a bright lemon-yellow. In a 
variety described by Mitchill as S. purpurea, the color is russet-brown, varied with whitish 
and yellowish blotches ; abdomen pale orange yellow. Another variety, his S. rufa, has a 
more uniform reddish hue, unclouded. 

Length, 12- 0-24-0. 

Radial formula, Br. 6; D. 16.14; P. 18; V. 1.3; A. 14; C. 12 |. 

This beautifully colored but oddly shaped fish, of which I have seen but two specimens, is 
comparatively rare on our coast. It is known by fishermen under the names of Sea Raven 
and -Sea Sculpin, and is taken in company with the cod along the coast. Its skeleton has 
thirty-nine vertebra;, sixteen abdominal and twenty-three caudal. Pyloric orifice with six 
Cffical appendages. The urinary bladder very large. No air-bladder. Feeds on the smaller 
fishes. 

The Sea Raven is subject to great variations in its color, from bright lemon-yellow to 
carmine. It is a northern species, not extending south of New- York, and becoming more 
abundant as we proceed north. 



Fauna — Part 4. 



58 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

GENUS SCORPiENA. Linneus. 

Head spinous and tubercular as in the preceding genus, hut laterally compressed. Dorsal 
fin undivided. Seven branchial rays. Body with scales. Cutaneous processes adhering 
to the head and sides. Teeth similar in shape and position to the preceding. 

THE SMALL SEA SCORPION. 

SCOHP^NA PORCOS. 

Scorptsna poTctts. LiNNEDS. 

La petite Scorpene brune. Cnv. et Val. Hist. Poiss. Vol. 4, p. 300. 

Characteristics. Brown ; beneath rosaceous, variegated with lighter colors. Scales very- 
small . Length 8-10 inches. 

Description. Body oblong ; dorsal line curved ; abdomen often prominent. Nostrils placed 
behind each other, and nearer to the eye than to the end of the snout. Head shorter and body 
deeper than in S. scrofa. Scales very small and rough. Si.xty are enumerated in a longitu- 
dinal series, and forty in a vertical line ; longer than broad, minutely striated, and ciliated on 
their outer margins, and with eight or nine plaits at their bases. Six small cutaneous slips at 
the end of the snout, two on the orbit, and one on the crest of the cranium ; a few very 
minute ones on the cheek, but none on the cheeks or sides of the body. The first spinous ray 
of the dorsal fin one-third less than the second, and thence gently increasing to the eleventh ; 
the soft portion half the extent of the spinous part. Anal fin with three stout short spines. 
Caudal rounded. 

Color. Brown, tinged with reddish beneath, which also appears on the ventrals and anal. 

Length, 8' - 10-0. 

Fin rays, D. 12.9; P. 18; V. 1.5; A. 3.5; C. 11 |. 

I have never met with this species, and have availed myself of the description given by 
MM. Cuvier and Valenciennes, who received it from New- York. It is common in the Medi- 
terranean, and along the southern shores of Europe. It is one of the few fishes which cross 
the Atlantic. Feeds on the smaller Crustacea. 



I 



I 



FAMILY TRIGLID^ SCORP.ENA. 59 

THE SPOTTED SEA SCORPION. 

Scorps:na ecfo. 

PLATE LXX. Fltt. 227. 



Rttscacio. Parka, Descripcion de diferentes, &c. p. 34, pi. 18, fig. 1. 
Si-'orp(Bna hifo. Cuv- et Val. Hist, des Poiss. Vol. 4, p. 306. 
The Sea Toad, S. bufo. Richardson, Faun. Bor. Fishes, p. 300. 



Characteristics. Base of llie pectorals beneath black, sprinkled with round milk-white spots. 
Length seven inches. 

Description. From thirty to thirty-three spines on the head and shoulders, viz. one on the 
nasal bone ; five on the elevated margin of the orbit ; three in a row extending backwards 
from the orbital ridge to the nape ; five in a row parallel to the above, commencing close to 
the orbit, passing over the temples, and ending on the shoulders, (the posterior part of this 
row is doubled, adding two spines more ;) four divergent ones on the anterior suborbital ; 
three on the ridge of the second suborbital, traversing the cheek obliquely ; six on the preo- 
percle ; and two on the opercle, the last tips the humeral bone immediately above the pectoral. 
Bands of teeth narrow on the jaws, vomer and palatines. Velvet teeth on the pharyngeals. 
Nasal spine more or less denticulated. 

Color. Brown, marbled with rosaceous and violet. The dorsal, between its si.xth and 
seventh rays, has a large black spot. 

Length, 7-0. 

Fin rays, D. 12.9; P. 19 or 20 ; V. 1.5; A. 3.5; C. 13 |. 

This species has been observed from the Caribbean sea to Newfoundland, and of course 
will be detected on our coast. I have not met with it, and have extracted the above from the 
descriptions of Cuvier and Richardson. The figure, although indifferent, is the only one I 
had access to, and is copied from Parra. 



60 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 



GENUS SEBASTES. Cuvier. 

Head covered with scales. No cirri. Ei/es large. Opercular bones with several spines. 
Branchial rays seven. A single dorsal fin, composed of spinous and flexible rays. Teeth 
small, numerous, on the jaws, vomer and palatines. Lower rays of the pectorals flexible. 

Obs. This genus, now comprising about ten species, was first separated by Cuvier from 
Scorpana, with whicli it has many characters in common. On our coast, we have one spe- 
cies common to both sliores of the Atlantic. 



THE NORTHERN SEBASTES. 

Sebaste.s norvegicus. 

PLATE IV. FIG. II. 

Perca norvegica. MuLLER, Zool. Dan. p. 46, pi. 

Lc Sebaste septmtrionale, S. norvegicus. Cuv. et Val. Hist. Poiss. Vol. 4, p. 327, pi. 87. 

Nontay Haddock, S. jwrvegicus. Yarrell, British Fishes, Vol. 1, p. 73, fig. 

The Northern Sebastes. RiCHAKDsoN, Faun. Bor. Am. Fishes, p. 52. 

The Norway Haddock, S. norvegicus, Storer, Fishes of Massachusetts, p. 26. 

Characteristics. Uniform red above ; silvery beneath, without darker blotches or bands. 
Length, one to two feet. 

Description. Body oblong, compressed, covered with small oval roughened scales, extend- 
ing over all the head, and a part of the dorsal, anal and caudal fins : ninety are counted in the 
length of the fish, and thirty to forty in a vertical line from the pectorals. Lateral line con- 
current with the back, and composed of a series of about thirty-six tubes. Head flattened 
above, and one-third of the total length. Preopercle rounded, with five spines ; opercle with 
two ; sub and inter-opercle with one spine each. Scapular bones with two spines ; suborbital 
with two. Four spines on the supra-orbital ridge, a minute one beneath, and two others 
projecting backward. Mouth wide ; upper jaw very protractile, with a notch in the centre 
for the reception of the lower jaw. Lower jaw with a prominent chin, and three large pores 
under each branch of the jaw. 

The dorsal fin compound, with fifteen spinous rays, which are so distant from eacli other 
as to make the base of this portion double the length of the other, although containing only 
the same number of rays ; soft portion twice the height of the spinous portion. Pectorals 
rounded, as wide as long ; the ten upper rays branched ; the nine lower articulated, but sim- 
ple : all the rays extend somewhat beyond the membrane. Ventrals slightly behind the pecto- 
rals ; of one spine, and five branched rays. Anal with three spines, of which the first is short 
and robust, with seven or eight branched rays twice the length of the posterior spinous ray. 
Caudal fin slightly excavated behind. 



FAMILY TRIGLIDyE URANIDEA. 61 

Color. All the head and body above, together with the fins, of a carmine red. A brown 
blotch on the posterior part of the opercle. Beneath lighter, and in the recent fish of a bright 
rose-red. Pupils black ; irides yellow. 

Length, 12-0 -24-0. 

Fin rays, D. 15.15; P. 19; V. 1.6; A. 3.8; C. 15. 

This is a very rare fish in our waters. It is called, by our fishermen, Red Sea Perch, and 
they say it is only found in deep water. By the fishermen of Massachusetts, it is known 
under the various names of Rose-fish, Hemdurgon, and Snapper. Fabricius states that it is 
rather agreeable food, but meagre. In Greenland, the lips are eaten raw. It feeds on flounders 
and other fish, and takes the hook readily. It is a native of the northern seas, found on the 
coast of Newfoundland rather abundantly, and more rarely along the seaboard of Massachu- 
setts. The coast of New-York is probably its extreme southern limit. 



GENUS URANIDEA. 

Head ivide, depressed. Body without scales. Two dorsals. Ventrals with three rays. 
Eyes nearly vertical. Opercle smooth ; preopercle with a single spine. Teeth on the 
jaws, vomer and tongue. 

THE LITTLE STAR-GAZER. 

UrANIDEA auiESCENS. 
PLATE V. FIG. 14. — (STATE COLLECTION.) 

Characteristics. Olive-brown, varied with dusky. Tail long, even. Length two to three 
inches. 

Description. Head large, depressed, with the angles of the jaws much dilated. No scales 
were noticed, even with the aid of the lens. A series of mucous pores on the upper part of 
the head. Lateral line near the back, and concurrent with it. Eyes large, and nearly verti- 
cal. Mouth very large, with minute recurved teeth on the jaws, vomer and tongue. A stout 
sword-shaped spine, 0*1 in length, on the preopercle. Branchial rays seven. 

The first dorsal fin is low and rounded, and composed of seven simple feebly spinous rays, 
and arises near the anterior third of the body ; it is separated by a very short interval from 
the second dorsal fin, which is higher than the first, and composed of sixteen slender rays 
gradually diminishing behind. Pectoral fins very large, broad and rounded. (In some of the 
impressions, the right pectoral is drawn so incorrectly, that it appears like a third dorsal.) 
The tips of the pectorals extend to the second or third ray of the posterior dorsal. Ventrals 
very long, placed immediately under the pectorals, and composed of three very slender rays. 
The anal fin corresponds in its origin neajly with the second dorsal, but terminates short of 



62 NEW- YORK FAUNA. 

it, with thirteen rays. The tail is very slender, and the caudal fin, which is even, contains 
but thirteen rays. The membranes of all the rays are exceedingly thin and delicate. 

Color. Above minutely punctate with olive-brown, and varied with obscure darker blotches ; 
abdomen soiled white. Head blackish brown above. Pectoral and caudal fins tinged with 
orange, and both obsoletely marked with three or four interrupted bands. 

Length, 2 • - .3 • 0. Depth, 0-25. 

Fin rays, D. 7.16; P. 13; V. 3 ; A. 13; C. 13 f. 

This curious little fish, which is strongly allied by its form to Uranoscopus, was first 
pointed out to me by my friend Dr. Emmons, in a small stream emptying into Round lake, 
Hamilton county. We subsequently detected it in Lake Pleasant, in the same county. It 
lies quiescent for a long time near the bottom, and moves slowly in search of food. When 
disturbed, it darts suddenly forward with great velocity. Occasionally it takes the hook. 

GENUS ASPIDOPHORUS. Lacepede, Cuvier. 

Body viuch elongated, and covered with scaly plates. Head depressed. Snout with recurved 
spines. Minute velvet-like teeth in the jaws, vomer and palatines. Branchial rays six. 

THE AMERICAN ASPIDOPHORE. 

AsPIDOPHORUS MONOPTERYGICS. 

PLATE n. FIG. 6. 

Agotius iTKm<ypterygius. Bl. Schn. p. 104. 

L'Aspidophare a une sink dorsale. Cnv. el Val. Hist. Poiss. Vol. 4, p. 224, pi. 169. 
Cottus momipifrrygius. RiCHARDSON, Faun. Bor. Am. Fishes, p. 50. 
Aspidophoroides id.. The Bull-head. Storer, Fislies of Mass. p. 22, pi. 1, fig. 1. 

Characteristics. Small ; with a single dorsal. Body octagonal. Length four to six inches. 

Description. Body elongated, quadrangular in front of the dorsal fin, tapering gradually to 
the tail, and covered with eight series of plates on the body and six on the tail. Head broad ; 
orbits large and prominent, with a deep furrow between. The snout in advance of the orbits 
is concave, and surmounted by two small recurved spines at its extremity ; and a third, 
smaller, behind. The opercle with a spinous process. Mouth small, with fleshy lips, with 
short velvet teeth on each jaw. Scales hexagonal, with radiated strias. Dorsal fin placed in 
a furrow between the angles of the large dorsal plates, which exists from the nape to the tail. 
Dorsal and caudal fins rounded ; (in the figure, drawn from an imperfect specimen.) 

Color. Light brown, with six transverse dark semi-bands. 

Length, 4-0 -6-0. 

Fin rays, D. 5 ; P. 10; V. 1.2 ; A. 5 ; C. 16. 



FAMILY TRIGLID^ CRYPTACANTHODES. 63 

I have never had an opportunity of seeing this rare species, and have copied from Storer 
his figure of one found on the coast of Massachusetts. It occurs in the Arctic seas, is unim- 
portant as an article of food, and is very rare. 

GENUS CRYPTACANTHODES. Storer. 

Body anguilliform, compressed, gradually tapering to the tail, without scales. Head broad, 
with no projecting spines hut the angles of the gill-covers. The scapular and humeral 
spines, and the lower edge of the preopercle, pro?ninent to the touch. Branchial rays 
seven. A single dorsal, with strong spinous rays, and united ivith the caudal and anal. 
No ventral fins. Teeth in the jaws, vomer and p)alatines. 

Obs. This genus was estabhshed by Dr. Storer, for the reception of a remarkable fish 
which appears occasionally on the seacoast of Massachusetts. 

THE SPOTTED WRY-MOUTH. 

CRYPTACANTHODES MACDL4TPS. 

PLATE XVni. FIG. 50. And with the head enlakged.— (CAB. BOST. NAT. HIST. SOCIETY.) 
Cryptacanthodes maculatus. Spotted Wry-mouth, Storer, Mass. Rep. p. 28. 

Characteristics. Reddish brown, with darker reddish blotches, forming two longitudinal series, 
on the sides. Length twelve to twenty inches. 

Description. Body elongated, compressed, scaleless. Lateral line straight, with the ap- 
pearance of interrupted dots. Head large, flattened above, with several bony processes and 
ridges ; two prominent ones running from the orbits backwards to the occiput. The posterior 
angles of the opercle and preopercle, the whole lower edge of the latter, and the scapular 
bones, all seem like sharp points and edges concealed under the skin. Opercle small, 1*0 
long, rounded on its lower margin, acute behind ; its upper margin forming a bony ridge, and 
united to the preopercle by a membrane at its upper angle. Preopercle large ; its upper and 
posterior angles obvious to the touch ; its lower edge sharp, and feeling as if divided into two 
ridges. Branchial membrane capacious, dilatable, and forming a large fold above the base 
of the pectorals, where it unites with the common skin. Eyes moderate, nearly vertical, 0'3 
in diameter, and " 63 apart ; the intervening space between the orbits depressed, with nume- 
rous pits or cavities. Nostrils tubular, and placed on a line with the upper margin of the 
orbits, at the edge of the intermaxillaries. Mouth wide, terminal, opening obliquely upwards. 
Lips large and fleshy. Minute straight conic teeth disposed in bands on the jaws, with an 
intermediate free space in the middle ; a patch of similar teeth on the vomer ; several series 
of longer and more acute and recurved teeth on the palatines. 

The dorsal fin arises 3" 4 distant from the end of the snout, and nearly above the middle of 
the pectorals ; it is united to, and continuous with the caudal : all its rays are stoutly spinous 



64 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

and subequal, except a few of its anterior rays, which are shorter ; they are all enveloped in 
a stout lliick membrane. Pectoral fins small, obtusely pointed at the tip, and rounded 
beneatli ; the fifth, sixth and seventh rays longest. The vent is placed beneath the twenty- 
eighth or twenty-ninth dorsal ray. Immediately behind the vent, commences the anal fin, 
which is similar in its form, and the character of its rays, to the dorsal fin. Caudal elongated, 
obtusely pointed. 

Color. Reddish white, with an interrupted series of irregular dark brown blotches extending 
from the pectorals to the tail ; more numerous towards the tail, and large at the anterior part 
of the body. 

Length, 12-0 - 21 -0. 

Fin rays, D. 77 ; P. 13; A. 50 ; C. 19. 

This very curious and rare species, whicli in its form approaches the genus Trypauclien 
of the family Gobidce, and in the absence of ventrals might be referred to some groups of the 
Anmiillida., was first described by Dr. Storer of Boston, and referred under a new and 
appropriate genus to the present family. Among this family it will form a new group, charac- 
terized by its anguilliform body, and the absence of ventral fins. 

I take this occasion to express my obligations to Dr. Storer, for placing this and other 
specimens in my hands for examination and comparison. I am thus enabled to give a figure 
of this rare and singular species. Nothing is known of its habits. One of the only three 
specimens known, was obtained from the stomach of a haddock. It is probably a northern 
species. 

GENUS GASTEROSTERUS. Artedi. 

Body without scales, with more or less plates on the sides. One dorsal Jin, with free spines 
before it. Branchial rays three. Bones of the pelvis united, and forming a shield, 
pointed behind. Teeth in the jaws ; none on the vomer and palatines. 

Obs. This group comprises numerous small species, found in the ocean and in fresh-water 
streams. They are exceedingly active in their movements, and have been observed to tlu-ow 
themselves to a great distance out of water. They are very pugnacious, and when confined, 
will destroy each other. Their food consists of the fry of other species, of which they 
destroy great numbers. A single individual has been known, in five hours, to devour seventy- 
four young dace, and on the following day, sixty-two. Some of the species appear to possess 
the property of changing their color. In some parts of England, they are so numerous as to 
be employed as manure. 



FAMILY TRIGLro^ GASTEROSTEUS. 65 

THE TWO-SPINED STICKLEBACK. 

Gasterosteus biaculeatus. 

PLATE III. FIG. 9. — (CABINET OF TOE LYCEUM.) 

Two-spinrd Stichkback. Pens. Arct. Zool. Suppl. (No description.) 
Gasterosteus hiaculealus. Mitch. Lit. and Phil. Soc. Vol. 1, p. 430, pi. 1, fig. 10. 

Characteristics. With two distant spines on the back, and a third near the dorsal. A strong 
serrated spine on each side, representing the ventrals. Length 2* inches. 

Description. Body compressed, tapering away to a very small caudal extremity. Body on 
each side covered by a series of from twenty-eight to thirty narrow vertical plates, striated 
perpendicularly on their surface, and faintly denticulated on their posterior margins. Vent 
with an anterior pouch, analogous to that observed in Syiignathiis. The course of the lateral 
line near the back is indicated by a series of prominences, finally terminating on the carinated 
side of the tail. This carina is high and membranous, and when viewed from above, resem- 
bles lateral finlets. The humeral bone terminates above ihe base of the pectorals, in a flat 
point. The ventral spine on each side is 0-.3 long, acute, serrated on each side, with a 
prominent flattened process on each side of the base. A flat lustrous silvery plate between 
the pectorals and the branchial orifice. Head flattened above, with numerous impressed 
punctures arranged in rows. Eyes large. Nostrils midway between the latter and the point 
of the jaw. Teeth exceedingly minute, with a broad velum across the upper jaw. The place 
of the first dorsal occupied by two distant, slightly curved, compressed spines, serrated on 
their edges, and each furnished behind with a short membrane ; a third, similar in shape, 
but smaller, near the dorsal fin ; all are much enlarged at their bases ; the anterior two 0-.3 
long, the posterior 0' 1. 

The dorsal fin longer than high ; its anterior rays longest, composed of one spine and 
twelve simple rays. Pectoral fins elongated, and containing ten rays. The ventrals repre- 
sented by a single spine on each side, as described above. Between these spines is a long 
triangular plate, with a central elevated ridge ; its surface striated transversely in front, with 
ano-ular strije behind, and terminating in a sharp point, as represented in the plate ; its use 
appears to be, to support the abdominal pouch. The anal fin commences posterior to the 
origin of the dorsal, and is longer than high, slightly excavated on its margin, and contains 
one bent short spine and eight rays. The caudal fin contains twelve rays, and is slightly 
emarginate. 

Color. Dark olive-green above, gradually intermixing with light greenish and yellowish on 
the sides. Fins more or less tinged with yellowish. 

Length, 2"5. Greatest depth, 0'5. 

Fin rays, D. 2.1.12; P. 9 ; V. 1 ; A. 1 .8 ; C. 12. 

Fatjna — Part 4. 9 



66 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

Found about New-York in the salt-water streams, and I have noticed them in the Hudson 
as far up as Albany, where the water is fresh. I cannot reconcile the Epinochc a deux 
epines of Cuvier and Valenciennes (Vol. 1, p. 503), with its naked tail, and its robust flat 
and sharp tooth at the external base of the ventral spines on each side, with our New-York 
species. 

THE NEW-YORK STICKLEBACK. 

GiSTEROSTEDS NEOEORACENSIS. 

PLATE VI. FIG. 17. 

Gasterosteus aculeatus New-York. Schcepff, Beobacht. Vol. 8, p. 107. 
L'Epinoche de New-York. Cuv. et Val. Hist. Poiss. Vol. 4, p. 502, pi. 98, fig. 3. 

Characteristics. A soft and flexible spine at the base of the ventral spines on each side. Tail 
armed. Length two inches. 

Description. Body fusiform, compressed; sides with a series of from thirty to thirty-three 
transverse plates. The lateral line concuiTcnt with the back, from which it is generally 0* 1 
distant : it is prominent tliroughout its whole course ; but about the nineteenth or twentieth 
lateral plate, it becomes elevated into sharp compressed spines, which form a distinct ridge 
along each side of the tail. Head small, covered with striate bony plates, flattened above, 
and sloping in a straight line from the nape. Mouth slightly protractile, with a vertical aspect ; 
the lower jaw longest. Eyes large. Opercular bones with obsolete strias, and without spines 
or denticulation. Minute subequal teeth in a single row on each jaw ; none elsewhere. Tail 
very slender. 

The first dorsal spine 0'2 long, acute, placed above the base of the pectoral, and with a 
broad base ; serrate on the sides, and furnished with a membrane. The second dorsal spine 
above the fourth lateral plate ; and beyond this, and directly over tlie ventral spine, is another 
similar in shape and size to the preceding ; a third, which is scarcely 0" 1 in length, and some- 
what curved, is placed near the dorsal fin. 

Dorsal fin long, composed of thirteen rays, of which the anterior are largest, and gradually 
decrease in length to the last. Pectorals long and rounded, the tips of the rays (eleven in 
number) extending beyond the second dorsal spine. Tlie place of the ventrals supplied by a 
single ray on each side ; the ossa innominata forming a long solid triangular plate, terminating 
in a point behind, and covering the lower part of the abdomen nearly to the vent : the junction 
of the plates forms a prominent roughened carina. The ventral spine itself has a dilated 
base, and is distinctly toothed on its side ; it reaches nearly to the tip of the abdominal shield. 
Under each ventral spine is a soft flexible spine, the use of which is not apparent, unless it 
be to replace the loss of the larger one. Anal fin long, slightly emarginate, with one curved 
spine and twelve branched rays. Caudal fin with thirteen rays, and emarginate. 

Color. Plumbeous grey or bluish above ; silvery on the sides and beneath. 

Length, 2-0. Depth, 0-5. 



FAMILY TRIGLIDiE GASTEROSTEUS. 67 

This species is very closely allied to the preceding, and resembles, as Cuvier has observed, 
the G. trachurus, or common Three-spined Stickleback of Europe. I have noticed them 
frequently thrown ashore on the beach of the ocean, completely exenterated, but their bony 
cuirass preserving their form entire. 

THE FOUR-SPINED STICKLEBACK. 

GasTEROSTEUS aCADRACPS. 

PL.iTE VI. FIG. IS. — (STATE COLLECTION.) 

Gasterosteus quadracus. MiTCHiLL, Tr. Lit. and Phil. Soc. Vol.1, p. 430, pi. 1, fig, 11. (Bad.) 
G. id. et apeltes. Cuv. et Val. Hist, des Poiss. Vol. 4, p. 505. 
G. apeltes, Bloody StkUeback ? Storek, M.iss. Report, p. 31. 

Characteristics. Olive-green, marbled with dusky. Sides not cuirassed. Three or four spines 
before the dorsal. Length one or two inches. 

Description. Body compressed, highest opposite the first dorsal spine ; back arched. Tail 
exceedingly slender. Head small, descending. l\\ front of the dorsal fin are three and occa- 
sionally four moveable spines, with a small membrane attached to each, all lying in a groove ; 
the first longest, the others successively shorter. The dorsal fin commences a short distance 
behind the spines, with one contiguous spine and twelve articulated rays ; the anterior soft 
rays are largest ; the whole fin is received into a groove. Pectorals feeble, and composed of 
twelve slender rays. Ventrals reduced on each side to a single stout triangular spine, ser- 
rated on its anterior edge. The os innominatum beneath is elongated on each side, above the 
spiny ventral, until it reaches the vent : these are " the lateral spines " of Mitchill. Anal fin 
with an acute recurved spine, and ten soft rays. Caudal fin emarginate, with thirteen rays. 

Color. Silvery plumbeous above ; whitish beneath, often marbled with dusky on an olive- 
green ground. 

Length, TO- 2-0. 

Fin rays, D. 3 or 4. 1.12; P. 12 ; V. 1 ; A. 1.10; C. 13. 

This species abounds in our waters. Cuvier and Valenciennes describe the apeltes as a 
species "qui pourrait bien etre celle que M. Mitchill a cue sous les yeux, quoiqu'elle reponde 
" assez mal a sa description." Dr. Storcr describes a membrane attached to the ventral 
spine, which escaped my notice. A typographical error in that gentleman's description 
makes him attribute but five rays to the dorsal fin. 

In a monography of Gasterosteus, or in a general Systema, it will be found necessary to 
consider this species as the type of a new genus, including perhaps concinnus, for which the 
name of Apeltes would be sufficiently characteristic. 



68 NEW-yORK FAUNA. 



THE MANY-SPINED STICKLEBACK. 

Gasterosteus occidentalis. 

plate xlii. fig. 135. — (state collection.) 

L'epirmchelte de Terra-neuve. Cuv. et V.iL. Hist. Poiss, Vol. 4, p. 509. 
The Ten-spincd Slickkback, G. pmtgilius. Storek, Fishes of Mass. p. 32. 

Characteristics. With more than seven spines in front of the dorsal fin. Tail armed. Length 
one to two inches. 

Description. Body elongated, compressed, tapering from the origin of the dorsal fin. Head 
small ; eyes prominent. Nostrils round, simple, and contiguous to the orbits. Mouth ver- 
tical. Sides of the tail distinctly carinated, with from twelve to fourteen distinct plates. 
Dorsal spines ten in number, incurved, placed in a groove, and alternately directed to the 
right or left; the first is slightly in advance of a line vertical to the base of the pectoral fins. 
The dorsal fin high, subtriangular, and composed of one stout spine and seven soft rays. 
Anal fin beneath the preceding, and similar to it in shape, with one saline and nine soft rays. 
Ventral spines triangular, acute ; a buckler extended into a point behind, between the ventral 
spines, with from four to six transverse furrows between those spines. Caudal fin elongated, 
rounded. 

Color. Olive-green, with a tinge of yellow. 

Length, 1-5- 2-0. 

Fin rays, D. 10.1.7; P. 11 ; V. 1 ; A. 1.9; C. 13. 

Although this species differs somewhat in its radial formula from the occidentalis of Cuvier, 
yet its elongated slender form and carinated tail has led me to refer it to that species. Sub- 
sequent observations must verify the truth of this conjecture. It will scarcely be referred, I 
think, to the G. pungitius of Europe. 

This little sjjecies is found both in fresh and salt water. I have specimens caught in the 
harbor of New-York, in company with the Syngnatlius fuscus ; and also from a fresh-water 
pond on the island of New- York, near the Deaf and Dumb Asylum, where the communication 
with the sea is interrupted during the greater part of the year. 

{EXTRA-LIMITAL.) 

G. mainensis. (Storer, Bost. Jour. Vol. 1, p. 464.) Back with seven spines, the last longest; a 

broad oblong serrated plate on the side ; with numerous dusky transverse bands. Length two 

inches. Fresh water. Maine. 
G. niger. (Cuv. et Val. Vol. 4, p. 503.) Entirely black; tail armed; ventral spines very long. 33 

lateral plates. Two inches. Newfoundland. 
G. concinnus. (Richardson, F. B. A. Vol. 3, p. 57.) Body scaleless; tail sUghtly keeled on the 

sides ; nine dorsal spines. Length an inch and a quarter. Fresh water. Northern Regions. 
G. inconstans. (Kirtland, Zool. Ohio, p. 191, ined.) 



FAMILY SCIENID^ LEIOSTOMUS. 69 

FAMILY IV. SCIENID.^. 

No teeth on the vomer or palatines. Denticulations or spines on the opercular bones. Mouth 
notjirotractile. Checks not inailed. Scales on the bases of the vertical Jins. With one 
or tioo dorsal Jins. Teeth various. 

This family resembles the Percidcn in many particulars, such as the various denticulations 
or spines on the opercular pieces, the variations in the dorsal fins and the branchial rays, etc., 
but are at once distinguished by their smooth palate. Some of the genera of the preceding 
family, with smooth palates, appear to constitute a connecting link or passage from the Per- 
cida to the family now under consideration. The Scienidce have all a peculiar aspect, and 
may in general be readily recognized by their arched snout, and by the scales which ascend 
high upon the vertical fins ; they have the habits of the Perch family, and in general are 
excellent food. The species are for the most part inhabitants of the intertropical seas ; none 
are common to both continents, and a great majority of the species are American. Many of 
them make a grunting noise, which Cuvier supposes may possibly be connected with their 
complicated air-bladder. 

The species already known exceed two hundred and fifty, which have been distributed by 
Cuvier under thirty-one genera. 

GENUS LEIOSTOMUS. Cuvier. 

Anal spine feeble. Very minute denticulations on the preopercle. Teeth in the jaws even, 
and excessively small. Pharyngeals paved on their posterior border. Snout convex, 
arched. Two dorsals. 

Obs. The name of this genus was formed by Lacepede, upon the erroneous idea of the 
total absence of teeth. Cuvier first assigned its proper characters. 

THE LAFAYETTE. 

LEIOSTOMUS OBLIQUns. 

PLATE LX. FIG. 195. 

Mugil oJIijuus. MiTCHILL, Report in part, etc., p. 16. 

Labnts id., Little Porgee. Id. Lit. and Phil. Soc. Vol. 1, p. 405. 

Sciena multifasciata. LEsnEBR, Acad. Nat. Sciences, Vol. 2, p. 255. 

Le Liiostome a epanle noire, L. humeralis. Cuv. et Val. Hist. Poiss. Vol. 5, p. 141, pi. 110. 

Characteristics. Fourteen to eighteen transverse oblique bands over the back. A dark 
rounded spot behind the upper angle of the opercle. Length 6 to 8 inches. 

Description. Body compressed. Back gibbous, rapidly descending to the nape. Snout 
blunt. Eyes large. Nostrils double ; the posterior oblique, largest. Three or four pores at 



70 NEW-yORK FAUNA. 

the end of the jaw. Scales small, ciliate, covering the head and body. Lateral line distinct, 
and concurrent with the back. Jaws equal. Teeth so minute as to be visible only with a 
lens. Preopercle minutely denticulate. 

The first dorsal triangular, with its first ray short, and equal to its last ; the third, fourth 
and fifth rays longest ; separated by a very short interval from the second dorsal, which is 
long and low, its rays (except the first) equal, and ending posterior to the termination of the 
anal. Pectorals long, scaly at the base, and composed of twenty branched rays. Ventrals 
slightly behind the pectorals, with one short and five branched rays. Anal excavated on its 
margin ; its anterior spine almost concealed in the skin. Caudal fin lunate, covered high up 
with small scales. 

Color. Whitish, with from twelve to eighteen dark greyish bars directed obliquely forward, 
more vertical behind. Irides yellow ; pupils black. Fins yellowish ; dorsal and anal fins 
minutely punctate with black. A round blackish brown spot on each side, more or less dis- 
tinct, on the lateral line, above the base of the pectorals. 

Length, 6-0 -8-0. Of head, r6 - TS. Depth, S'O - 2-5. 
Fin rays, D. 9.1.30; P. 20; V. 15; A. 2.12; C. 19. 

This beautiful little fish, which furnishes a delicate article of food, is usually rare in our 
waters, but visits us in almost incredible numbers at irregular and generally distant intervals. 
One of these visits happened to coincide with the arrival of the great and the good La Fayette 
at New- York, in the summer of 1824. His name was unanimously given to a fish, which 
was considered as entirely new, and this name it still retains. It must be very common on 
the southern coast, but I cannot find that it has in those parts received any popular name. If 
I am correct in supposing that the .S. midtifasciata of Lesueur, described from a dried sjdc- 
cimen, is identical with the Lafayette, it is common on the coast of Florida. Thus far, there 
is reason to believe that the coast of New- York forms its extreme northern geographic limits. 
I see no good reason for changing the prior and characteristic name given to it by Dr. 
Mitchill. 

(EXTRALI3IITAL) 

L. xanihurus. (Cuv. et Val. Vol. 5, p. 142.) Unspoiled ; without bands. Fins, and especially the 
caudal, yellow. D. 11. 1.32; A. 2.13. Length six or eight inches. South-Carolina. 



FAMILY SCIENIDiE. 71 



GENUS OTOLITHUS. Cmier. 

Two stout canine teeth in the upper jaw, and occasionally in the lower. Tivo small pores 
on the lower jaw, or entirely wanting . Two dorsal fins. Air-hladder hifidiii front. Anal 
spines feeble or obsolete. Body elongated. 



THE WEAK-FISH. 

OtOLITHUS REGALIS. 

PLATE VIII. FIG 21. 

Johnnius regalis. ScHN. Scuteeg und Scuppaug. Schcepff, 1. c. p. 1G9. 

Roccus comes. MiTCHiLL, Report in part on the Fishes of N. Y. 1814, p. 26. 

Weak-fish, Labrus squcteague. Id. Lit. and Phil. Soc. N. Y. Vol. 1, p. 396, pi. 2, fig. 6. 

L'Ololithe royal, 0. regalis. Cuv. et Val. Hist. Poiss. Vol, 5, p. 67. 

Sciena (OlolUhus) regalis. Richardson, Fauna Bor. Am. Fishes, p. 68. 

O. regalis, Squeteague, Weak-fish. Stoker, Fishes of Massachusetts, p. 33. 

Characteristics. Bluish above, varied with dusky. Ventrals and anal orange. Ventrals with 
five branched rays. Length one to two feet. 

Description. Body elongate, compressed. Head slightly arched over the eyes. Scales 
moderate, oval, transparent, minutely striate and denticulate, covering the gill-covers and 
summit of the head to the end of the nose. The lateral line curved slightly, but not concur- 
rent with the back ; it may be traced to the tips of the caudal rays. Nostrils double, placed 
in a triangular cavity anterior to the eye ; the one nearest the orbit vertically oblong, the other 
round and subtubular. Eyes large, the lower jaw longest, furnished with a row of distant 
acute subequal teeth, and in front with two or three rows of smaller ones. Similar but 
smaller ones above in the intermaxillaries, and from one to three long fang-like teeth in front 
of the upper jaw. Ranges of minute teeth on the pharyngeals, to which is attached an orbi- 
cular process, which is festooned on its margin. Branchial rays seven : the first branchial 
arch with long fiat processes, strongly dentate on their inner edges ; the others with short 
alternate tubercles. Opercle with two obsolete flattened points, scarcely discernible through 
the membrane. Preopercle with a minutely crenate membranous margin. 

Dorsal fins two ; the first triangular longer than high, of eight simple feebly spinous rays, 
of which the first is shorter than the second ; the third longest. Equidistant between this and 
the succeeding fin, is a short feeble isolated spine. The second dorsal fin is long and sube- 
qual ; the first ray is short, and so closely in contact with the ne.xt as to be separated with 
difficulty. The third is longest ; and from this, the ravs insensibly diminish to its termination 
somewhat beyond the anal. The pectoral fins extend as far as the middle of the first dorsal, 
and, with the exception of the first, which is simple, contain seventeen branched rays. Ven- 
tral fin stout, with one simple and five very ramose rays. The anal fin short ; the third ray 



72 NEW- YORK FAUNA. 

equal to the length of its base ; the first simple, very short ; the remaining branched rays 
twelve. Caudal somewhat lunulated, of seventeen rays, the exterior simple. 

The gall-bladder long and tubular. Four csecal appendages. The intestine makes two 
convolutions. Air-bladder very thick, and of the shape represented in the figure ; on its inner 
surface is a long red glanular body, the uses of which have not been ascertained. 

Color. Bluish above, with irregular transverse series of dark spots on the back and sides. 
Summit of the head greenish blue ; interior of the mouth with a yellowish tinge. Irides 
yellow. Gill-covers and inferior surface silvery lustrous. Chin with bright salmon-colored 
tints. Upper vertical fin and tlie caudal fin brownish. Pectoral fins brownish yellow. Ven- 
trals and anal orange. 

Length, 13-0. Depth, 3-0. 

Fin rays, D. 8.1.28; P. 18; V. 1.5; A. 13; C. 17. 

The Weak-fish, so called from the feeble resistance it makes on the hook, and the facility 
with which it breaks away from it, by reason of its delicate structure, was formerly one of 
our most common salt-water fishes. The average size is not more than six or eight inches, 
but I have been informed of one weighing thirty pounds. Of late years, it has greatly dimi- 
nished in numbers on our coast ; and as the Temnodon saltator or Blue-fish of the south has 
appeared here in great numbers, the disappearance of the former is supposed to be in some 
way connected with the appearance of the latter. Dr. Storer has made a similar observation 
on the coast of Massachusetts. 

The aboriginal name given to this fish by the Narragansets was Squeteaugue, corrupted 
into Squettee ; the Mohegans named it Checouts. Although extensively eaten, it may be 
ranked among those of a secondary quality. 

Its extreme northern range yet ascertained, extends to the Gulf of St. Lawrence. It is not 
uncommon at New-Orleans, where it is called Trout, and has been captured at Martinique. 

(EXTRALIMITAL) 

O. carolinensis. (Cuv. et Val. Vol. 9, p. 475.) Scales small; more than eighty in a longitudinal 
fine. Blue on the back, with silvery reflexions. Anal blackish blue. D. 10.1.27; A. 1.11. 
Length fourteen inches. South-Carolina,. 

O. drummondi. (Richardson, F. B. A.) Slender. Two distinct rows of teeth in the upper jaw. 
Caudal rounded. Anal 1 . 8. Length eleven and a half inches. New-Orleans. 



FAMILY SCIENID^. 73 



GENUS CORVINA. Cuvkr. 

Brancliial rays seven. Teeth generally even, velvet-like on the jaws ; hut tvith a series of 
teeth larger, pointed and equal on the upper jaw. Dorsals tivo, or deeply divided. Snout 
arched. Spines of the anal moderate or rohust. No harhules. 

Obs. This genus is distinguishable from Sciena and Otolithus by the size and length of the 
anal spines ; and from the latter more particularly by the absence of canines. The want of 
ciiTi or barbules distinguishes it from Pogonias and Umhrina. About thirty-five species have 
been described from various parts of the viforld. They occur in salt and fresh water, but 
principally in the former. 

THE LAKE SHEEPSHEAD. 

CORVINA OSCULi. 

PLATE XXI. FIG. 63. — (ST.^TE COLLECTION.) 

Sciena oscula. Lesheur, Joum. Acad. Nat. Sciences, Vol. 2, p. 252, pi. 13. 
Le Corb de Lesumr, Corvina oscula. Cuv. et Val. Hist. Poiss. Vol. 5, p. 98. 
C. id. KiRTLAND, Bost. Jour. Vol. 3, p. 350, pi. 6, fig. 3 ; Ohio Report, p. 193. 

Characteristics. Anterior profile sloping, somewhat concave. Snout prominent, rounded. 
Length 12-18 inches. 

Description. Body compressed above, wider beneath. Back arched and gibbous. Scales 
shorter than wide, slightly denticulated, small and crowded above and beneath the pectorals, 
and covering the base of the dorsal and caudal fins. Lateral fin distinct, concurrent with the 
back, and may be traced far up the caudal fin. Eyes large, prominent, rounded, near the 
facial outline. Minute and scarcely perceptible serratures on the preopercle. Mouth small. 
Teeth in the jaws small, conic, equal ; the outer series somewhat more robust. Pharyngeals 
with large rounded and paved teeth. Five pores on the lower jaw. 

First ray of the spinous portion of the dorsal fin very short ; the third slightly longer than 
the second, and longer than the others ; the ninth slightly longer than the first. The first ray 
of the soft portion spinous ; the remainder subequal, branched, and ending beyond the termi- 
nation of the anal fin : its rays vary from twenty-eight to thirty-one. Anal fin with two spines 
and eight soft rays ; the first very short, stout and acute ; the second six times longer, and 
very robust. Caudal rounded at the tips. 

Color. Bluish grey on the back ; darker on the nape and snout. Abdomen and chin greyish 
white. 

Length, 15-0. Depth, 4-5. 

Fin rays, D. 9.1.28; P. 19; V. 1.5; A. 2.8; C. 17 f. 

Fauna — Part 4. 10 



74 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

This is a very common fish in Lake Erie, and is called at Buffalo, Sheepshead. Unlike 
the Sheepshead of the ocean {Sargus ovis), it is a poor, dry and tasteless fish, and is scarcely 
ever eaten. It also occurs in Lake Ontario. It does not appear to have been seen by Rich- 
ardson in the upper lakes. It feeds on many of the fresh-water shells, such as Cyclas, Palu- 
dina, &c. Its air-bladder is very large and simple. 

THE SILVERY CORVINA. 

CORVINA ARGYROLEOCA. 

PLATE XVm. FIG. 51. 

Silvery Perch, Bodiamts argyroleiicos. Mitch. Lit. and Phil. Vol. 1, p. 417, pi. 6, fig. 9. 
Le Corh blatic d^argent, Cuv. et Val. Hist, des Foiss. Vol. 5, p. 105. 

CJiaracteristics. The lour first spinous rays of the dorsal fin successively longer. Scales 
white and silvery. Ventral and anal orange-yellow. Length eight inches. 

Description. Body compressed ; back arched ; facial outline sloping. Snout somewhat 
produced. Scales moderately large, rough on their margins. Lateral line concurrent with 
the back. Eyes large. Mouth deeply cleft. Teeth very minute, disposed in a narrow band. 
Preopercle with two small spines, or, as they may be termed, strong distant teeth, the lower 
directed downwards ; the remainder of the margin with small serratures. Opercle ending in 
two flat obtuse points. Lower jaw with four minute pores. 

Dorsal fin compound, deeply emarginate ; the first portion is spinous, with eleven spines, 
of which the first is very short, the fourth longest ; the posterior portion with two short spines 
and twenty-two soft rays, of which the anterior from the fourth are longest. Pectoral fins 
moderate. Ventral fins beneath and slightly behind the pectorals, with a sharp spinous ray. 
Anal fin short, higher than long, with two stout spinous rays. Caudal fin nearly even, slightly 
rounded. 

Color. Silvery white on the body and side ; dead white or opake beneath. Irides yellowish 
white. Second dorsal, pectorals and caudal fin, yellowish. Ventrals and anal orange-yellow. 

Length, 8-0. Depth, 3-0. 

Fin rays, D. 11.2.22; P. 17; V. 1.5; A. 2.9; C. 17. 

This fish has so much the port and habit of a perch, that it is frequently called Silvery 
Perch by the fishermen. It is not uncommon in our waters, in the summer season. It is a 
native of the Caribbean sea, and extends its northern range to the coast of New- York. 



FAMILY SCIENID^ CORVINA. 75 

THE BRANDED CORVINA. 

CORVINi OCELLATi. 

PLATE XXI. FIG. 61. — (CABINET OF THE LYCEUM.) 

Pcrca occllatn. LiN. Syst. Nat. 

P. id., Bass in Carolina. ScHCEPFF, Vol. 8, p. 166. 

Centropome mllet. LiC. Vol. 4, p. 254. 

Lutjamis tTiangxihim. Id, Vol. 4, p. 181. 

Beardiess Drum, Sciena imberbis. MiTCH. Lit. and Phil. Tr. N. Y. Vol. 1, p. 411. 

Le Johnnius osilli ou hruU, C. ocdlata. Cnv. et Val. Hist. Poiss. Vol. 5, p. 134. pi. 180. 

Characteristics. Cylindrical. One, two or more rounded blackish spots on the base of the 
tail. Length one to three feet. 

Description. Body more cylindrical than in the other species ; back less elevated. Snout 
obtuse and prominent. Scales oblique, and covering the head. Lateral line concurrent with 
the back, and continued to the end of the tail. A band of even teeth in both jaws ; the 
anterior row in the upper jaw conic, distant. Five pores beneath the lower jaw. Preopercle 
distinctly denticulated ; the opercle ending in two points. 

The spinous portion of the dorsal fin in a gr-oove ; the first ray very small, and closely 
applied to the second, which is shorter than the third : this latter is longest. Soft portion 
three times the length of the first, with subequal rays. Anal fin with two spinous rays : the 
first very short ; the second one-third less than the succeeding soft ray. Caudal fin nearly 
even, slightly excavated. 

Color. Bluish above ; lighter beneath. Head, cheeks and shoulders golden, with metallic 
reflections. Dorsal fin dusky green. Pectorals, ventrals and anal fin tinged with red. On 
each side of the tail, at the base of the caudal rays, is a blackish brown spot, often bordered 
with white. Occasionally two on one side, becoming confluent on the other. According to 
Dr. Mitchill, it resembles the mark left by a heated iron, whicii has given rise to the name 
of Branded Drum. 

Length, 12-0 -42-0 Depth, 5-0-8-0. 

Fmrays, D. 10.1.26; P. 17; V. 1.5; A. 2.8; C. 17. 

This beautiful fish, which appears but occasionally on our coast, is more common at the 
south. Lesueur states that it is common at New-Orleans, where it is seen from eight inches 
to three feet long ; it is called tiiere Poisson rouge or Red-fish. At Charleston, it is called 
Bass, Sea Bass and Red Bass. It is a highly esteemed fish. 



76 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

THE MALASHEGANAY. 

CORVINA RICUARDSONII. 

PLATE XX. FIG. 55. 

Lt Corb de Richardson, C. rkhmdsonU. Cnv. et Val. Hist. Poiss. Vol. 5, p. 100. 
The Malashegani, Sciena (Corvuia) id. Richardson, Faun. Vol. 3, p. 61, pi. 77. 

Characteristics. Greenish grey, with dusky bands over the back. Dorsal vrith a long mem- 
brane behind. Anal with a single robust spine. Length one to two feet. 

Description. Form of the C. oscula, but with a more vertical profile, and the body more 
oval. Scales large and robust, and their relative size as in the species just alluded to. Under 
jaw somewhat longest, with four pores beneath. Mouth cleft as far back as the middle of 
the orbit. Eyes moderately large, more than two diameters from the end of the snout. Teeth 
numerous, minute, equal, but the outer row somewhat larger. Opercle ending in two lobes ; 
preopercle minutely crenulated. 

The first dorsal spine short and obscure ; the fourth longest, from which they diminish to 
the ninth. The first ray of the soft portion of the dorsal spinous ; the remainder subequal ; 
the last ray connected by a broad scolloped membrane, two inches long, to the upper part of 
the tail. Pectoral fins pointed, its longest rays exceeding in length those of any other fin. 
Anal fin with a stout ray, deeply grooved behind. 

Color. Grey, with dark transverse bands above. Sides silvery. Abdomen yellowish. 

Length, 1 ■ - 24 • 0. Depth, 4 • - 8 • 0. 

Fin rays, D. 9.1.18; P. 15; V. 1.5; A. 1.7; C. 17 f. 

This species, which is common in Lake Huron, where it is highly prized as food, and is 
called Sheepsliead, also occurs, as I am informed, in Lake Erie. A fish has been described 
to me at Buffalo and Barcelona, where it is called Black Sheepshead, which agrees well in its 
savory qualities, color and other characters, with the above species. Feeds on crayfish, etc. 

{EXTRA-LIMITAL.) 

C. grisea, White Perch of Ohio. (Les. Ac. Sc.) Dorsal long ; scales rough ; a shght frontal depres- 
sion. D. 9,33; V. 1.5; P. 16; A. 2.8; C. 19 f Length one to two feet. Ohio River. 



/K^y •^ ^-H^tiX^ /2^' 



FAMILY SCIENIDJE CORVINA. 77 

THE SHARP-FINNED CORVINA. 

CORVINA OXYPTERA. 
PLATE XXX. FIG. 90. — (CABINET OF THE LYCEUM.) 

Characteristics. Operclc obsoletely serrate, with two spines ; preopcrcle denticulated. Pecto- 
ral fins long and pointed. Length eight inches. 

Description. Body oblong, elliptical, compressed. Height to the total length as 1 to 3-5. 
Back arched, rounded, not gibbous. Scales large, orbicular, wider than long, finely ciliated 
on the free margins, Avith 7-10 radiating plaits in front, and festooned on the radical edge. 
The scales cover every part of the head and jaws, where they are smaller, and ascend high 
up on all the fins. Lateral line tubular, arising from the upper angle of the branchial aper- 
ture, and forming a very convex sweep towards the back, with which it is concurrent. Head 
convex, and forming with the outline beneath a regular oval. Snout obtusely pointed. Eyes 
large, prominent, 0'5 in diameter, and slightly more than their diameters apart. Nostrils 
anterior to the eyes, approximated ; the posterior transversely oblong, largest ; the anterior 
with a valvular margin. Opercle with a long triangular flat spine, not extending beyond the 
pointed membrane ; beneath this, at a distance of 0"2, is another short triangular and smaller 
lancet-shaped spine. The edge of the opercle feels rough to the touch, but is without any 
visible serratures. Preopcrcle angular, with from eighty to ninety short acute spines, one 
rather longer at the angle ; these become effaced on the anterior portion of the lower margin. 
Mouth moderate, protractile. In the upper jaw, the central part is a free interval. On each 
side of this free space is a small rounded patch, composed of minute supine teeth directed 
backward. Anterior to this patch is a tooth on each side, much larger than the others ; the 
teeth on the sides of the jaw form a small and subequal series. Very minute teeth, reduced 
to mere asperities, on the vomer and palatines. Similar asperities on the tongue, but the 
tip is smooth. In the lower jaw are bands of minute recurved teeth, mixed with others of a 
larger size ; these bands dilate as they approach each other in the middle of tlic jaw : in 
front, on each side, is a stout conical tooth directed forward. Branchial membrane with 
seven rays. 

The dorsal fin compound, and composed of ten spines and nineteen articulated rays ; the 
spinous portion highest ; the first spine shortest, 0'4 in height ; the second longer, and the 
third longer and • 7 in height ; the succeeding spines preserve this height. The spines are 
very robust, acute, and enveloped in a strong membrane, which is covered with scales nearly 
to the summit. The rays of the soft portion are slender, and gradually increase in size pos- 
teriorly, the tips of the last rays reaching nearly to the accessories of the caudal fin. Pecto- 
ral fin very long, lanceolate ; its tip reaching a point opposite the fifth ray of the soft dorsal, 
or the third ray of the anal. It is composed of twenty rays, the eleventh and twelfth longest. 
Counting from above, the rays rapidly diminish beneath these rays. The length of the longest 
ray is 2"3 ; width of the base, O'S ; the scales on the base elongated. Ventral fins slightly 
posterior to the base of the pectorals, and composed of one robust spine and five branched 



78 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

rays ; the tips reach to within ' 5 of the vent. The anal fin contains tliree spinous and seven 
branched rays ; the first spine is short, triangular and acute ; the second longest, very robust 
and acute, and its length is • 8 inches ; the third shorter than the second : this fin ends op- 
posite the tenth soft ray of .the dorsal. Caudal furcate, with nineteen full rays and seven 
accessories on each side. 

Color. Of this I can say nothing, as the specimen was in spirits. It appeared to have 
been of a light yellowish hue, spotted with white and silvery. Irides yellow. 

Length, 8-0. Depth, 2-2. 

Fin rays, D. 10.19; P. 20 ; V. 1 .5 ; A. 3.7 ; C. 19 f 

The specimen which furnished the foregoing description, has existed for many years in the 
Cabinet of the Lyceum, and was obtained from the adjacent coast. Dr. Mitchill regarded it 
as allied, if not identical with his Corypliena ■perciformis, the Palinurus of this volume. It 
is apparent from the above description, that it cannot be allied even to that species, nor can 
it remain in the same family. We place it provisionally among the Corvinas, but are in- 
chncd to believe it to be the type of a new genus. 

GENUS UMBRINA. Cuvier. 
Two dorsal fins. A single cirrus or heard on the point of the lower jaw. 

THE KING-FISH. 

Umbrina alburnds. 

PLATE Vir. FIG. 20. 

Bermurla ^Vhilmg. Garden, Con. of Linneus, Vol. 1, p. 305. 

Perca albumus. LiN. 12 Ed. p. 482. 

Albumus americantis. Catesb. Car. 2, pi. 12. 

Whiting. SCHCEPFF, FisKes of N. Y. Vol. 8, p. 162. 

Johnitis regalis. ScHN. Bl.' p. 75. 

Centroponms alburnus. Lacepede. 

Sciena ncbcdosa, King-fish. Mitchill, Lit. and Phil. See. Vol. 1, p. 408, pi. 3, fig. 5. 

L'Ombrine des Etals-Unis. Cov. et Val. Hist, des Poiss. Vol. 5, p. 180. 

U. nebulosa, the King-fish. Storer, Massachusetts Report, p. 35. 

Characteristics. Dark grey, with silvery reflections ; obhque dusky bars and bands over the 
back. Tail with a sinuous margin. Length twelve to eighteen inches. 

Description. Body elongated, cylindrical, tapering. Scales rounded, ciliated. Lateral line 
concurrent with the back, and near it. Snout produced, prominent and blunt. Opercle with 
two strong flat spines ; preopercle serrated behind. Branchial rays seven, the two upper and 
two lower obscure. On the snout, in the fold which receives the upper jaw, are four cuti- 

» P. 15 ; V. 7 ; A. 12 ; C. 17 ; D. 9.9.30. Hab. jn Am. Septentrionali in provinciam New-York. King Tel Wiite-fish dictus. 



FAMILY SCIENID.E UMBRINA. 79 

cular appendages, broad and truncated at their extremities, with corresponding fossje (see 
figure). A single cirrus on the point of tiic lower jaw, with four pores or fossfe. Teeth in 
the upper jaw, long, acute, distant ; in the lower, short, even and crowded. 

First dorsal iin triangular, with its third ray longest and filamentous. The second dorsal 
fin separated from the first by a brief interval ; its first ray short and spinous, the remainder 
subequal. Pectoral fins broad and pointed, extending to the second dorsal fin, with a spurious 
triangular plate covered by scales. A smaller one under the ventrals, which are broad and 
rounded. Anal fin short, commencing under the eighth ray of the second dorsal, and com- 
posed of one spinous and eight branched rays. The caudal fin excavated above, rounded 
beneath, its upper tip pointed, and probably, in young individuals, its lower ; but in several 
hundreds which I have examined, this portion is rounded. 

Color. Back and sides dark steel-gi-ey, and, in certain lights, lustrous, silvery and reddish. 
Abdomen bluish-white. In its dying struggles, the whole fish displays frequent changes of 
beautiful colors. Irides yellow. Margin of the first dorsal deep brown. Caudal and pecto- 
rals olive brown. Ventrals and anal yellowish. On the upper parts of the body are oblique 
broad dark stripes, which become interrupted towards the tail. An irregular horizontal dark 
stripe is often seen, commencing at the tips of the pectorals, and running back through the 
tail. In dying, these stripes change from pale ash to deep black. 
Length, 12-0. Depth, 2-5. 
Radial formula, Br. 7; D. 10.1.25; V. 1.5; A. 1.8; C. 17 |. 

The stomach is a simple sac, filled with marine plants and the remains of crustaceous ani- 
mals ; the pylorus with nine ca^cal appendages. Twenty-five vertebra. No air-bladder. 

This fish, which is not very abundant, or at least is not captured in any very considerable 
quantities, appears in our waters in July and August. It readily commands a high price, on 
account of the esteem in which it is held as an article of food. Hence it derived its name of 
King-fish from the early English colonists, who were accustomed to designate every kind of 
excellence by this epithet. Schoepff, in the work above cited, says, " the branchial rays three 
" to five." Cuvier, in remarking upon this, says, " Schoepff, qui en trouvait cinq, mais qui 
" n'osait contredire Linneus, pretend-il que le nombre est indetermine de trois a cinq." The 
figure given by Catesby is execrable, and without the aid of Cuvier, would long have re- 
mained an icthyological puzzle. 

It is exceedingly abundant on the coast of Carolina and Florida, where it is known as the 
Whiting. The coast of New- York may be considered as its ordinary northern range, but a 
few wander north of Cape Cod, as far as the harbor of Boston. 

EXTRA-LIMITAL. 

U. coroides. (Ccv. et Val. Vol. 5, p. 187; and pi. 72, tig. 231 of this volume.) Nine broad dusky 
vertical bands ; anal fin with two spines ; lobes in front of the mouth rounded. Length 8 inches. 
South Carolina. 

I insert this on the authority of a figure given by Dr. Holbrook, among his drawings of the 
fishes of Carolina. 



80 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 



GENUS POGONIAS. Laccpede, Cuvier. 

Tivo dorsals as in the preceding, or one deeply divided. A series of cirri or beards beneath 
the loiver jaiu. 

Obs. The fishes of this genus are remarkable for their size, and the noise which they 
produce under water. Scarcely any two observers agree respecting the nature of this noise. 
The fishermen compare it, when produced by large scholes, and heard in a still night, to the 
distant sound of drums, and hence the popular name. Schoepff describes it as a hollow rum- 
bling sound, and Mitchill speaks of it as a grunting (p. 405), and at p. 411 as a drumming 
noise. When freshly taken from the water, it sounds as if two stones were rubbed together. 
The cause of this noise is yet unexplained. Cuvier seems inclined to believe it connected in 
some way with the large and muscular air-bladder, although he admits that it has no external 
outlet. I am induced to suspect it to be occasioned by the strong compression of the expanded 
pharyngeal teeth upon each other. 

THE BIG DRUM. 

PoGO.NlaS CHROMIS. 

Labnis chromis. LiNNEOS. 

Sciena id. LiCEPEDE ct Schneider. 

Labrus id. Drum-fish. ScHCEPFF, Vol. 8, p. 158. 

Mugil gigas. Mitchill, Report in part on Fishes of N. Y. p. 16. 

Sciena fusca. Black Drum. Id. Lit. and Phil. Soc. Vol. 1, p. 409. 

■S- gigas, Red Drum. Id. lb. p. 412. 

Le Grand Pogonias, P. chromis. Ciiv. et Val. Hist. Poiss. Vol. 5, p. 206. 

Characteristics. Large. Brownish bronze, varying from blackish to reddish. Length two 
to four feet. 

Description. Body compressed and deep. Scales large and stout, oblique, with slight 
striae. Mouth protractile. Two flattened obtuse points on the opercle. Teeth on the jaws 
in a band, numerous, crowded, blunt and subequal. Pharyngeals with large paved teeth. 
Tongue smooth. Nostrils double ; the anterior circular ; the posterior subovate, and fur- 
nished with a membrane. A row of slender vermicular cirri on each side, and ten or twelve 
irregularly disposed about the chin. Near the chin, among the cirri, are three large pores. 
Branchial rays seven. 

The first dorsal fin with ten stout flattened rays ; the first very short, and scarcely apparent 
above the skin ; second and third longest, thence gradually diminishing to the last : it is capa- 
ble of being concealed in a furrow. The second dorsal fin rises near the first (according to 
Cuvier, continuous with it) ; its first ray short and spinous, the other soft and subequal ; with 
the rudiment of a furrow for its reception. Pectorals large, pointed ; the tips of the ventrals 
not extending beyond the points of the pectorals. Anal fin, with its first spinous ray, exceed- 



FAMILY SCIENID-E — POGONIAS. 81 

ingly short ; the second long, flat and stout ; the remainder seven branched, the last subdi- 
vided. Caudal even, with scales extending over its base, and more particularly along its 
central rays. Air-bladder very large and oval, and with exceedingly thick coats ; it has on 
its sides two pointed lobes, directed backward, and which are festooned on their mar^-ins. A 
large red gland within, and several distinct lacunae. Spleen very long ; caecal appendages six 
to eight. Vertebra twenty-four. 

Color. Brownish bronze ; rather lighter beneath, with a blackish spot behind the pectorals. 
Scales silvery on their external edges. There are two strongly marked varieties : one dark 
brown, the Black Drum of the fishermen ; and the other the Red Drum, as these colors pre- 
dominate. 

Length, 24-0 -48-0. 

Fin rays, D. 9.1.22; P. 18; V. 6 ; A. 2.7; C. 17 f. 

This is a large and deep fish ; its length being usually about three feet, with a depth of 
from fifteen to eighteen inches. One of this size weighs about twenty-five pounds. I have 
heard of their weighing more than eighty pounds. They are gregarious, and are frequently 
taken in great numbers by the seine, during the summer, along the bays and inlets of Long 
Island. Their present geographical range appears to extend from Florida to New-York. I 
do not find them mentioned by Dr. Storer as occurring on the coast of Massachusetts. They 
are a coarse food, but the young are considered as a great delicacy. 

THE BANDED DRUM. 

POGONIAS FASCIATUS. 

PLATE XIV. FIG. 40. 

Pogtmias fasciat-us. Lacepede, Hist. Nat. des Poissons. 

Mugil ^runniens, MiTCHiLL, Report in part, &c. p. 16. 

Labnis grutminis, Grunts. Id. Lit. and Phil. Soc. N. Y. Vol. 1, p. 405, pi. 3, lig. 3. 

Le Pogmiias a handes. Cuv. et Val. Hist, des Poiss. Vol. 5, p. 210, pi. 118. 

Characteristics. Dusky, with four or five blackish vertical bands extending down the sides. 
Length seven to ten inches. 

Description. Body compressed ; more along the back than beneath, and thus giving a 
triquetral figure to a transverse section of the body. Head sloping from the first dorsal to a 
short distance before the eyes, then more suddenly descending. Scales over the whole body 
and the head, except the anterior part of the snout and the lower jaw. They rise up along 
the base of the second dorsal, forming a sort of sheath : on the head they are small, wedge- 
shaped, ciliate ; on the body, large and orbicular ; the exposed surface small and ciliate, the 
concealed portion with radiating furrows and minute concentric stri^. Lateral line concurrent 
with the back. Eyes large, with a prominent supercihary ridge. Nostrils double ; the 
posterior transversely oval. On the outer sides of the jaws, midway between the tip of the 

Fauna — Part 4. 11 



82 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

snout and the angle of the jaw, is a small cirrus on each side, and anterior to this the opening 
of a mucous duct ; from this extend along the inner sides of the jaw, 10 - 12 distant cirri or 
beards, of which the posterior are longest. Teeth in both jaws, fine and card-like. The 
tongue smooth. The pharynx is paved with teeth, flattened on their crowns. 

The first dorsal fin triangular, with ten spinous rays ; the first very short ; the second 
shorter than the third, which is longest ; thence gradually diminishing backwards. The 
second dorsal continuous with the first, nearly as high, with its first ray short and spinous. 
Pectorals long and pointed, reaching as far back as the third ray of the posterior dorsal. 
Ventrals distant, rounded, with one short spinous and five branched rays. Anal fin higher 
than long ; the fii'St ray short, spinous, and very acute ; the second longer, triangular, and 
stoutly spinous ; all the remainder branched, the third and fourth longer than the second 
spinous ray. 

According to Cuvier, the liver is of an ordinary size, sending off two delicate flattened 
lobes, of which the right one is narrowest. To this lobe is attached the long and cylindrical 
gall-bladder. The choledochus ascends into the space between the lobes of the liver, and in 
its course receives a few cystic vessels ; it afterwards becomes free, and empties into the 
duodenum behind the caecal appendages, of which there are six, half as long as the stomach. 
The air-bladder strongly attached to the vertebra in the upper third of its length, with the 
same processes noted in the other species. Kidneys large, thick, united. The ureters are 
of a moderate length, and end behind the rectum, quite close to it, but with no vestige of a 
urinary bladder. 

Color. Body of a dusky hue, with silvery and bronze intermixed ; after death, the general 
hue is chocolate-brovi'n, the dusky bands becoming more intensely dark. Summit of the head 
dark brown, resembling the vestige of a band. Four dusky bands over the body ; one ante- 
rior to the dorsal, and descending to the pectorals ; the second crossing the posterior portion 
of the first dorsal, and the last two crossing the second dorsal. Pectoral fin faint yellowish ; 
the others dark brown, somewhat lighter at their bases. 

Length, 9-5. Depth, 3-5. 

Fmrays, D. 10.1.22; P. 20; V. 1.5; A. 2.5; C. 15 f. 

This fish appears in our waters from the south in October and November, and sometimes 
as early as September. It has been supposed that this species is the young of the preceding ; 
but I have seen them in September, six inches long, with all the characters of the adult. It 
has various popular names, such as Grunter, Young Drum, Qrunts, and Young Sheeps- 
liead. From Dr. Holbrook's figures, I infer that this species occurs on the coast of Carolina. 
It does not appear to extend farther north than the sea-coast of New- York. 



FAMILY SCIENID^. 83 

GENUS MICROPOGON. 

The prominent snout and general form of Umbriua, with a few scarcely apparent cirri or 
barbules under the lower jaw. Preopercle dentated, ivith two spines at the angle. Opercle 
with two flat points. Five pores under the chin. Dorsal fin deeply divided. 

THE BANDED CORVINO. 

MiCROPOGON COSTATUS. U^«<JUl->t ftZw-'J 

PLATE LXXII. FIG. 230. 

Bodianus costnlus, Middle Grunls .' MiTCHiLL, Lit. and Phil. Soc. Vol. 1, p. 417. 
La Micropogon raye. Cdt. et V.iL. Hist, des Poiss. Vol. 5, p. '215, pi. 119. 
UmbrinafoiaiiicTi. Desmakest, Diet. Classiquc d'Hist. Naturelle. 

Characteristics. Silvery, with about twenty narrow greyish bands over the back and along 
the sides, directed obliquely forwards. Length ten to fifteen inches. 

Description. Body elongated. First dorsal triangular, with feebly spinous rays ; the second 
long, with subequal rays. Anal long as in Pogonias ; the second spinous ray half the length 
of the succeeding. Caudal slightly rounded. Branchial rays seven. 

Color. Silver}', with a lustrous black spot on the opercle. Occasionally two or three 
longitudinal bands on the dorsals, formed by series of brownish spots. More than twenty 
bands on the back, descending obliquely forwards on the sides. 

Length, 10-0- 15-0.^ 

Fin rays, D. 10.1.28 or 29; P. 17; V. 1.5; A. 2.S; C. 17. 

I have very little doubt but that this species was intended to be described by Dr. Mitchill 
in his valuable paper on the Fishes of New-York, under the name cited above. This is ap- 
parent by the following extracts from his description : " Middle plate of the tripartite gill- 
" cover both serrated and aculeated. Head scaly. Neither of the two dorsal fins properly 
" spinous. Five holes under the chin, among half a dozen very delicate cirri. Has the 
" ragged cirrhous appendage to the upper lip which the king-fish possesses, and also the two 
" orifices near them. Has indeed very much the habit of the king-fish. Two first anal rays 
" spinous, one short, the other long. Color pale brown on the back, with silvery sides and 
" white belly variegated with hues of yellowish blue and green ; a dozen or more narrow 
" faint clouds slant down the sides, looking almost like ribs ; a greenish spot in the middle of 
" the posterior gill plate ; a dark spot at the origin of the pectoral fin. D. 10 - 29 ; P. 17 ; 
" V. 6; A. 10; C. 17." 

I have never seen this species, which is doubtless rare on the coast ; nor do I find it among 
the figures of Carolina fishes communicated to me by my friend Dr. Holbrook. It occurs 
from the River La Plata to New-York, from which latter place specimens were sent to Cuvier 
by Milbert. Its flesh is coarse, and httle esteemed. 



84 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 



(EXTRALmiTAL.) 

M. undulatus. (Cuv. et Val. Vol. 5, p. 219. Catesby, Vol. 2, pi. 3, fig. 1.) Obscure brownish 
spots on the back; no lines nor bands. Length thirteen inches. Neio Orleans, Charleston. 
According to SchcepffJ ascends the Chesapeake, and occasionally Delaware bay. 



GENUS HEMULON. Cuvier. 

A single dorsal einarginatefin. Seven branchial rays. An oval cavity and two sinall pores 
under the chin. Veritral fins scaly. Preopercle denticulated. 



THE SPECKLED RED-MOUTH. 

HeMCLON FULTO-MACULATUM. .^' I f' 

PLATE VII. FIG. 21. — (CABINET OF THE LYCEUM.) 
Labrus fuho-maadatus, Speckled Grunts. MiTCU. Lit. and Phil. Soc. Vol. 1, p. 406. 

Characteristics. Small ; with yellowish horizontal stripes below the lateral line, and oblique 
stripes above it. Length irvc inches. 

Description. Body compressed ; back rounded. Height one-third of its total length. Scales 
moderate, subquadrate, truncated in front with radiating plaits ; free portion rounded, reti- 
culate near the margin, which is minutely ciliate ; form a sheath on each side of the dorsal 
and anal fins. A scaly fold under the base of the pectorals. Eyes 0'3 in diameter. Ante- 
rior nostril largest, with a raised margin. Teeth minute, conic, acute, bent at the tips, and 
disposed in cards in both jaws ; the anterior series slightly longest. Minute teeth on the 
pharyngeals. Tongue thin and free. 

Dorsal fin with twelve spinous and fifteen slightly branched rays ; the first slightly shortest, 
the three following gradually longer ; the soft portion rather higher than the other. The 
pectoral fins long and pointed, composed of eighteen rays ; the first rudimentary ; the sixth 
longest, reaching to the tenth spinous dorsal ray. Ventral fins just behind the base of the 
pectorals, and without a scaly fold. The first spine of the anal fin very short, the second 
and third longer and subequal. Caudal fin of seventeen rays, and covered with minute scales ; 
crescent-shaped ; the upper lobe longest. 

Color. I am only acquainted with this through a cabinet specimen, the identical one from 
which Mitchill drew up his description. As this was recent, I anne.x his account of the dis- 
position of the colors : Bluish silvery. Above the lateral line, rows of yellow speckled stripes, 
almost parallel with each other, which run obliquely towards the dorsal fin ; below it, similar 
rows extended nearly in a horizontal direction from the branchial aperture to the tail. Belly 
and chin more pale and whitish than the back. Cheeks with the ochreous streaks which dis- 



FAIMILY SCIENID^ HEMULON. 85 

tinguish the back and sides. Eyes pale, with a dash of dark across them. Pectorals faintly 
yellow, the rest pale. 

Length, 6-0. Depth, 2-0. 

Fin rays, 12.15; P. 18; V. 1.5 ; A. 3.12; C. 17. 

This is a rare fish, but occasionally appearing, as I am informed, in our harbor in consi- 
derable numbers. It is, like its congeners, a southern fish, our coast being probably the 
extreme northern limits of its range. It is a very savory food. It is somewhat allied to the 
H. formosum, but does not agree with any of the twelve species enumerated by Cuvier and 
Valenciennes. 



THE YELLOW-FINNED RED-MOUTH. 

Hemclon chrysopteron. 

PLATE VII. FIG. 22. 

Margate Fish. Catesby, Car. Vol. 2, pi. 2, fig. 1. 

Perca chrysoptera. LiN. 12 Ed. p. 485. 

ha Gontte a nageoires faiives. Cuv. et V.\L. Hist. Poiss. Vol. 5, p. 240. 

Characteristics. Head and body uniform color, with darkish stripes on the head. Dorsal 
with thirteen spinous, and anal with nine soft rays. Length one foot. 

Description. In its general shape and size, it resembles the Big Porgee {Pagrus argyrops) ; 
but the facial profile is longer and more sloping, producing an elongated snout. Scales as in 
the preceding species. Lateral hne distinct (but caricatured in the plate). Preopercle ser- 
rate on its ascending and lower margin ; the angle rounded. The two flat points on the opercle, 
which are sometimes included in the generic character, almost obsolete. Gape enormous. 
Lips large and fleshy. A round cavity in the symphisis of the lower jaw ; and anterior to it, 
two small pores. On the sides of the lower jaw, a single series of sharp distant equal teeth, 
card-like in front; in the upper jaw, in a single series, with a patch in front. Pharynx with 
paved teeth. Tongue distinct, rounded. 

The dorsal fin contained in a scaly sheath ; the fourth and fifth spines longest ; the last 
spine is longer than the one preceding ; the soft part not as high as the spinous part. Pecto- 
ral fins reach the antepenultimate spinous dorsal ray. A slight accessory plate beneath the 
ventrals. Caudal forked. 

Color, of the head and body silvery, bronzed darker on the back, with occasionally obscure 
dark stripes across it. The pectorals, dorsal and caudal fins of a brown horn-color ; the anal 
and ventral fins tinged with yellow and orange. Base of the lower jaw within and without of 
a beautiful vermilion. Tongue and fauces bright red. 

Length, 11 -0- 12-0. Depth, 3-5 -4-0. 

Fin rays, D. 12.15; P. 17; V. 1.5; A. 3.9; C. 15 |. 



86 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

This remarkable fish is but an occasional visitor to our shores. They are, however, often 
exposed for sale in our markets during tlie months of August and September, and are highly 
prized as food. Milbert sent them, many years since, from New-York to Cuvier, who sup- 
poses them to be the chrysoptera of Linneus. The description of Linneus scarcely accords 
with my specimens ; at least, I have never noticed the straight lateral line, nor the fuscous 
spots on the fins. 



'7t/{AVWl'^-*A'^^-^ 



THE SQUIRREL-FISH. 

HemULON rORMOSUM. 

PLATE XX. riG. 59. 

p. marina capilc striata, Grtmt. CatesbY, Car. Vol. 2, pi. 6, fig. 1. 

Pcrcaformosa. LiN. 12 Ed. p. 488. 

L. Ecureuil. BoM. Tab. Method, p. 135, pi. 57, fig. 221. 

La Belle Gorettc. Cuv. et Val. Hist, des Poiss. Vol. 5, p. 230. 

Characteristics. Bluish stripes on the cheeks. The second anal spine very robust. Length 
twelve inches. 

Description. Body compressed ; back arched ; snout produced. Its greatest depth to its 
length as one to four nearly. Scales large, rounded and ciliate on the free edges, reticulated 
on the exposed surface, with 12-16 radiating parts in front. The scales arc largest on the 
sides of the body ; smaller beneath and on the head ; smaller on the base of the pectoral, 
dorsal and caudal, extending to the very tips of the three latter fins. In an oblique series 
from the dorsal fin, there are ten scales above and twenty-six beneath the lateral line, which 
is concurrent with the back. Eyes 1 • 6 in diameter, and 1 ■ 1 apart. Mouth large ; the max- 
illary terminating under the centre of the eye, and covered along its wliole extent by the lower 
margin of the suborbital. Preopercle with a rounded angle ; its posterior margin vertical, 
directed backwards, serrated. U:iJer a lens this appears to consist of numerous equal and 
equidistant conical spines, becoming distant and smaller at the angle, effaced beneath. 
Opercle bluntly pointed behind. Teeth in the jaws numerous, minute, equal, forming a large 
patch in front, and reduced to a single series of distant teeth on the sides. In the upper jaw, 
the outer row is formed of larger, conic, pointed and recurved teeth. Tongue free, smooth, 
truncate in front. 

Dorsal fin, with its twelve spinous rays, exceedingly robust and acute, and received into a 
sheath ; the first, second and third gradually longer ; the fourth and lluli longest, subequal : 
every alternate ray less robust. The soft portion contains fifteen rays, as nearly as they can 
be counted through the scaly membrane. Pectoral fins long and pointed, with one spinous 
and sixteen branched rays ; its tips reach to the soft portion of the dorsal fin, and it has an 
axillary plate composed of elongated scales. Ventrals with a robust spiny ray, and five 
branched rays. Anal fin with three spinous and nine flat branched rays, covered to their tips 
with scales ; the first is short and triangular ; the second enormously stout, longest, and Ion- 



FAMILY SCIENIDiE — PRISTIPOMA. 87 

gitudinally striate on the sides ; the third slender, acute, not as long as the second. Caudal 
forked, with the tips rounded. 

Color. The specimen we examined was in spirits ; we can, therefore, only state that its 
head appeared to be darker than the body, with numerous broad oblique rays from the eyes 
to the snout, and across the opercles. According to Cuvicr, there are ten to twelve steel- 
colored rays, bordered with brown, on a gi-ound more or less gilded, and not passing the 
branchial aperture. Remainder of the body entirely golden grey, without lines, and unva- 
ried except by the dead coloring on the free margins of each scale. 

Length, 11-0. Depth, 3-8. Width behind the branchial aperture, TS. 
Fin rays, D. 12.15; P. I.IG; V. 1.5; A. 3.9; C. 17 |. 

This appears to be but a casual visitor from the south, as far as Brazil. The specimen 
from which I drew up the preceding description, was caught in the harbor of New-York in 
July. It prefers rocky bottoms, and is said to afford good eating. 

(EXTRA-LimiTAL.) 

H. arcuatiim. (Cuv. et Val. Vol. 9, p. 481.) Body elevated; teeth very large. Dark blackish 
green, with a brilhant gilded crescent on each scale. D. 12.17; A. 3.9. Length eleven inches. 
South-Carolina. 

GENUS PRISTIPOMA. 

A single dorsal. Preopercle denticulated. A cavity and two pores under the chin. Dorsal 
and anal fins not scaly. Opercle with its points and angles blunted, or effaced. Outer 
row of teeth generally more robust. 



THE BANDED PRISTIPOMA. ^ • _, : ^;Uw'=--/'v^-- 



PRISTIPOMA FASCIATUM. 

Le Pristipome a battdes. Ccv. ct Val. Hist, des Poiss. Vol. 5, p. 285. 

Characteristics. Olive brown ; with thirteen soft anal rays, of which the third is longer than 
the second. Length eight inches. 

Description. Depth to its length as one to tliree and a quarter. 

Color. Grey brown, inclining to olive, with eight to nine cloudy blackish bands alternately 
narrow and wide. Dorsal with a white band along its entire base. Air-bladder ending in 
tliree points forward. 

Fin rays, D. 12.16; P. 16; V. 3.13; C. 17. 

I know nothing of this fish, except that Cuvier received it from New- York. 



88 NEW- YORK FAUNA. 



{EXTRALIMITAL.) 

P. rubru7n. (Cuv. et Val. Vol. 5, p. 283.) Red. The third spine of the anal not longer than the 
second. Allied in form to the preceding-. D. 12.14; A. 3.9. 

GENUS LOBOTES. Cuvier. 

Branchial rays six. Snout short. Dorsal and anal fins elongated behind. Preopercle with 
strong dentations. Dorsal spines in a sheath. Four or five small pores on the chin. 

Obs. In addition to the character assigned above, Lobotes is farther distinguished by a 
prominent lower jaw, and a slightly concave profile ; the dorsal and anal so much lengthened 
out behind as to cause the body to appear as if ending in three lobes. It is a small group, 
containing as yet but four species. 

THE BLACK TRIPLE-TAIL. 

LOEOTES SBRINAMENSIS. 

PLATE XVIII. FIG. 49. 

Holoccntnis suriuaTnensis . Bloch, pi. 243. 

Bodianus triurus. Triple-tailed Perch. MiTCH. Lit. and Phil. Soc. Vol. 1, p. 418, pi. 3, fig. 10. 

Le Lobotes de Surinam. Cuv. et Val. Hist, des Poiss. Vol. 5, p. 319. 

Characteristics. Blackish mixed with ferruginous. A foot or more in length. 

Description. Form elliptical, deepest opposite the first dorsal ray. Scales moderately 
large, adherent, forty-five in a longitudinal row and thirty in a vertical line ; their edges ciliate, 
and small ones are observed on the bases of the vertical fins. Lateral line tubular, concur- 
rent with the back. Nape rather prominent, somewhat concave behind the eyes. Head 
covered with scales, except on the snout and the end of the jaws. Lower jaw somewhat 
projecting. Velvet-like teeth, with a row rather larger and conical in front of the jaws. 
Opercle with ten to twelve sharp denticulations ; the two points on the angle of the opercle 
only apparent to the touch. Surscapulary bone small, with minute denticulations. Ten to 
twelve denticulations on the humeral bone, above the pectorals. 

Dorsal fin long, with twelve subequal spines and fifteen soft rays ; the longest rays of the 
soft portion reach nearly to the middle of the caudal fin. Pectoral fins small, oblong. Ven- 
trals beneath them, longer, and with a very robust spine. Anal fin with three spinous and 
eleven soft rays ; coterminal with the dorsal, and with equally long rays. Caudal rounded. 

Color. Back and sides rusty black ; abdomen dingy rufous, variegated with black and yel- 
low specks. A dull yellow distinguished behind the eyes, above the gill-covers, along the 
base of the dorsal fin, commencement of the lateral line, and under the pectoral fins. Dorsal, 
anal and ventral fins slightly tijictured with yellowish. 



FAMILY SPARID^ — SARGUS. 89 

Length, 13-0. Depth, S'O. 

Fin rays, D. 12.15 ; P. 17 ; V. 1.5 ; A. 3.11 ; C. 17. 

This is a rare species in our waters. According to Dr. Mitchill, they are sometimes found 
weighing four or five pounds. It is sometimes called BJacli Grunts, Among the drawings 
of Dr. Holbrook is the figure of a Lobotes, which appears to differ from the above in the fol- 
lowing particulars : It is of a general inky blackness, with a yellow suffusion along the back, 
and at the base of the caudal and anal fins ; the first dorsal ray is half the length of the 
second, and the tenth nearly equal to the first. It may possibly prove to be a new species. 

The Black Triple-tail occurs from the coast of Brazil, and through the tropical seas, to 
New- York, which forms the limit of its most northerly range. 



FAMILY V. SPARID^. 

No spines nor denticulations on the opercular hones. No teeth in the palate. Mouth not 
protractile. Scales large. 

Obs. This family was founded on many of the characters assigned by Artedi to his genus 
Sjiarus. It is divided into thirteen genera, comprising about one hundred and seventy species. 
On the coast of New-York, we have as yet but tliree representatives of this family. 

GENUS SARGUS. Klein, Cuvier. 

Cheeks scaly. With cutting incisors. Large rounded teeth ; molars in several rows. Bran- 
chial rays five. 

THE SHEEPSHEAD. 

Sargcs ovis. 
plate viii. fig. 2s. 

Spams, Sheqishmd ttl New-York. ScflasPFF, Description of N. A. Fishes, Vol.8, p. 152. 
Spams ovis, Shcepshead. MiTCH. Tr. Lit. and Phil. Soc. Vol. 1, p. 392, pi. 2, fig. 14. 
Lc Sargue, Tete de Mouton. Cuv. ct Val. Hist, des Poiss. Vol. P, p. 53. 
S. ovis, the Shecpshead. Stoker, Massachusetts Report, p. 36. 

Characteristics. Large ; banded. Form elliptical. Tail abruptly diminished from the body. 
Anal black, with ten soft rays. Length one to three feet. 

Description. Body much compressed. Head sloping, and enlarged by the projection of 
the orbits ; the curves formed by the facial line, and that of the chin and throat, equal ; breast 
anterior to the ventrals, flattened. Scales adherent ; on the sides large, subquadrate, with 
radiating strise, and with more than two-thirds of their surface concealed. On the opercles, 
the scales are moderate ; on the abdomen, tail, and base of the fins, small. A band of small 

Fauna — Part 4. 12 



90 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

scales from the upper part of the branchial aperture, crosses over the nape, and meets one 
from the opposite side, interrupting the general plan of the scales ; this band is bordered be- 
hind with a row of orbicular abnormal scales. Lateral line concurrent with the back, and 
runs through the tail somewhat above the medial line. Nostrils double ; the anterior circular ; 
the posterior, oblique slits. Preopercle broadly rounded beneath. Opercle slightly eraargi- 
nate. Lower jaw shortest. Lips thick and fleshy. Within a fold of the lower lip, on each 
side, there is a short tubercle, which is only apparent when the fold is separated. In front 
of each jaw there are from six to eight incisors or cutting teeth, quadrilateral, somewhat 
smaller towards their roots. Inside of these, above and beneath, are numerous rounded 
flattened paved teeth, forming two or three series ; those in front, and which are on the outer 
series on the sides, are smaller and more acutely conic than those behind (see figure). Tongue 
large and smooth. Pharyngeals with numerous teeth. 

Dorsal fin compound, arising five inches from the end of the nose ; the first twelve are 
stoutly spinous, flattened, with acute tips, and resembling sword-blades ; they are situated in 
a deep fissure, and their flattened structure enables them to lie along side of each other, and 
to be entirely concealed ; the first two are very short ; the second longer than the first ; the 
fifth and sixth subequal, longest. The posterior portion of this fin rounded, of eleven or 
twelve branched rays, all longer than the last spinous ray. The base of this portion of the 
dorsal fin is covered with scales, forming on its anterior portion a sheath or furrow, which 
becomes effaced behind. Pectoral fins very long and pointed, reaching to the third anal ray ; 
the first and second short and simple. Ventral fin stout, of one spinous and five branched 
rays. An accessory plate or scale on the upper and inner side of the base. The greater part 
of the anal fin capable of being received and concealed in a furrow, and is composed of three 
broad and stout spines and ten branched rays, with scales high up on the base. Caudal fin 
forked, with its base covered by small scales. 

Vent, a simple fissure equidistant between the pectorals and caudal. Parietes of the abdo- 
men lined with a black pigment. Gall-bladder cylindrical, tubular, very long. Intestines 
with four large convolutions, and smaller ones near its termination. Stomach large, with six 
cffical appendages. Several which I examined were found filled with the soft clam, Mya 
arenaria. Spleen fusiform, and of dark chocolate-brown color. Liver moderate ; the right 
lobe smallest. Air-bladder large, closely attached to the upper part of the abdominal cavity, 
with very thick parietes, and a foramen in its posterior portion, communicating by a tubular 
passage with the intestine at or near the vent. Branchial rays five. 

Color. Dull silvery on the sides, with brassy tmts on the back, and with five transverse 
slight arcuated dark bands over the body and tail, uniting with similar bands on the other side ; 
they become fainter towards and on the tail. Irides deep umber brown ; pupil black, sur- 
rounded by a narrow brilhant golden ring. The dorsal and anal fins, upper part of the 
pectorals, and base of the ventrals, deep brown or black ; an obscure black spot behind the 
shoulders, which becomes obsolete in larger fish. Upper part of the head and forehead black, 
with greenish and golden lustrous tints. Smutty patches, of irregular forms, under the chin. 



FAMILY SPARIDJE — SaRGUS. 91 

Sides of the dorsal and anal spines with greenish metallic tints. Cheeks lustrous. Anal fin 
dark brown or black. Pectorals light yellowish. 

Length, 14-0. Depth, 5-5. Weight, 2i lbs. 

Fin rays, D. 12.11; P. 15; V. 1.5; A. 3.10; C. 17 |. 

This large fish, which is also well known for its exquisite flesh, appears to have been 
neglected by the earlier naturahsts. Schoepff, who appears to have been its first describer, 
says, " Common and well known as this fish is in America, it has hitherto been undescribed. 
" In its distinct and regular transverse bands, it has very marked characteristics, which, by 
" their numbers and situation, distinguish it from the Sparus virginicus, L." 

The Sheepshead, so called probably more from the appearance of its mouth and teeth, than 
from " the profile of its head, and its curved nose and forehead," breeds along the southern 
coast, and appears on our shores in June. They enter the shallow bays on Long Island, 
where they are caught by the seine occasionally in great numbers. They are a wary, timid 
fish ; and to take them by the hook, requires much dexterity. If the season is mild, they are 
found here as late as the middle of October, but more usually they disappear in September. 
The sheepshead holds the same rank with American gastronomes, that the turbot holds in 
Europe. I have frequently eaten of both, under equally favorable conditions, that is to say, 
witliin an hour after having been taken from the water, and can assert that the sheepshead is 
the more delicate and savory fish. The turbot, I may here state, (although I have heard the 
contrary frequently asserted,) does not occur on the shores of America. Dr. Mitchill sup- 
poses that the sheepshead departs from our shores to the unknown depths of the ocean ; it is 
more probable that they return to warmer latitudes along the coast. They occasionally weigh 
from twelve to fifteen pounds, but are then not as valuable as those of a smaller size. 

Its geographic range extends from the Mississippi to the coast of New-York. It occasion- 
ally wanders as far as the coast of Massachusetts, but has not been seen north of Cape Cod. 

THE SAND PORGEE. 

SiRGCS ARENOSDS. 
PLATE XXII. FIG. 67.— (STATE COLLECTION.) 

Characteristics. Small. Banded as in the preceding. A short spine directed forwards in 
front of the dorsal fin. Length 6 inches. 

Description. Body compressed, with the general form of the P. argyrops. Scales subo- 
vate, lobate behind, and minutely serrate ; the concealed margin festooned with radiating 
striae, distributed over the opercles and high upon the fins, forming a sheath for the dorsal 
and an imperfect one for the anal fin. Lateral line distinct, and concurrent with the back. 
Eyes large, near the facial line. The posterior nostrils oval, oblique, near the orbits ; the 
anterior round. Margin of the opercle slightly angular ; preopercular margin very smooth. 



92 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

Mouth moderate, protractile, with a series of six flat chisel-shaped teeth in front of the upper 
jaw, with their tips somewhat enlarged, and a row of eight similar shaped teeth in the lower. 
Behind these, in both jaws, two or three series of small rounded molar-like teeth, which 
increase in size on the sides of the jaws. Groups of acute curved teeth in the pharynx. A 
short recumbent spine in front of the dorsal fin. Branchial rays five. 

The dorsal fin commences anterior to the base of the pectorals, with its twelve first erect 
rays spinous ; the first short, second and third longest, the remainder subequal ; the soft por- 
tion about the height of the spinous part. Pectorals very long and slender, reaching to the 
tenth spinous ray of the dorsal. Ventrals stout, long and narrow, extending beyond the vent, 
with a long ensiform scale beneath ; its first ray spinous. Anal fin terminating opposite to 
the end of the dorsal, on a sort of production of the body ; it is composed of equal rays, and 
has three spinous rays in front. Caudal deeply forked. 

Color. Sides silvery, becoming dusky above, with five or six dusky bars often obsolete, 
and entirely disappearing in cabinet specimens. Upper part of the head deep purplish brown, 
separated distinctly from the general color of the body. Dorsal fins horn-color ; its last rays 
with a yellowish tinge. A purplish black spot just above the base of the pectorals. Pectorals 
and caudals faint yellow, the latter margined with dusky. Anal margined with faint yellow 
on the tips of the simple rays. Irides golden, mottled with brownish, turning to silvery. 
White after death, when many yellow lines, not before visible, make their appearance over 
the whole body. 

Length, 6-0. Depth, 3-5. 

Fin rays, D. 1.12.11 ; P. 16; V. 1.5; A. 3.12; C. 20 |. 

This species is allied to the S. rhomhoides of Cuvier and Valenciennes, but is at once dis- 
tinguished by the want of bilobate teeth, and the recumbent spine before the dorsal fin. It is 
more closely allied to the Chrijsopliris aculeatus, to be hereafter described. 

This small species is sometimes caught in seines on the south side of Long-Island, in the 
months of August and July. It is considered a palatable food. Its name of Sand Porgee, 
among fishermen, is derived from its being most frequently found on sandy bottoms. 



FAMILY SPARID^ SARGUS. 93 



THE RHOMBOIDAL PORGEE. 

Sargus rhomboides. 
plate lxxi. fig. 228. 



Xf^f^^"'^ 



Sparus rhomhoidcs. his, Syst. Nat. 12 Ed. p. 170. 

.S. id. Salt-water Bream. ScHCEPFF, Dcsc. of North Am. Fishes, 1. c. Vol. 8, p. 151. 

Le Sargue rhanibdide, S. rhomboides. Cuv. et Val. Hist, des Poiss. Vol. 6. p. 68, pi. 113. 

Characteristics. Banded. Cutting tcetli, eight above and eight below, notched on their 
summits. Length three to five inches. 

Description. Snout somewhat elongated. Second anal spine very robust. Teeth small, 
with eight incisors above, and the same number beneath ; but two rows of molars. 

Color, from a cabinet specimen. Silvery, with twenty-four or live gilded longitudinal 
lines ; four or five brownish, more or less evident in certain lights, descend from the back 
along the sides. A blackish spot on the lateral line, behind the humeral bone. Dorsal greyish ; 
anal yellow, bordered with violet ; caudal yellowish olive. Pectorals and ventrals appear to 
have been of a brighter yellow than the other fins. 

Length, 3-0- 5-0. 

Fin rays, D. 12.11 ; P. 17; V. 1 .5 ; A. 3.10; C. 17. 

Such is the succinct account given by Cuvier and Valenciennes of a species which they 
presume must be common on the coast of New- York, by the great numbers sent to them from 
that place by M. Milbert. We have seen, in the preceding article, that although it bears a 
general resemblance to the Sand Porgee, yet it caimot be generically that species. It occurs 
along the southern coast as far as the Mississippi. It may possibly be a migratory species, 
whose range within some years past has been restricted. We cannot coincide with the above 
cited authors in supposing this to be the Poki or Porgee at New-York of Schcepff (p. 153). 
His account is very imperfect, but we gather from it that his Porgee has no spots nor stripes ; 
moreover, in another place (p. 151), he cites the true SjMrus rhomboides of Linneus. At 
p. 154, he describes a Sjxirus from Rhode Island, which resembles the Sa7gus of Cuvier in 
its banded body ; but it has seventeen spinous rays to its dorsal, and has an undivided tail. 



94 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

GENUS CHRYSOPHRIS. Cuvier. 

Four to six conical teeth in front of each jaw. The broad oval molar teeth in three rows. 
Branchial rays six. 

THE ACULEATE D GILT-HEAD. 

^ Chrtsophris aculeata. 

PLATE LXXI. FIG. 229. 
La Daurade aiguithnce, C. aculeata. Cnv. et Val. Hist. Poiss. Vol. 6, p. 137. 

Characteristics. Large. Body elongated. Without bands. A recumbent spine before the 
dorsal. Length 12-22 inches. 

Descrijjtion. Body more elongated than in the other species of this genus. A stout and 
short recumbent spine before the dorsal. Teeth small, in three series in the upper jaw ; the 
middle smaller than the internal row. 

Dorsal fin low. Pectorals long. Scales moderate ; those of the preopercle extended over 
the upper branch. The color appears to have been reddish, with resplendent silvery reflec- 
tions. Dorsal and anal fins reddish, as well as the suborbital. In liquor, this fish is silvery 
white, with a reddish tint on the sides, which have about twenty longitudinal golden lines. 
Head brilliant, with golden reflections. Suborbital, dorsal and anal fins reddish ; the ventrals 
red. Caudal fin grey. 

Fin rays, D. 12.12; P. 16; V. 1.5; A. 3.12; C. 17. 

The liver very voluminous, divided into two lobes, which are subdivided into smaller ones. 
Air-bladder very large. The peritoneum reddish, with silvery reflections. Vertebrae twenty- 
four, of which ten are abdominal. The three first interspinals larger and wider than the 
others ; the first of these supports the recumbent spine, which has furnished us with a spe- 
cific name. The medial crest of the cranium is the only prominent one, and is not prolonged 
beyond the eyes ; the space between them slightly arched. Bones of the shoulder not very 
stout. We do not find any notice of this fish in the memoir of Dr. Mitchill, although it 
appears to be common on the coast ; for MM. Milbert and Lesueur have sent us a considera- 
ble number of specimens, some of them twenty-two inches long. We are strongly incHned 
to believe them to be the Aurata bahamensis of Catesby ; if the teeth were not so long, we 
should have no doubt of it. In that case, it would be the Sparus chrysops of Linneus. 

Such is the translation of the description of a fish from our coast, which the authors believe 
to be a new species. We are disposed to view it as one of a group of Sparidce, characterized 
by a recumbent dorsal, and comprising the /S. arenosus already noticed, and P. argyrops to 
be hereafter described. It may either be one of these, or a new species. Upon comparison 
with the first, it differs by its conical teeth, its six branchial rays and its want of bands, and 



FAMILY SPARID.E PAGRUS. 95 

its occasionally greater size. It agrees so well with the P. argyrops, that we were at first 
almost inclined to believe it to be identical with that species. It appears to differ chiefly by 
tlie teeth. In Chrysophris, the molar teeth are said to be in three rows ; while in the cha- 
racters of Pagrus, there are two rows of molars, and, in addition, fine granular or card-hke 
teeth on the sides. To make the Gilt-head identical with the Big Porgee, it is necessary to 
suppose, that with age, the lateral card-like teeth on the sides become broad and rounded 
like molars, such as are figured and described (pi. 9). 

Schoepff (p. 151) has left a slight notice of a species, which (taken in connection with the 
observations of MM. Cuvier and Valenciennes) may allude to the Gilt-head above described: 

" Sparus chrysops, L. Aurata bahamensis, Cat. (Carol. Vol. 2, p. 16. pi. 16.) Porgee in Caro- 
lina, Dr. Garden. The description agrees. I saw it in Providence,* under the name of Maggot- 
fish. Its forehead is smooth." 



GENUS PAGRUS. Cuvier. 

■ Four to six stout conical teeth in front of each jaw, and two series of round teeth on the 
sides. Many species have, behind the front teeth, numerous small granular or card-like 
teeth. Body generally deep. 

THE BIG PORGEE. 

Pagrus argyrops. 

PLATE IX. FIG. 25. —(STATE COLLECTION.) 

Spams argyrops. LiN. p. 471. 

Sparus, Poki or Porgee. ScH(EPFF, Fishes, &c. Vol. 8, p. 153. 

(Spare xanture. Lacep. Hist. Poiss. Vol. 4, p. 120. 

Big Porgee of New-York, Labrus versicolor. MiTCH. Tr. Lit. and Phil. Vol. 1, p. 404, pi. 3, fig. 7. 

he Pagre (sil (Targent, P. argyrops. Cov. et Val, Hist. Poiss. Vol. 6, p. 164. 

Scappaug, Snip, P. id. Stoker, Fishes of Massachusetts, p. 38. 

Characteristics. With brilliant metallic reflections on the sides. A short recumbent spine in 
front of the dorsal fin. The second and third dorsal rays often filamentous. 
Length 8-12 inches. 

Description. Body much compressed, gibbous above. Height nearly one-half of the length. 
Scales large, adherent, rounded behind, finely denticulated ; the radical portion straight, 
with radiating plaits, and festooned on its margin. Lateral line elevated, and, except near 
its origin, concurrent with tlie back. Facial line sloping, slightly arched over the orbits. 

* We are left to conjecture whether Providence in the Bahamas, or in the State of Rhode-Island, is intended. Schcepff visited 
both places. I think it more likely that he meant the former. I know of no name of Maggot-Jisk, applied to any species on the 
coast of Rhode-Island. 



96 KEW-YORK FAUNA. 

Nostrils double, approximated ; the posterior transversely oval, with a prolonged furrow 
towards the upper part of the orbit ; the anterior nostrils round. Eyes large. Mouth with 
thick lips, protractile. 

Upper jaw with six large blunt teeth, some of which, particularly the exterior, are conic at 
their summits, the others truncated ; behind these are numerous smaller conical teeth, and 
on the sides of the jaw two series of flat-crowned molar teeth. Lower jaw with ten large front 
teeth, similar in shape and situation with those described above. Rounded tubercles in the 
pharynx, covered with numerous acute curved teeth. 

The dorsal fin commences above the base of the pectorals ; its spinous rays are lodged in 
a sheath, which is partially extended along the posterior branched rays : the first ray is very 
short, with a concealed recumbent spine at its base, directed forward ; the second and third 
rays longest, with long inembranous threads attaclied to them ; these filaments are scarcely 
ever seen in the specimens which are brought to market, being easily destroyed from their 
excessive fragility ; even in those drawn out of water, they are often absent. The first rays 
of the soft portion are simple, feebly spinous (in the figure this is not given) ; the remainder 
branched : this portion is higher than the posterior spinous rays. Pectorals pointed, very 
long, reaching to the eleventh spinous ray of the dorsal. Ventral fins robust, with a long 
pointed triangular accessory scale beneath, not reaching to the vent. The vent is a long, nar- 
row longitudinal slit. Anal fin in a furrow, with three spinous and eleven branched rays. 
Caudal fin deeply lunated, rather than forked. 

Color. Deep brownish black on the top of the head, passing into light browm towards the 
snout. Nape with brilliant green and golden reflections, which are also distributed over the 
sides. Iridcs silvery, with a bluish tint often mottled with brown. A black spot at the upper 
angle of the opercle, crossing the lateral line ; another black spot just above the base of the 
pectoral fin. Dorsal, anal and caudal deep brown. Ventrals bluish. Pectorals light yel- 
lowish. 

Length, 12-0. Depth, 4-5. 

Fin rays, D. 1.12.12; P. 16; V. 1.5; A. 3.11 ; C. 17 f. 

This well known and beautiful species is found in our waters in great abundance. They 
are most numerous in the summer season, but a few appear to remain during the whole year. 
It is a fish of excellent flavor, and were it not so abundant, would be more highly prized. It 
affords much sport to fishing parties, who go outside of the harbor in steam vessels and take 
them in great numbers. The name of Porgee has been stated to be of Indian origin, but I 
do not know upon what authority. The name of Pogge or Porgy, is applied ur some dis- 
tricts of England to a species of Asjndophorus, which may have been borrowed by our 
ancestors. 

The range of this fish southward extends to Charleston, and probably still farther south. 
Northwardly it is found as far as the coast of Massachusetts, south of Cape Cod. About the 
year 1833, we learn from Dr. Storer, that an attempt was made to introduce them into the 



FAMILY CHETODONTID.E EPHIPPUS. " 97 

■waters north of the Cape, but with no evident success, the water proving too cold to enable 
them to breed tliere. 

Of the sixth Family Menid.«, I find no representative on the coast of New- York. One 
occurs on the southern coast, the Gcrris aprion, or Shad of Catesby. 

FAMILY VII. CHETODONTIDM. 

Body compressed, scahj. The dorsal and anal fins thickly covered with scales, especially 
on their soft portions. Teeth bristly or trenchant. Palatines smooth, or furnished loith 
teeth. Preopercle occasionally spinous. Dorsals tivo, or one only. 

Obs. This family was established by Cuvier upon the genus Chetodon of Linneus, to 
which he added other genera with teeth of a different kind, but which had the other characters 
of scaly fins and a compressed body in common with that genus. The members of this 
family are almost exclusively confined to the seas of the torrid zone. Cuvier and Valen- 
ciennes describe one hundred and fifty species, included under eighteen genera. On the coast 
of New-York, I know of but one genus. I have annexed the description of another, which 
may possibly be found on our shores. 

GENUS EPHIPPUS. Cuvier. 

Dorsal deeply emarginate between the spinous and soft rays ; the spinous part, ichich has no 
sccdes, can be folded into a groove formed by the scales of the back. 

THE BANDED EPHIPPUS. 

EPHIPPCS FABER. 

PLATE XXIII. FIG. 68. — (CABINET OF THE LYCEUM.) 

Faher marimis. Sloane, Hist. Jam. Vol. 2, p. 251, fig. 4. 

Cloudy Chetodon (C. ovi/ormis). MiTCH. Lit. and Phil. Soc. pi. 5, fig. 4 ; Am. Month. Mag. Vol. 2, p. 247. 

V Efhifpe foTgeron, E. faher. Cuv. et Val. Hist, dcs Poiss. Vol. 7, p. 113. 

Characteristics. With six dark vertical bands over the body. Dorsal and abdominal outlines 
symmetrical. Length five to eighteen inches. 

Description. Form regularly oval. Its height to its total length as four to seven. Scales 
moderate, rounded, the exposed portion radiately striate, with the edges finely denticulate, 
covering the whole head and body, except the region immediately round the nostrils ; they 
ascend for more than two-thirds of the distance along the fins. Sixty-five were counted 
between the gills and tail, and forty-eight between the back and abdomen. Lateral line nearly 
concurrent with the back. Eyes large, . 4 in diameter. Nostrils double ; the posterior 
oblong, oblique, near the edge of the orbit ; the anterior smallest, round and tubular. Mouth 

Fauna — Part 4. 13 



98 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

small, with thick fleshy lips concealing the fine bristly teeth, which are arranged in six or 
eight contiguous series. A row of eight minute apertures under the chin. The opercle has 
a slight rounded prominence on its margin. 

The dorsal fin is divided into two portions : the first consists of nine spines, commencing 
at the highest point of the back ; the first two spines very short, and nearly concealed ; the 
third 1'7 long, with a filament nearly as long as the spine ; the others are very small, and 
the last is closely applied to the second dorsal fin. This latter fin is triangular, with its mar- 
gin excavated and nearly vertical ; the three first rays are simple, the remaining twenty-two 
branched ; the fifth and sixth longest ; the others rapidly diminishing in length. Pectorals 
short, somewhat oval, and placed about one-fourth of the distance between the abdomen and 
back. Ventrals of one spinous and five soft rays ; the first soft ray filamentous, reaching to 
the anal fin, with a long accessory plate at its base. Anal opposite to, and similar in shape 
and size with the soft dorsal ; it has three concealed spines, of which the first is shortest. 
Caudal lunate. 

Color. Brownish, with six broad vertical dusky bluish bands : one through the eye ; the 
second over the base of the pectorals ; the third, from the spinous part of the dorsal, is nar- 
row, and scarcely descends below the lateral line ; the fourth passes from the latter part of 
the spinous portion of the dorsal, to similar parts in the anal fin, and is irregularly dilated 
beneath ; the next passes from the posterior part of the soft dorsal to corresponding jjarts in 
the anal ; the last band passes over the base of the tail. 

Length, 7 '2. Depth, 4-2. 

Fin rays, D. 9.3.22; P. 18; V. 1.5; A. 3.18; C. 16. 

Linneus undoubtedly included this species with his Chctodon triostegus, which, however, 
belonged to another genus. In applying the name oi faber, Cuvier and Valenciennes adopted 
the prior name given by Sloane ; and hence the C. oviformis of Mitchill, which preceded 
that given by the above mentioned writers, becomes a synonime. They were not aware, at 
the time of publication, of the existence of Mitchill's name or description. 

The geographical range of this species is very great, extending from Rio Janeiro to New- 
York. In our waters, it only appears periodically, and occasionally in great numbers during 
the summer months. About twenty years since they were caught here in seines in great 
numbers, and exposed in the markets for sale. Some of them were eighteen inches long. 
Those described by Mitchill were captured in 1815 and 1817. The popularnames of Three- 
tailed, Sheepshead, and Three-tailed Porgee, were given them by the fishermen in allusion to 
their prolonged dorsal and anal fin. They appear to be much larger than those described by 
Cuvier. SchcepfT states that it is called Angel-fish in Carohna. 



FAMILY CHETODONTIDjE — EPHIPPUS. 99 

THE MOON-FISH. 

EpHIPPCS GIGIS. 

PLATE XXIII. FIG. 74. — (CABINET OF THE LYCEUM.) 
L'Ephippegiayil, E, gigas. Cuv. et Val. Vol. 7, p. 121. 

Characteristics. Body without bands or spots. Crest of the cranium enlarged. Opercle 
more crenulate than in the preceding. Length 15 inches. 

Description. Body oblong oval ; the outline above the branchial aperture enlarged. Scales 
large, orbicular, and of a robust texture. Lateral line concurrent witli the back. Eyes, 
nostrils and opercle as in the preceding species. The preopercle, however, appears to be 
more distinctly crenulated on its margin. Teeth conic, bristly, in numerous series. Branchial 
rays, six. 

The dorsal fin composed of eight spines and 1'21 softer rays ; the longest rays appear to 
be more prolonged than in the preceding species, and more arcuated on the outer margins, 
but resemble them in shape. Ventrals with one spinous and five soft rays ; the second ray 
filamentous, but does not extend to the anal fin. Anal with three spinous rays, and eighteen 
soft rays. Caudal fin very wide, excavated on its margin. The first interspinous bone of the 
anal is club or mallet-shaped. 

Color. Dark bluish brown, with metallic lustrous reflections, and without spots or bands. 
The sides of the head tinged with lustrous green. 

Length, 15-0. Depth, S'O. 

Fin rays, D. 8.1.21; P. 16; V. 1.5; A. 3.18; C. 17 f. 

I have never seen but the specimen in the Cabinet of the Lyceum, from this harbor ; and 
the description has, therefore, all the imperfections arising from observations made on a pre- 
served specimen. It is rare on our coast, the mouth of the Hudson river being probably its 
northern limit. It was sent to Cuvier from New- York. Along the coast, it ranges to Rio 
Janeiro, and probably still farther south. 



100 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

GENUS PIMELEPTERUS. Cuvier. 

With a single dorsal fin. With cutting teeth in hothjaivs; the teeth implanted in the jaws 
by means of a heel extended horizontally backivards. 

Obs. This genus was remodelled by Cuvier, from the several genera Xysttre, Dorsuaire 
and Kyphose, proposed by Lacepede. It comprises ten species, principally from the Indian 
seas and the coast of Guinea. One is found along our shores. 

THE RAZOR-FISH. 

PiMELEPTEBUS EOSCII. 

PLATE XX. FIG. 66. 

Piindepterus boscii. L.\CEP. Vol. 4, p. 429 and 430. 

Pimetepten de Bosc. Cov. et Val. Hist, des Poiss. Vol. 7, p. 258, pi. 187. 

Characteristics. Body oval, brownish, with faint longitudinal lines. Length six inches. 

Description. Form almost regularly oval. Scales on every part of the l^ody, except the 
lips ; those on the body semi-elliptic, longer than wide, finely ciliated on their free margins ; 
sixty in a longitudinal, and thirty in a vertical direction. Lateral line concurrent with the 
back. Snout rounded, and vertical at its extremity. Length of the head to the total length 
as 1 to 4 "25. Eyes large, distant apart more than their diameters. The anterior nostril 
small, round, with a raised margin ; the posterior larger, oval. Teeth 22 - 24 in a single 
series : on the salient portion they are oval, flat, with a cutting edge ; the base is attached to 
a horizontal process nearly as long as the teeth, pointing backwards, and attached to the jaw ; 
behind these, a band of fine velvet teelh. A rough line on each palatine ; a crescent-shaped 
rough plate on the anterior part of the vomer ; and a large oval disc on each pterygoid. 
Tongue wide, rounded, free. Preopercle finely striated on its margin, the angle rounded. 
Branchial rays seven. 

The dorsal fin commences over the base of the ventrals, and is continued to within an inch 
of the base of the caudal; its soft portion, as well as that of the caudal and anal, is thickly 
covered with scales. Pectorals oval, the fourth and fifth rays longest, the first simple and 
very short. Ventral arises under the middle of the pectorals, and hence would be considered 
as an abdominal fin ; but the basin is suspended to the bones of the shoulder, and lience we 
consider it sub-brachial. A small scaly fold above its base, forms a shght furrow for its recep- 
tion. The anal commences under the penultimate spine of the dorsal, and is coterminal with 
that fin. Caudal crescent-shaped. 

Color, as it appeared in liquor, brown, deeper on the fins and snout. 20 - 22 longitudinal 
lines beneath, and 10-12 above the lateral fine. 

Length, 5'0. 

Fin rays, D. 11.12; P. 19; V. 1.5; A. 3.13; C. 17. 



FAMILY SCOMBRID^ — SCOMBER. 101 

I have not seen this species, and am indebted to Cuvier for the description and figure. It 
appears along our southern shores, and I have thought that it would not be unacceptable to 
illustrate a genus of which specimens may yet be found on the coast of New-York. 

The eighth family of Pharyngiens lahrjrinthiformes, or Anabassid.1:, has no representative 
on our coast. 

FAMILY IX. SCOMBRID^. 

Vertical fins vnthout scales. No spines nor denticulations on the opercle or preopercle. 
Scales small, entire. 

Obs. This family embraces fifty-one genera, which at present include over four hundred 
species. Among all the families of fishes, this is one of the most useful to man. 

GENUS SCOMBER. Cuvier. 

Dorsal fins two, widely separated. Finlets behind the dorsal and anal fins. Sides of the tail 
7'aised into two small cutaneous crests. Scales uniformly small. 

THE SPRING MACKEREL. 

PLATE XII. FIG. 34. 

Scomber scomber ^ ScHCEPFF, Beobacht. Vol. 8. p. 108. 
Spring Mackerel, S. vernalis. Mitch. Tr. Lit. and Phil. Soc. Vol. 1, p. 423. 
ia Maquereau printamer. Cuv. et Val. Hist des Poiss. Vol. 8, p. 48. 
Spring Mackerel, S. id. Stoeee, Report on Fishes of Mass. p. 41. 

Characteristics. With a dark spot at the base of the pectoral and ventral fins. Length 16 - 18 
inches. 

Description. Body fusiform, cylindrical, its greatest depth near the ultimate rays of the 
first dorsal. Scales very minute. Lateral line follows the dorsal outline, but is slightly irre- 
gular in its course, and becomes nearly effaced towards the tail. Eyes large ; a nictitating 
membrane, from the anterior and posterior part of the orbits, partially covers the eye. 
Nostrils single, nearly equidistant between the eyes and the end of the nose. Lower margin 
of the preopercle with a series of mucous pores. About fifty-five small recurved teeth on 
each side of the lower jaw ; the anterior space edentate. On each intermaxillary there are 
about forty very minute teeth, nearly concealed by a membrane. Tongue pointed, distinct 
and black. There are slight asperities on the vomer, and very long, slender and flexible teeth 
on the pharyngeals. Branchial rays delicate. Gill arches with two series of alternate tuber- 
cles ; the first arch with long pectinated processes. 

The first dorsal rises over the ventrals, longer than high, and contains thirteen simple and 
slender rays ; the first somewhat shorter than the second, which is longest ; thence gradually 



102 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

diminishing to the last, which scarcely appears above the surface, being concealed in a deep 
and narrow fissure extending backward about a fourth of an inch. There is, however, no 
distinct furrow for the reception of the whole fin. The second is one-third the height of the 
first, and its distance from the anterior ray of that fin is equal to the space between the vent 
and the bifurcation of the caudal fin ; it is composed of ten rays, some of which appear to be 
double. Behind these are the spurious fins or finlets, six in number, equidistant, each com- 
posed of one ray with a long posterior branch. In some individuals, (as in the plate,) the first 
finlet is small and simple. I have seen them with only four finlets above and beneath, but 
five appears to be the normal number. The last finlet may be said to be composed of two 
rays, both ramose, the posterior almost reaching the accessory rays of the caudal fin. Pec- 
torals moderate, acute ; the fu-st and second rays articulate, simple, shorter than the third ; 
the fourth longest. Two or three of the posterior rays scarcely distinguishable ; the tip 
reaches to the fourth ray of the first dorsal. The ventrals are situate behind the last rays of 
the pectoral ; its first ray simple, slender, shorter than the second ; the two following, with 
all the others, branched ; a delicate membrane connects this ray with the skin : the whole fin 
lies in an obsolete furrow. A low spine before the first ray of the anal fin, which is short and 
simple ; the second articulated ; the tliird highest, and, with the remainder, branched ; the 
whole fin is longer than high, slightly excavated on its outer margin. Five equidistant finlets 
behind the anal, the last distinctly two-rayed. Caudal fin deeply forked, with eight articu- 
lated accessory rays on each side.* The middle rays are so ramose as to render it difficult 
to count them. Two small cutaneous elevations of the skin or ridges on each side of the tail ; 
they diverge forward, and are about 0'5 long. The excretory duct opens behind the vent by 
a separate aperture. No vestige of an air-bladder. 

Color. Resembling that of its congeners : the colors of this fish are exceedingly vivid. 
Dark steel-blue above, becoming lighter on the sides, and mixed with metallic green near the 
lateral line. From 24 - 30 vertical deep blue half-bands, which are sometimes angular like 
the military chevron, often waved, interrupted, and occasionally forming irregular circles. 
Below the lateral hne, and parallel with it, is a longitudinal dull brownish line, often inter- 
rupted, and sometimes forming a series of inequidistant irregular spots : occasionally both 
line and spots wanting. Beneath silvery, with greenish and yellowish metallic reflections. 
A black blotch at the base of the pectorals and ventrals. Pectorals, second dorsal and caudal 
dark-colored ; the remaining fins lighter. Irides white, with a slight tinge of yellowish. 

Length, 15-0 - 17-0. Depth, 2-5 - 3-0. 

Fin rays, D. 13.10 + vi ; P. 17 ; V. 6 ; A. 12 + v ; C. 15 |. 

Schcepff unquestionably alludes to this species under the head of S. scomber: "About the 
" end of May and the beginning of June, these fish arrive in great scholes at New- York and 



* Some modem ichlhyological writers consider as accessory rays, all exterior to the two longest rays on each side, and do not 
enumerate them. In the case of lanceolate or rounded rays, this cannot be done ; and we therefore think it advisable, in all cases, 
to enumerate all the rays. 



FAMILY SCOMBRID^ — SCOMBER. 103 

" the neighborhood. They are then caught in great numbers, and sahed. They have the 
" five pinnuL-e described by authors, and do not materially differ in the number of their fin 
" rays. It is, however, maintained by some that the American Mackerel is a laro-er fish and 
" has a somewhat different appearance ; hence, for the sake of distinctness, they are called 
" by some the Horse Mackerel. A more rigorous comparison is therefore required to deter- 
" mine whether the European and American species are identical." 

They appear on our coast in the months of May and June, but their numbers vary in dif- 
ferent years. On the coast of Massachusetts, where the fishery is most productive, more 
than two hundred vessels arc sometimes engaged in this business ; and according to Dr. Storer, 
in 1837, 234,059 barrels were taken, equal in value to $1,639,042. 

The northern range of this species appears to extend a very short distance beyond Cape 
Cod. Its southerly range has not been ascertained, but it probably extends to the Caribbean 
sea. 



THE FALL MACKEREL. 

Scomber grex. 
plate xi. fig. 32. 



u^''- 



Thimble-eyed, Bull-eyed or Chib Mcwkercl, S. grex, MiTCH. Lit and Phil. Vol. 1, p. 422. 
Le Petit Maquereau de VAtlantique. Cdt. et Val. Hist, des Poiss. Vol. 8, p. 45. 

Characteristics. Small. A black spot at tlie base of the pectorals and tip of the lower jaw. 
Dorsal bands very tortuous. Length 8-10 inches. 

Description. Head one-fourth of the total length. Lateral line slightly irregular, but nearly 
concurrent with the back. Eyes large and prominent. Nostrils double, distant. Teeth mi- 
nute, acute, distant, varying in number from 40 - 70 according to the size of the fish ; in our 
specimen, 52 - 58 in each jaw. 

The first dorsal fin triangular ; the first ray slightly shorter than the second, which is longest ; 
thence successively diminishing to the last, which scarcely appears above the dorsal furrow : 
it arises 0-4 behind a point vertical to the pectorals, and contains twelve slender rays. The 
second dorsal longer than high, of twelve rays, with a nearly straight margin ; the first shorter 
than the second, which, together with the third and fourth, are longest ; thence gradually 
decreasing to the antepenultimate ray, which is shorter than the two last : this fin arises very 
shortly before the anal. Five dorsal pinnuls. Pectorals very broad, with nineteen rays. 
The first ray of the anal fin a short, simple, and rather broad spine ; the third and fourth rays 
longest : posterior to this are five finlets. Caudal fin furcate, with two short and obvious 
carinffi on each side of the tail. 

Color, as in the preceding, with the exceptions noted in the specific phrase. Margin of 
the tail dark-colored at the angle. A small well defined straight black line on the dorsal 
ridge, between the two dorsal fins ; the second scarcely darker than the first dorsal. 



104 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

Length, 9-5. Of liead, 2-4. 

Fin rays, D. 12.12 + v; P. 19 ; V. 1.5; A. 1.12 + v; C. 20 f . 

In the autumnal months, this species appears in great numbers on our coast. Dr. Mitchill 
mentions the autumns of 1781 and 1813, as years in which they were particularly numerous. 
In the early part of November, 1828, they were also very abundant, and many persons were 
poisoned by eating them. They are scarcely distinguishable from the preceding, and hence 
Richardson and Storer have regarded them merely as the young of that species. From the 
considerations noted above, I prefer, with Cuvier, to regard it as a distinct species. 

It ranges from the shores of New-York, and (if there is no mistake in the locality) even 
from Canada to the coast of Brazil. 

THE SPANISH MACIvEREL. 

Scomber colias. 
plate xi. fig. 33. 

Le Maquereau colias. Cov. et Val. Hist, des Poiss. Vol. 8, p. 39, pi. 209. 
jS. coUas, Spa7U3k Mackerel. Storer, Report Fishes of Mass. p. 45. 

Characteristics. Large. Numerous greyish brown spots distributed along the sides. Length 
one to two feet. 

Description. Body cylindrical, robust. Head considerably flattened above. Eyes large. 
Nostrils double ; the posterior vertical, and just in advance of the eye. Scales rather larger 
about the pectoral region. Tongue pointed. Jaws equal, with from sixty to seventy small 
teeth on each side of the jaws. 

The first dorsal fin transparent ; its second ray longer than the first, the tips of all project- 
ing beyond the membrane. Second dorsal considerably excavated on its margin. Five dorsal 
finlets. Pectorals pointed, and just beneath the lateral line. Ventrals elongated, slightly in 
advance of the first dorsal, but posterior to the base of the pectorals. Anal with a small spine 
in front, opposite to the posterior half of the second dorsal ; behind this, five finlets. Caudal 
fin deeply forked, with two lateral carinas at the side. 

Color. Above light green, with numerous contiguous beautifully undulating darker green 
lines passing down the sides, and just crossing the lateral line. Beneath dull bluish, with 
large, distant, circular or oblong oval brown blotches distributed irregularly on the sides. 
Abdomen light-colored, with cupreous reflections. Opercles cupreous and silvery. 

Length, ITO. Head, 2-5. 

Fin rays, D. 9.12 + v; P. 19; V. 5 ; A. 1.12 + v; C. 17 |. 

I have seen this fine species in the New- York market, in the months of August and Sep- 
tember, nearly two feet long. They were not, however, common. They had been taken in 
a seine in the harbor. On the southern coast, they are taken with a hook attached to a short 



FAMILY SCOMBRID.E THYNNUS. 105 

chain. They are excellent eating. If this species is identical with the 5?. colias of Europe, 
it lias a wide geographical range ; crossing the ocean from the Mediterranean, and occurring 
along our coast from Massachusetts to Carolina. In the plate, it is erroneously represented 
as of the natural size. 



GENUS THYNNUS. Cuvi. 



er. 



Scales on the thorax larger, forming a sort of corselet. Two dorsals, the first reaching 
nearly to the second. A single row of small, pointed, crowded teeth in each jaw. Nume- 
rous fnlets heliind the dorsal and anal fins. A long elevated crest on each side of the tail. 

Obs. The fish of this genus have the general form of the Mackerel, but are less compressed. 
As now restricted by Cuvier, it contains eleven species, of which three occur along the coast 
of South America. On our coast we have, as a straggling visitor, the celebrated Tunny of 
Europe, which appears in such immense scholes along the shores of the Mediterranean and 
Euxine seas: 

THE COMMON TUNNY. 

Thynntjs vdlgaris. 

plate x. fig. 28. 

Thynnxis vidgarisy Le Tlion commun. Cuv. et Val. Vol. 8, p. 58, pi. 210. 
T. id., The Common Tunny. Storer, Massachusetts Report, p. 47. 

Characteristics. Yery large and long pectorals. Corselet pointed behind. No colored lines 
nor spots. Length 9-12 feet. 

Description. Form elongated, fusiform. Length of the head, 27-0. Jaws, when closed, 
nearly equal. Tongue large and broad. Gape of the mouth very large. Eyes circular, and 
twelve inches apart. Gill-covers smooth, and very large. Scales on the anterior part of the 
back, in front of the first dorsal, and beneath the pectorals, very large. 

First dorsal fin with very robust rays ; it begins twenty-seven inches from the end of the 
snout, and its first ray is nine inches long, and from this the rays gradually diminish in size : 
this fin, when recumbent, is concealed in a deep groove. The second dorsal rises shortly 
behind the first, is twelve inches high, and five inches along the base, very robust and trian- 
gular; behind this are nine finlets. Pectorals falciform, sixteen inches high. Yentrals 
beneath the pectorals, in a groove at their bases. Anal fin posterior to the second dorsal, 
fifteen inches high ; and posterior to this, nine finlets. Caudal fin lunated, measuring twenty- 
nine inches across the tips. The keel or ridge on each side seven inches long, and an inch 
and a half high ; a smaller keel on each side of the larger one, three inches long. 

Color. Upper surface blackish ; sides silvery ; beneath white. Tongue and inside of the 
moutii black. Irides golden, with greenish reflections. Gill-covers silvery grey. First dor- 
sal blackish ; the second reddish brown. Finlets bright yellow, dark at the base and upon 
the anterior edge. Pectorals silvery grey. Yentrals blackish above, beneath white. 

Fauna — Part 4. 14 



106 KEW-YORK FAUNA. 

Length, nine feet three inches. 

Fin rays, D. 14.13 + ix; P. 34 ; V. 1.5; A. 2.12 + ix; C. 19. 

The only American writer who has described the Tunny, as it appears on our coast, is 
Dr. Storer, whose description I have adopted above. It agrees essentially with the characters 
assigned by Cuvier to the Tunny of the Mediterranean, which occasionally ascends as high 
up on the shores of Europe as Norway. It was formerly very abundant at Eckford bay in the 
Baltic sea. Dr. Storer mentions one taken near Cape Ann, weighing one thousand pounds. 
I have met with this fish almost every season in tiie New- York market, but it was always 
cut up into small pieces for sale. The fishermen state that it is taken frequently off Block 
island, but I have never been so fortunate as to meet with a perfect specimen. In the Ca- 
ribbean sea, there is a species of tunny which passes with several other fishes under the name 
of Bonito, and which occasionally appears along our southern coast. 

{EXTRA-LIMITAL.) 

T. coretta. (Cuv. at Val. Vol. 8, p. 102.) Corselet truncate ; scarcely emarginatc behind. Second 
dorsal and anal low. D. 13. 1. 14 + viii; P. 31; V. 1.5; A.2.12 + viii; C. 35. Gulf of Mexico. 

GENUS PELAMYS. Cuvier. 
Two dorsals. The corselet small. Teeth stout, acute, distant. 

THE STRIPED BONITO. 

Pelamys sarda. 

PLATE IX. FIG. 27. 

Scomber sarda. Block, Systema, p. 22, pi. 334. 

Bonetia, S. id. Mitcbill, Tr. Lit. and Phil. Soc. N. Y. Vol. 1, p. 428. 

Le Bonits a das raye, Pdamys id. Cuv. et Val. Hist, des Poiss. Vol. 8, p. 149, pi. 217. 

The Skip-jack, Pelamys id. Storer, Massachusetts Report, p. 4. 

Characteristics. Blue above, with from 6-8 parallel dark stripes on the upper part of the 
body and sides. Length 12-20 inches. 

Description. The body has the general form and proportions of the common Mackerel, but is 
a larger and more robust fish. Its height to its length is as one to four. Body fusiform. The 
keel on the sides of the tail elevated, triangular, with two smaller ones on each side on the base 
of the caudal fin. Under a lens, the body appears covered with a fine network of exceedingly 
minute scales. The corselet, or that part which is covered with larger rounded and more 
distinct scales, is of a triangular shape, extending from above the branchial aperture to a 
short distance beyond the tip of the pectoral, and from tlience descends with a slightly con- 
cave line towards the lower part of the opercle. Lateral line irregularly flexuous in its course, 



FAMILY SCOMBRID^ PELAMYS. 107 

and docs not assume a distinct and regular curvature. Eyes large, nearer the snout than to 
the margin of the opercle. Nostrils double ; the posterior a vertical slit. Mouth opening 
beyond the orbits. In each jaw, a series of twenty to twenty-five sharp distant teeth, curved 
inwards. A row of minute teeth on the palatines, and two rounded patches of teeth at the 
base of the tongue. 

The first dorsal long and low, feebly spinous, lodged in a deep groove, and commenchig 
over the base of the pectoral ; the anterior are longest. The second dorsal commences a 
short distance behind the first, and is deeply emarginate on its posterior margin ; the two first 
rays spinous : posterior to this are 8-9 finlets. The pectorals are short, triangular, and 
lodged m a shallow cavity. Ventrals beneath the pectorals, small, and also lodged in a similar 
cavity. The anal fin commences under the end of the second dorsal, which it resembles in 
shape and size ; beyond this, are seven finlets. Caudal fin widely lunate. 

Stomach, a long narrow sac, with a strong convolution, from which arises the pyloric 
orifice, with numerous ca:cal appendages. Liver of two lobes, and very large. Gall-bladder 
very long, extending nearly the whole length of the abdominal cavity. No air-bladder. 

Color, of the summit of the head and upper part of the sides, dark plumbeous. Abdomen 
and sides ashen grey, mixed with blue. Irides white. Ventrals white ; the other fins dark 
bluish black. A series of 6 - 8 parallel, somewhat oblique, longitudinal, narrow dark stripes 
on the sides, slightly descending forwards, the greater part crossing the lateral line. In young 
individuals, there are from 6-8 broad and vertical deep blue bands, crossing the narrow 
longitudinal stripes at right angles. In older specimens, such as that figured in the plate,' 
these bands become almost effaced or entirely wanting ; even in young individuals they 
become more obscure after death. Tongue and inside of the mouth deep black. 

Length, 20. Depth, 4-75. 

Fin rays, D. 22.2.12 4-ix; P. 24; V. 1.5; A. 2.12 + vii; C. 27 |. 

The Striped Bonito is but an occasional visitor to our coast. The specimen which furnished 
me with the preceding description, was taken in September, in the harbor of New- York, in 
company with many others. 

Its geographical range appears to be extensive, although its chief habitat seems to be in 
the Mediterranean. It has been taken off the Cape de Verd islands, on the coast of Brazil, 
and along the shores of North America as far as Cape Cod. 



108 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 



GENUS CYBIUM. Cuvier. 

Teeth large, pointed, usually compressed, trenchant and lancet-shaped. Body without a 
scaly corselet. Palatines and front of the vomer with asperities. First dorsal very long. 

THE SPOTTED CYBIUM. 

CyBIUM MACULATUM. 

PLATE LXXIII. FIG. 232. 

The Spanish Mackerel, Scomber maculatus. MiTCH. Lit. and Phil. Soc. Vol. I, p. 426, pi. 6, fig. 8. 
Le Tassard lachcle, Cyhium id. Cuv. et Val. Hist. Poiss. Vol. 8, p. 181. 

Characteristics. Greenish and lead-colored above ; sides silvery, with numerous yellowish 
large spots. First dorsal fin black in front. Lateral line waved. Length 
18 -20 inches. 

Description. The shape and general appearance of the Scomber colias. Head pointed, 
and to the whole length as one to six nearly, with the lower jaw somewhat longest and rounded. 
Lateral line following the general curve of the back nearly, but meandering in a very irregu- 
lar and serpentine course. Eyes very large. Mouth large, armed with distinct, acute, and 
slightly conic teeth, except in front, where they are wanting. 

The first dorsal fin with seventeen rays, of which the fourth and fifth are longest ; nearly 
all may be concealed in a furrow. The second dorsal triangular, excavated on its upper mar- 
gin, and containing two simple and fifteen branched rays : behind this are eight (nine accord- 
ing to Cuvier) finlets ; and posterior to the anal, nine or ten finlets. Pectoral fins pointed, 
with twenty-two rays. Ventrals small. Anal fin with two simple and fifteen soft rays, similar 
in shape to the second dorsal. Caudal broadly lunate. Branchial rays seven. 

Color. Greenish above, blending into ashen grey. Sides and all beneath lustrous white. 
About twenty yellowish rounded spots, a quarter of an inch in diameter, irregularly distributed 
along the sides. First dorsal fin black as far as the eighth or ninth ray. Pectorals brownish 
externally, black within. Ventrals and anal whitish. 

Length, 18-0- 24-0. 

Radial formula, D. 17.2.15 + x; P. 22 ; V. 1.5; A. 2.15 -f ix; C. 22. 

It occurs sparingly in our waters from July to September, and is considered good eating. 
New-York appears to be its northernmost limits. It extends through the Caribbean sea to 
the coast of Brazil. 

EXTRA LIMITAL. 

C. regale. (Cuv. et Val. Vol. 8, p. 184.) Teeth compressed and trenchant. A broad brownish 
longitudinal band, with roundish spots above and beneath. Length one to two feet. Gulf of 
Mexico. 



FAMILY SCOMBRID^. 109 

GENUS TRICHIURUS. Linnens, Cuvier. 

^ A single continuous dorsal Jin. No corselet nor caudal ridge. No ventral nor caudal fins. 
Body elongated, compressed, ribbon-shaped. Tail ending in a filament. 

THE SILVERY HAIR-TAIL. 

Trichiurcs lepturus. 
plate xii. fig. 35. — (state collection.) 

Trichijirus lepturus. LiN. Syst. Nat. 

Silvery Hair-tail, T. argenteus. Mitchill, Lit. and Phil. Tr. Vol.1, p. 364. 
Le Trichiure de VAtlantique. Cuv. et Val. Hist. Poiss. Vol. 8, p. 237. 
T. armatus et muticus. Gray, Griff. Cuv. Vol. 10, p. 349, pi. 6. 

Characteristics. Uniform silvery. Head one-seventh of the total length. Lateral line yellow. 
Length 28 inches. 

Description. Body long, tapering, compressed. Back acute, and abdomen more full and 
rounded. Tail compressed, tapering very gradually to a fine point, three inches and a half 
long from the end of the dorsal. A smooth silvery easily detached skin, with no vestige of a 
scale apparent under the magnifier. Lateral line distinct, arising from the upper part of the 
branchial aperture ; curves down parallel with the superior margin of the opercle ; passes 
down behind the pectoral ; descends to the lower third of the body, thence running parallel 
and near tlie edge of the abdomen ; passes through the tail, and may be traced to the extreme 
tip : it is of a greenish yellow color. Head flattened between the eyes, becoming ridged on 
the nape towards the dorsal fin ; compressed laterally, becoming more acute beneath. Its 
length from the tip of the lower jaw to the point of the opercle, five and a half inches ; depth 
of the head across the base of the pectorals, three inches. Eyes large, circular, prominent, 
three quarters of an inch in diameter, and less than their diameter apart. Nostrils single, 
large, vertically oval, near the eye. Lower jaw longest, with distant acute teeth, of which 
the two anterior are largest, and when the jaw is closed, extend outside of the tip of the 
upper jaw. The four or six posterior teeth on the sides are longest ; the intermediate shorter. 
A fold of the skin across the interior of the upper jaw. The two anterior teeth are minute, 
but immediately behind them are two long curved teeth, barbed at their tips ; these are re- 
ceived into a cavity in the lower jaw. Posterior to these, on the interior edge of the jaw, 
are from six to ten long, compressed, pointed and lancet-shaped teeth on each side. Minute 
teeth on the palatines. Tongue free, subacute, smooth, except the asperities on its tip. 
Seven branchial rays. Opercle ending in a point ; its tip extending beyond the base of the 
pectoral fin, and, with its upper margin, ending in fibrous threads. 

The dorsal fin commences above the upper angle of the gill opening, slightly elevated in 
the middle, where it is two inches high, and gradually disappears in the skin about three 
and a half inches from the tip of the tail ; it is composed of flexible feebly spinous rays. 



110 NEW-\ORK FAUNA. 

Pectoral fins two inches and a half long, small, broad, obtusely pointed, with the third and 
fourth rays longest. Vent thirteen inches distant from the tip of the lower jaw. About one 
hundred and twenty spines were enumerated posterior to the vent, and on the under side of 
the tail, sensible only to the touch behind : they occupy the place of the anal fm. 

Color. The whole surface of the head and body of a lustrous silvery hue, with iride- 
scent hues on the opercles. Eyes with yellow irides. Lateral line greenish yellow. Pec- 
torals light yellowish at the base ; minute, punctate, and brownish at the tips. Teeth reddish 
brown at the base, lighter at the tips. Dorsal light yellow, obscurely bordered above with 
dusky. 

Length, 38-0. Of head, 5-5. 
Fin rays, D. 133; P. 12. 

This is known here by the fishermen under the name of Rihhon-fish. At Jamaica, it is 
called Sword-Jish. It is not common, but of fifteen or twenty which I have examined, the 
above, taken from the ocean near Sandy hook, in August, was the largest. 

It has an extensive geographic range. It is most numerous in the Caribbean sea, and 
more especially about Porto Rico. D'Orbigny found it near Montevideo, in 35° soutli latitude ; 
and Dr. Pickering informs me that he has seen it in Narraganset bay, on the coast of Massa- 
chusetts, in 42° north latitude. It has also been found on the coast of Africa ; but whether 
it has ever appeared on the coast of Europe, is doubtful. The description of a Trichiure 
by Mr. Hoy in the Linnean Transactions of London, applies to the TricJiim'us argenteus of 
Cuvier and Valenciennes, a species which has figured in the writings of naturalists under 
five different generic and eight specific names. Among the drawings of Dr. Holbrook, there 
is a figure of a Hair-tail which seems to announce a new species : there is a short triangular 
dorsal in front of the long dorsal, or at least it i,3 deeply divided. 



FAMILY SCOMBRID.E. HI 



GENUS XIPHIAS. Linnnis, Cuvier. 

The upper jaw elongated into a sword. Body fusiform, covered with minute scales. No 
ventral fins. Mouth without teeth. Sides of the tail ridged. 

THE COMMON SWORD-FISH. 

XiPIIUS GLADIUS. 

PLATE XXVI. FIG. 79. One. sixteenth of the natural size. 

Xiphias gladiiis. LiNXEus, Syst. Nat. 12 Ed. p. 432. 

A', id.. Sword-fish. MiTCHiLL, Am. Month. Mag. Vol. 2, p. 242. 

L'Espiuhn epic, X. gladius. Cuv. ct Val. Hist, des Poiss. Vol. 8, p. 255, pi. 223 ; and 226, adult and young. 

The Sword-fish, X. id. Stoker, Massachusetts Report, p. 51. 

Characteristics. Dorsal fin in the young, single ; becoming effaced in the middle, and forming 
two distant fins in the adult. Length 10-15 feel. 

Description. Surface of the body and head very slightly roughened in the young, of a foot 
or eighteen inches long. There are numerous series of tubercles on the body, which disap- 
pear with age. Lateral line scarcely perceptible, except near the opercles, where it is 
irregularly sinuous. A lateral carina on each side of the tail, from 6-8 inches long; the 
caudal portion with a transverse furrow. Eyes very large and rounded. Nasal orifices con- 
tiguous ; the posterior largest ; the anterior rounded, with a raised margin. Upper jaw 
produced into a flattened sword ; the edges bluntly trenchant, and approaching each other 
and terminating in a blunt point. On the upper side, this is minutely striate, and elevated in 
the centre ; this elevation becomes gradually effaced about the middle, where a groove extends 
to the tip. Lower jaw short and pointed. The gape of the mouth extends behind the orbits. 
No teeth, but slight asperities may be felt on the lower jaw, and velvet-like teeth in the throat. 
A membrane within both jaws. Tongue rudimentary. Seven flat branchial rays. Gills, 
instead of being pectinated, are retiform, and, as Mitchill has observed, are of a spongy 
texture. 

The dorsal fin, which in the young forms one long, high and nearly equal fin of forty-three 
rays, extending nearly to the tail, becomes obliterated for the greater part of its length, and 
in fact is divided into two distant fins. This curious fact, which is now well established, may 
serve to explain why the descriptions of this fish agree so little with each other, and why 
distinct species have been created out of but one. In the adult, the dorsal is falciform, with 
from 18-20 rays; the posterior part is represented by a few rays. Pectorals falciform, 
elongated, placed very low down, and composed of sixteen rays, of which the three first are 
very long. Ventrals none. The anal fin commences under the posterior third of the dorsal, 
falciform in front, low behind ; but in the adult, this fin likewise becomes obliterated in the 
middle, and divided into two. Caudal fin crescent-shaped, with 17 rays. 



112 NEW-YORK FAUNA, 

Color. Bluisli black above ; silvery on the sides. Pectorals dark blue above ; beneath 
whitish. Sword dark brown above ; whitish beneath. Anal whitish. 

Length, 10-15 feel. 

Fin rays : Young, D. 3.40 ; P. 16 ; A. 17 ; C. 17 f. 
Adult, D. 18.3; P. 16; A. 11.3; C. 17 f. 

In 1791, a Sword-fish was exhibited in New-York, sixteen feet long. In 1817, another 
was taken by a harpoon off Sandyhook, twelve feet long, and described by Mitchill as cited 
above. In some years they are quite abundant. In the summer of 1840, the New-York 
markets were well supplied with the sword-fish. It is preferred to halibut or sturgeon, which 
in flavor it somewhat resembles. According to Dr. Storer, about two hundred barrels are 
annually taken at Martha's Vineyard, south of Cape Cod, and sold at three or four cents per 
pound. 

The Sword-fish has a great range on the eastern side of the Atlantic, and is one of the few 
which cross this ocean. It feeds on mackerel and other gregarious fishes. 

GENUS NAUCRATES. Cuvier. 

Tail ridged on its sides. Ventral fins thoracic. Dorsal fin single, elongated, ivith free 
spines before it and the anal fin. Body covered with small scales. Branchial rays seven. 
Teeth small and numerous. Nofinlets. 

THE NEW- YORK PILOT-FISH. 

NaUCRATES NOVEBOHACENSIS. '■' 

Gasterosleus duclor, Pilol-fish. ScHCEPFF, Boobacht. Vol. 8, p. 167. 

Scomber ductor, Pilol-fish. Mitchill, Lit. .and Phil. Soc. Vol. 1, p. 424. 

Le Pilole de New-York, N. noveboracensis. Cdv. et Val. Hist. Poiss. Vol, 8, p. 325. 

Characteristics. Four transverse blue bands, and four spines before the dorsal. Opcrcle not 
striated. 

We have little information to give in relation to this fish. Schospff first noticed it in his 
catalogue, supposing it to be the common Pilot-fish of the Atlantic. Mitchill entertained the 
same idea. Cuvier received specimens from New- York, which closely resembled the ductor ; 
but he treats it as distinct, on account of its striated opercles. In liquor, his specimens 
appeared to be yellow, with lilac bands. It is very probable that independent of this species, 
the true N. ductor or Pilot-fish must occasionally appear in our waters, and lience I have added 
a figure of that species. I have, however, never met with it. 



FAMILY SCOMBRIDiE — ELACATE. 113 

(EXTRALIMITAL.) 

N. ductor. (Cuv. et. Val. Vol. 8, p. 312; and pi. 74, fig. 235 of this work.) Bluish, with five 
darker transverse bands ; two of them passing through the dorsal and anal fins. Tail bordered with 
dark blue, tipped with white. 4-12 inches. South-Carolina. 

GENUS ELACATE. Cuvier. 

Head depressed. No carina on the sides of the tail. Nofinlets. Body elongated. No free 
spines before the anal. Ventral fins thoracic. 

THE NORTHERN CRAB-EATER. 

Elacate atlantica. 

PLATE XXV. FIG. 77. One-fourth natural size. 

Gasterosteus canitdus. LiN. Syst. Nat. 12 Ed. p. 491. 

Scomber niger. Bloch, pi. 337. 

Ccntronote gardenien, Lacepede. 

Tlic Crab-eater, Ccntronotus spmosus. MiTCHiLL, Lit. and Phil. Soc. Vol. 1, p. 490, pi. 3, fig. 9. 

L' Elacate d'Amerique, E. atlantica. Cuv. et Val. Hist. Poiss. Vol. 8, p. 334. 

Characteristics. Deep black above; lighter on the sides; white beneath. A slate-colored 
band along its side. Length 15 to 30 inches. 

Description, from a recent specimen. General form and color of an Echeneis. Head 
broad, and. rounded at the snout; it is depressed as far back as the first dorsal spine. Body 
cylindrical, tapering. Scales minute, oblong, impressed, and ascending far up the vertical 
fins. Lateral line irregular in its course, and indistinct. Nostrils double, nearer the eyes 
than to the snout; the anterior vertically oval. Eyes large; irides white. Teeth on the 
lower jaw minute, bristly in several series, and separated in the centre by a naked interval ; 
under the lens, they appear pyramidal, acute and recurved. Tongue broad, reddish, covered 
to its margin with numerous patches of card teeth ; in tlie centre, a distinct oval cartilaginous 
patch, with teeth somewhat more robust. Similar teeth on the upper jaw, palatines and 
pharyngeals ; the latter somewhat longer. Lower jaw longest. 

Anterior to the dorsal fin are eight distinct equidistant triangular spines, 0-2 in height, and 
about 0-5 apart; the posterior spine nearly concealed in the flesh of the dorsal. The dorsal 
fin is very long, elevated and triangular in front, and, after the thirteenth ray, nearly of equal 
height to the end ; the third and fourth rays are longest : this fin commences midway between 
the base of the pectoral and the origin of the anal fin, and terminates above the end of this 
latter fin. Pectoral fins five inches long, falciform, composed of twenty rays ; the first spi- 
nous : a strong fold of skin behind this fin. Ventrals short, broad and pointed, with one 
subspinous and five branched rays. The anal fin resembles the dorsal in shape, but its rays 

Fauna — Part 4. 15 



114 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

are not so long ; it begins opposite the eighth or ninth ray of the dorsal. Caudal deeply- 
lunate, its upper lobe longest, and its rays projecting beyond the membrane. 

The liver and stomach very large ; the latter dilated, with a short appendix. It was filled 
with the half digested remains of several fish, among which a species of Pleuronectes was 
observed. Two large sacs above the stomach, communicated with an aperture behind the 
vent. 

Colo7-. All above black ; on the sides, near the lateral line, lighter. Beneath this, a dis- 
tinctly separated longitudinal band of a slate color, extending from the pectoral fin to the tail, 
and through its lower lobe. The parts beneath silvery white. 

Length, 32-0. Of head, 5-0. 

Fin rays, D. 8.34; P. 20; V. 1.5; A. 23; C. 21. 

The Crab-eater, from which the above description is taken, was exceedingly voracious. He 
was captured in a seine in the harbor of Boston, and placed in a car with other fish. It was 
soon discovered that he had destroyed and eaten every fish in the car. They were chiefly 
the Big Porgee, P. argyrops. It is a rare and probably a solitary fish. 

Its geographic range is very great, and it is found equally on the coasts of Africa and 
America. On our coast it ranges from 42° north to the shores of Brazil. It occurs on the 
coast of South-Carolina, as I find a drawing of it among the illustrations of the ichthyology of 
that State by my friend Dr. Holbrook. It is too rare to have obtained any popular name, and 
I adopt that proposed by my late valued friend Dr. Mitchill. If not appropriate, it may an- 
swer for a distinctive popular name. 

GENUS LICHIA. Cuvier. 

Body compressed. The first dorsal con^posed of spines, each with a membrane ; in front of 
these, a recumbent spine directed forwards. First anal fin of two spines. Sides of the 
tail not keeled, nor with prominent crests. 

THE CAROLINA LICHIA. 

LiCHIA CAROLINA. " "^ 

PLATE X. FIG. 30. — (CABINET OF THE LYCEUM.) 

Characteristics. Body compressed ; its height to its length as one to two nearly. First rays 
of the second dorsal and anal very long. Length one foot. 

Description. Body high, compressed. Dorsal outline regularly arched. Rostrum blunt, 
suddenly descending in front. Scales very minute, deeply imbedded, and ascending high 
up on the base of the tail. Lateral line arising from the upper angle of the opercle, running 
nearly straight above the pectoral, then descending obliquely beyond the tips of the pectorals 
to the middle of the body and tail, forming a broadly flexuous curve. Length of the head to 



FAMILY SCOMBRID^ LICHIA. 



115 



that of the body, as one to four and a half. Orbits large. Nostrils above the plane of the 
upper margin of the orbits. An obtuse elevated ridge on the anterior part of the preopercle, 
which is corrugated in a radiating manner. Teeth so minute as scarcely to be distinguished. 

The first dorsal is represented by six short distant spines, directed backwards ; anterior to 
these, is a short acute recumbent spine, almost concealed and directed forwards. The second 
dorsal composed of twenty-five rays, elevated, triangular in front, low and equal behind, co- 
terminal with the anal : the first ray is short and simple ; the second and third longest, thence 
decreasing to the ninth ; the remainder subequal. The pectoral fins consist of seventeen 
rays, and are broad and obtusely pointed, the sixth ray being longest. Ventrals exceedingly 
short, scarcely O'S in length, and composed of one simple and five branched rays ; they are 
placed slightly behind the pectorals. Behind the vent are two short distant spines, represent- 
ing the first anal. The anal fin similar in shape to the dorsal, and arises under its sixth ray ; 
the first is short and simple, the third longest, thence gradually descreasing to the ninth, the 
remaining rays subequal. Tlie caudal fin deeply forked, with four to six accessory rays on 
each side. 

Color. Upper part of the head and body bluish. Gill-covers with a faint flesh-color min- 
gling with the yellowish and silvery reflections on the sides and beneath. Pupils black ; irides 
yellowish. Dorsals and pectoral fins dark blackish brown. Ventrals and anals yellow. Cau- 
dal fin tinged with brown and yellowish. 

Length, 12-5. Of the head, 2-5. Depth at vent, 4-8. 
Fin rays, D. 1.6.25; P. 27; V. 1.5; A. 2.20; C. 18 f. 

This species is exceedingly rare on this coast, and differs widely from all the four species 
described by Cuvier. I find this species figured among the drawings of Dr. Holbrook, and 
presume, from the known distribution of its congeners, that it is more common on the coast 
of Carolina. I am not aware that any species of this genus has been hitherto noticed on the 
coast of North America. My description is drawn up from a specimen taken off' Sandyhook, 
and prepared by Dr. Samuel G. Mott, more than twenty years since : the colors are supplied 
by the drawing above alluded to. 



116 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

GENUS TRACHINOTUS. Cuvier. 

Body elevated, C07npressed. Profile descending abrupthj before the eyes. First rays of the 
dorsal and anal elongated. Free spines before the dorsal and anal fins. 

Obs. This genus, as it now stands, comprises twenty-four species, made up from the 
genera Ccesimore, Trachinote and Acanthinion of Lacepede. They are chiefly from the North 
and South Atlantic and the Indian oceans. 

THE SILVERY TRACHINOTE. 

Trachinotu.'5 argentkus. 
Le Tracltimle argenti, T. argmteus. Cnv. et Val. Hist, des Poiss. Vol. 8, p. 413. 

Characteristics. Silvery. Height to its length as one to two. 5-6 dorsal spines, and one 
recumbent, directed forwards. Length six inches. 

Description. Body elevated ; its height being one-half the head and body alone, without 
including the lobes of the tail, which are more than one-fourth of the total length. Lateral 
line irregular, with five or six slight undulations. Five and sometimes six free spines on the 
back, without including the recumbent spine in front, nor that which adheres to the dorsal. 
The rays of the dorsal and anal exceed in number most of their congeners. The points of 
the dorsal and anal, when lying supine, reach only half the length of these fins. The limb 
of the preopcrcle with slightly elevated radiating lines, and oblique strife on the base of the 
opercle. Teeth minute, equal and velvet-like. Vertebraj compressed, twenty-three. The 
recumbent spine is a part of the third interspinous. 

Color. Silvery, with blackish at the elongated tips of the dorsal, and on the middle of the 
pectoral. 

Length, 6'0. 

Fin rays, D. 5 or 6.1.24; P. 18; V. 1.5; A. 2.1.21; C. 17 f. 

This species was received by Cuvier from New-York and Rio Janeiro, showing a wide 
geogi'aphical range. Here it is so rare, that I have been compelled to adopt the description 
given by Cuvier. 



FAMILY SCOMBRIDiE TRACHINOTUS. 117 

THE SPINOUS TRACHINOTE. 



Trachinotus spinosus. 
PLATE XIX. FIG. 53. 



/\^l\.\,y^v^''V\f«A/t 



The Spinous Dory. Mitch. Lit. and Phil. Soc. Vol. 1, pi. 6, fig. 10. (No description.) 
Zeus spinosus. Id. Am. Month. Magazine, Vol. 2, p. 246. 
Trachinotus fusats > Cnv. et Val. Hist, des Poiss. Vol. 8, p. 410. 

Characteristics. Body much compressed, suborbicular ; olive green on the sides above ; with 
metallic reflections beneath. Seven free spines before the dorsal, and 
three before the anal. Length three inches. 

Description. Body exceedingly compressed ; its height to its length as one to one and a 
half. Thickness, 0' 5. Body scaleless. The lateral line moderately incurved upward, and 
thence straight to the tail, not concurrent with the back. Facial line broadly concave ; the 
head projecting forward, with a blunt snout. Eyes large and silvery. Lower jaw closes 
within the upper ; both with scarcely perceptible teeth. Branchial rays seven. Pectorals 
acuminate. Caudal deeply forked. Ventral rays are stated to be four, but they are probably 
of the normal inimber. 

Color. Dusky greenish above ; on the belly, silvery white, with clouds along the sides, and 
somewhat of a ruddy tint. Undulating depressions up and down the sides as in Stromateus. 

Length, 3'0. Depth, 2-0 nearly. 

Fmrays, Br. 7; D. 7.19; P. 19; V. 1.5; A. 3.19; C. 18. 

This species was captured in the harbor of New-York, September, 1817, and is to be 
considered as an occasional visitor only from the south. Cuvier and Valenciennes, with refe- 
rence merely to the plate, and not being accpiainted with the text, suppose that it may pos- 
sibly be their Trachinote bntn. Their language is, " The Spinous Dory represented by 
" Mitchill (pi. 6, fig. 10) appears to resemble in its form very much our T.fuscus ; but as he 
" does not speak of it in his text, we cannot confirm this resemblance by a comparison of 
" the number of rays and other circumstances which could only be explained by a verbal 
" description." The T.fuscus of Cuvier and Valenciennes is 8'0 long, brown, with conspi- 
cuous teeth ; the anterior elongated rays of the dorsal and anal reach to the end of their 
respective fins. It is evident, from these circumstances, that our species is distinct ; and 
finding none other approaching it, I have retained the name proposed by its original describer. 



118 NEW- YORK FAUNA. 

GENUS PALINIIRUS. 

Preopercle serrated, with spines on its 7nargin. Opercle ivith one or more flat spines, more 
or less distinctly serrated beneath. Anal with one or more spines in front. Teeth small, 
pointed, subequal. Body compressed, oblong. The anterior portion of the single dorsal 
spinous. 

Obs. I propose this genus for the reception of two species from our coast, which, although 
alhed in many particulars to the genus Trachinotus, differ from it in others. The anterior 
dorsal spines arc certainly not free, and the pointed and serrated gill-covers indicate a still 
farther removal from that genus. The name has been applied, as I am aware, to a genus of 
Crustacea, but is otherwise unobjectionable. Should this genus be adopted, a question arises 
whether it should remain in this family. As the characters of Scombridce now stand, it can- 
not, but they will doubtless be revised by competent hands. 

THE BLACK PILOT. 

Palinhros perciformis. 
plate xxiv. fig. 25. — (state collection.) 

Rjtdder-fish, or Perch Corypkene. MiTCHiLL, Lit. and Phil. Soc. Vol. 1, pi. 16, fig. 7. (No description.) 
CoryphtEna perciformis. Id. Am. Monlhlj" Magazine, Vol. 2, p. 244. 
Trachinotus argenteus. Stoker, Mass. Report, p. 55. (Non Cuv.) 

Characteristics. Bronze-black. The dorsal spines much lower than the soft rays. Length 
nine inches. 

Description. Body oblong, elliptical, compressed. Height nearly equal to one-third of its 
length. Scales moderate, rather small, subquadrate, the free margins entire ; free surface 
concentrically striate, plaited behind. They ascend high up on the membrane of the vertical 
fins, where they become very minute. The lateral line, composed of a series of short tubes, 
commences at the upper angle of the branchial aperture, is arched and nearly concurrent with 
the back, from which it is little distant. Tiie scales containing the lateral line are notched 
behind, the tube being elevated in front. Head declivous, somewhat rounded. In cabinet 
specimens this part is subcarinate, and the supraorbital prominent, with from four to six dis- 
tinct elevations. Length of the head to the margin of the opercle, 2 '2. Snout blunt. Eyes 
large, prominent, • 6 in diameter. Nostrils double ; the posterior very large, rounded. Opercle 
with a pointed membrane, and a flat acute membranous spine with delicate denticulations along 
its rounded angle, becoming gradually effaced beneath ; above this pointed membrane is a deep 
emargination, with a blunt spine above. Preopercle with from thirty to thirty-five subequal 
short spines, forming distinct ridges within the margin, and giving this bone on its outer surface 
a plaited and radiated appearance. Jaws subequal, the lower shutting within the upper ; with 
a single series of small, equidistant, subequal, conic, acute, slightly recurved teeth in both. 



FAMILY SCOMBRID^ PALINURUS. 119 

Tongue free, flattened, thin and rounded at the tip. No teeth in the pharynx. Air-bladder 
large, double ; the anterior portion largest. 

The dorsal fin compound ; the anterior portion consists of seven short, acute, triangular, 
spinous rays, connected with each other by a low membrane, and the whole lodged in a deep 
groove. The first spine is above the point of the opercle. The soft portion consists of one 
spinous and nineteen simple filiform rays, highest in front, and very gradually diminisliing to 
the last ray. The pectoral fins are placed low down, 1 ' 5 long, and composed of twenty rays ; 
the anterior very short, with a broad accessory plate at its inner base. Ventral very slightly 
behind the base of the pectorals, approximated, long and pointed ; the first ray short and 
spinous, the other branched ; the second branched ray 1 • 4 in length, and longest. Anal fin 
with a fleshy base, including three spines ; the first two short, nearly imbedded in the flesh ; 
the third longest, and adpressed to the first branched ray (in the plate, these are incorrectly 
given). The soft rays are twenty in number, and end just posterior to the termination of the 
dorsal. Caudal fin deeply emarginate, with the three external rays shorter than the fourth. 
The scales ascend high up on the base of this fin. 

Color. When freshly taken from the water, the general color of the body and fins is a 
bright bronze-black, with obscure reddish hues. Eyes varied with orange and yellow. 
Abdomen light- colored. 

Length, 9-0. Of Head, 2-2. Depth, 3-0. 

Fin rays, Br. 7; D. 7.1.19; P. 20; V. 1.5; A. 2.1.20; C. 21 f. 

This fish is an occasional visitor to our shores. In 1815, several dozen of these followed 
a ship into the harbor of New-York, and one of them was taken by a hook at the wharves, 
in the month of August. It is this which is figured by Mitchill in his Memoir on the Fishes 
of New-York, but not accompanied with any description. On the plate it is marked Rudder- 
fish or Perch Coryphene, and not C. hippuris, as has been erroneously stated. The description 
was afterwards supphed by Mitchill himself, in a Supplement to his Memoir, published in 
the American Monthly Magazine cited above. MM. Cuvicr and Valenciennes were unac- 
quainted with this description, and from the figure alone, supposed it to be their Trachinotus 
argentcus. In this they are followed by the eminent American ichthyologist. Dr. Storer of 
Boston, who was equally unacquainted with Mitchill's description. Finally, Mr. I. Cozzens 
of New- York, to whom I am indebted for an opportunity of describing this fish, not being 
aware of Mitchill's description, described it in a paper read before the Lyceum some years 
since, as a new species, under the name of Trachinotus cumherlandi. On a drawing of this 
species found among the papers of Dr. Mitchill, which is now in the possession of Mr. Coz- 
zens, it is labelled Coryphena atra, or Black Rudder-fish. 

The specimen described above, was taken by hook near Shrewsbury inlet, in July. It 
appears now to be common enough to have received a popular name. Among the fishermen, 
it is called the Snip-nosed Mullet. In its stomach were found numerous shrimps, and it is 
represented as being exceedingly active. It has been noticed by Dr. Storer on the coast of 
Massachusetts. 



120 NEW- YORK FAUNA. 



GENUS CARANX. Cuvier. 



Head convex, slightly sloping. Body compressed. Lateral line armed on its posterior 
part with bony plates. 

THE SOUTHERN CARANX. 

Cakanx defensor. t I 

PLATE XSIV, FIG. 72. — (STATE COLLECTION.) 

Characteristics. Depth of the body one-third of the total length, much compres.sed. With 
a recumbent spine before the dorsal. No finlets. A large black spot on 
the opercle. Length 9 inches. 

Description. Form elliptical, much compressed. Length of the head to the total length 
as two to nine. Scales small, ciliated on their free edges, orbicular ; extending over the gill- 
covers, and high up on the base of the vertical fins. The lateral line curves upwards, then 
rather suddenly downwards to the shorter rays of the second dorsal, from which it goes off 
straight. On its straight portion it is furnished with twenty-five bony plates, commencing ob- 
scurely at first, but becoming more elevated, and terminating in acute triangular spines, 
directed backward. On the base of the tail, on each side, are two ridges or crests, obliquely 
directed towards each other behind. Head convex above, and slightly ridged. Opercle 
smooth, without scales on the greater part of its surface, with a very slight notch on its 
posterior margin. Nostrils double, contiguous, oblong, placed just before the orbits ; the 
anterior closed by a valvular membrane. Eyes moderate, 0*5 in diameter, and more than 
their diameters apart. Teeth numerous, small, acute, hooked in both jaws ; in a single 
series in the lower jaw ; in a band of several series, of whicli the exterior arc largest, in the 
upper jaw. Teeth mostly subequal, but in front of the lower jaw, often much longer than 
the others. 

The first dorsal fin triangular, received in a furrow, and, with a short recumbent spine 
before it, directed forwards, and nearly concealed in the skin ; the first of the seven spines 
which compose this fin is longest. The second dorsal arises immediately behind this, com- 
posed of one spinous and twenty branched rays ; the first ray is nearly half the length of the 
second, which is longest ; thence rapidly diminishing to the sixth, where the remainder are 
subequal, somewhat resembling the finlets in other genera of this family. Pectorals very 
long, falciform, the tips reaching the straight part of the lateral line ; composed of twenty 
rays, of which the fourth and fifth are longest. Ventrals beneath the pectorals, small, com- 
posed of one spinous and five branched rays ; the tips reach to the vent, which is an oval 
slit. Behind the vent are two short, stout, acute spines, connected by a membrane ; these 
are concealed in a bony cavity, which extends to the second anal. The anal rays are seven- 
teen ; the first simple ; the others branched, higher in front ; the last elongated. Caudal 
deeply forked, (when extended, lunate,) with nineteen entire and six accessory rays. 



FAMILY SCOMRRID-f: CARANX. 121 

Colo7-. Back bluish, witli a resplendent golden yellow on the sides. Ventrals, anal and 
caudal wax-yellow ; the tips of the latter dusky. A dark round spot on the posterior margin 
of the opercle ; another on the inner base of the pectoral, and occasionally a short black ver- 
tical bar across the middle of the pectoral fin. Dorsals brownish above. Chin satin-white. 
Irides golden, varied with black. 

Length, 9 ■ 0. Transverse diameter, 1 • 2. 

Fin rays, D. 7.1.20; P. 20; V. 1.5; A. 2.17; C. 19 f. 

This is perhaps one of the most gorgeously beautiful fishes to be found in our waters. I 
had long considered it to be the C. hippos of Mitchill ; but its form, absence of finlets, re- 
cumbent spine, and other particulars noticed above, render this highly improbable. They 
usually appear in September, if the season has been warm, and in some years are very 
abundant. I have rarely seen them to exceed the dimensions given above. In one of the 
drawings of my friend Dr. Holbrook, I notice the figure of a species which agrees entirely 
with mine, but which has three anal spines, and the first ray of the first dorsal is shorter than 
the second. 

THE YELLOW CARANX. 

P-TTdrfOt-^^^ CiRANX CRYSOS. 

PLATE XXVn. FIG. 65. — (STATE COLLECTION.) 

Th^ Yellow Mackerel, Scomber crysos. MlTCHILL, Lit. and Phil. Soc. Vol. 1, p. 424. 
La Carangue jaune. Cuv. et Val. Hist, des Poiss. Vol. 9, p. 97. 

Characteristics. Body elongated. Depth one-fourth of its total length, With a recumbent 
spine before the dorsal. No finlets. A very small black spot on the 
opercle. Length 6 to S inches. 

Description. Body elongated, compressed. Scales small, caducous, concentrically striate, 
and extending over the suborbitals. Lateral line widely curved in front, and when opposite 
the fourth ray of the second dorsal, goes off straight with about forty-six spinous plates, 
becoming gradually wider behind, with stronger and more elevated spines, until they nearly 
surround the tail. Forehead arched. Eyes large. Nostrils double, approximated, obliquely 
oval. Lower jaw longest, with a series of minute card teeth. Asperities on the vomer and 
palatines. Tongue distinct, rounded ; its surface covered with minute teeth. Margin of the 
opercle rounded. * 

The first dorsal fin is triangular, and in advance of it a short recumbent spine, as in the 
preceding species. This fin is composed of eight spinous rays ; the first short, slender, and 
closely attached to the second, which is shorter than the third ; the fourth longest, and all 
received into a deep furrow. The second dorsal is composed of twenty-five rays ; has a 
fleshy prolongation, covering a part of the bases of more than half of the anterior rays. Its 
first ray is very short and spinous ; the third, fourth and fifth longest, and subequal ; from 

Fauna — Part 4. 16 



122 NEW- YORK FAUNA. 

these the rays rapidly diminisli, and become subequal for the remainder of tlie fin. The 
pectorals are placed slightly before the ventrals, are long, falcate, and of twenty rays ; the 
first has a short, closely applied subspinous ray ; its longest ray extends to the fourth of the 
second dorsal fin. Ventrals in a deep cavity anterior to the commencement of the first dorsal 
fin, with a posterior attaching membrane. Vent a narrow slit. Anterior to the anal fin, are 
two long spines concealed in a furrow, the posterior with a membrane. The first three or 
four anal rays are long ; the remainder short, subequal, with the bases of the anterior rays 
enveloped in a membranous sheath : the four first simple ; the first short, adpressed ; the 
second, third and fourth longest, subequal. Caudal fin deeply furcate, with two carinae or 
ridges on each side, embracing the spinous lateral plates of the tail ; its lobes scaly. 

Colo?-. Deep golden green and blue above, which becomes more lustrous on the gill-covers. 
Irides golden, mottled with brown. Sides lustrous yellow, with green reflections. A small 
black spot on the edge of the opercles, which are tinged with orange ; this spot is occasionally 
wanting. Dorsals brown, tinged with yellow, and translucent at their bases. Caudal fin 
olive-brown at the base, yellow in the middle, and tipped with blackish brown. Pectorals 
faint yellow. Ventrals and anal fin golden yellow. 

Length, 8-5. Depth, 2. 

Fin rays, D. 8.1.24; P. 20; V. 1.5; A. 2.1.20; C. 19 |. 

This species may readily be distinguished from the preceding, by its more elongated form. 
It is a very voracious animal ; for in the stomach of one, I found a fish more than half of its 
own size. It occurs here in great abundance in September and October, and is much 
esteemed. It is called Yelloiv Mackerel. 

A 

THE SPOTTED CARANX. 

Caranx punctatus. '-■'' «• - '='•/■' f^'"'^ 

PLATE LXXni. FIG. 233. 

The Hippos Mackerel. Mitch. Lit. and Phil. Soc. N. Y. pi. 5, fig. 5. 

Scomber hippos. Id. Am. Monthly Magazine, Vol. 2, p. 246. 

Le Caranx ponctue, Caraiix punctatus. Cov. et Val. Hist, dcs Poiss. Vol. 9, p. 38. 

Characteristics. Cylindrical, with a single finlet behind the dorsal and anal fins. Anterior 
portion of the lateral line punctate. Length 6-8 inches. 

Description. Body cylindrical, tapering. Scales large and deciduous on the back, small 
and adherent on the head and neck. Teeth so minute as only to be distinguished by the 
touch. Lateral line curved as in the preceding, with its posterior portion armed with about 
forty wide and contiguous plates, with their points directed backwards ; the points becoming 
more distinct towards the tail. Eyes large and silvery. 

The first dorsal fin triangular, and of eight rays ; at a short interval beyond is the second 
dorsal, of one spinous and thirty-one flexible rays. A finlet or spurious fin between this fin 



FAMILY SCOMBRID.E — BLEPHARIS. 123 

and the base of the caudal. Pectorals one-sixth of the wliole length, and with nineteen rays. 
Anal fin long and low, with two spines before it. Caudal deeply forked. 

Color. Greenish blue on the back ; yellowish along the lateral line, and on the caudal fin ; 
silvery white on the throat, and belly whitish. A smutty oblong spot under each eye, and a 
dark spot on the margin of the opercle. Dorsals brownish. About twelve black points along 
the unarmed portion of the lateral line. 

Length, 8-0- 8. Depth, 2-0. 
Fin rays, D. 10.7.21 + i; P. ly ; V. 5 ; A. 2.9.25 + i ; C. 19, according to Mitchill. 
D. 8.1.31 + i; P. — ; V. 1.5; A. 2.1.27 + i; C. —, according to Cuvier. 

M. Cuvier supposes his C. punctatus to be identical with the fish figured by Mitchill under 
the erroneous name of S. hipjMs. He declares the figure of Mitchill to be a perfect resem- 
blance of his species. I have given a copy of this figure. If they are identical, we must 
suppose great carelessness in the description given by Mitchill in his enumeration of the fin 
rays. It has a range from the Caribbean sea to New-York. 

GENUS BLEPHARIS. Cuvier. 

Small and nearly concealed spines in advance of the dorsal fin. Anterior rays of the dorsal 
and anal fin prolonged into very long filaments. Ventrals elongated. Body much com- 
pressed, trenchant, with a rapidly declivous front. 

THE HAIR-FINNED BLEPHARIS. 

BlEPHARIS CRINITUS. 
PLATE XXV. FIG. :6. 
Zpus crimhts, Hair-iin/ied Dory. Akerly, Am. Jour. Sc. &c. Vol. 11, p. 144, plate. 

Characteristics. Body almost orbicular, not trapezoidal. Bluish above ; white beneath. 
Length 5 to 6 inches. 

Description. Body much compressed, acute on its edges, with a brilliant skin not covered 
with scales. Lateral line unarmed, with a broad curve about the pectoral fins, and thence 
straight to the tail. Eyes very large. Suborbital finely serrate. Teeth in both jaws, 
minute and acute ; the lower jaw projecting. Dorsal fin with seven filamentous and eleven 
bifid rays ; the first ray twelve inches long, the other six successively shorter, the bifid portion 
low and subequal. Pectorals falciform, and composed of seventeen rays. Ventrals long 
narrow and pointed. Anal fin with five filamentous rays, varying from 4 to 6 inches in length ; 
the remaining eleven rays low, subequal. Caudal deeply furcate. 

Color. Bluish above, shining white beneath. 

Length, 5-5. Depth, 3-8. 

Fin rays, D. 18 ; P. 17 ; V. — ; A. 16 ; C. — . 



124 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

I have no doubt but that this species must be referred to the genus Blepharis of Cuvier, 
the low spines before tiie dorsal and anal having escaped the attention of Dr. Akerly. It 
appears closely allied to the B. sutor of Cuvier (Vol. 9, p. 161, pi. 253), but differs from it 
in its outline and proportions. Its congeners are called Shoemakers (Cordonniers) among 
the French colonists in the Antilles, in allusion to the filamentous rays, which are thought to 
resemble wax-ends. This species must be rare on our coast, as the individual described 
above, which was obtained from Long-Island sound, is the only one that has been observed. 



GENUS ARGYREIOSUS. Lacepede, Cuvier. 

Spines between the dorsals. Dorsal, ventral and anal rays filamentous. Body deep and 
7nuch compressed, as in the preceding genus. 

THE ROSTRATED ARGYREIOSE, 

Argyreiosos vomer. V'o!1i »y Se/i fc t iiin *" 

PLATE LXV. FIG. 238. 
Zeus vomer, LiNNEUS. 
Argyreios-us vomer. LacEPEDE. 

Z. roslralus, Roslrated Dory. HiTCHILL, Lit. and Phil. Soc. Vol. 1, p. 384, pi. 2, fig. I. 
L'Ahacatuia, A. vomer. Cut. et Val. Hist, des Poiss. Vol. 9, p. 177, pi. 255. 

Characteristics. One ray of the first dorsal elongated into a filament. The anterior rays of 
the second dorsal elongated, but not filamentous. Length three to six 
inches. 

Description. Facial line oblique in front ; horizontal from the nape to the second dorsal fin. 
Snout prominent, projecting. Mouth small ; lower jaw longest. Nostrils approximated, one 
slightly above the other. Tail exceedingly slender. Skin satin-like, without scales. Lateral 
line forming a semicircle in front. 

First dorsal fin with three protuberances in front of it ; its first ray a short spine ; the next 
elongated into a thread half the length of the body, and sometimes twice its length ; the 
ensuing spines very short : the first four are connected by membrane ; then follow four free 
spines. The second dorsal, with its first ray, very short and spinous ; the next long, reaching 
to the middle of the caudal ; the remaining twenty-two decrease rapidly to the fifth, when 
they become short and subequal. Pectorals long, falciform. Spine of the ventrals short ; 
the other rays filamentous, and reaching to the middle of the anal fin. Between these and the 
anal are two small separated spines. Anal resembles the second dorsal in shape, with one 
simple and nineteen branched rays ; the first of the branched rays elongated. Caudal deeply 
forked. 

Color. Lustrous silvery. Dorsal and ventral filaments blackish. 



FAMILY SCOMBRID-E ARGYREIOSUS. 125 

Length, 3-0- 6-0. 

Fin rays, 1st D. 1.4.4; 2d D. 1.23; P. 17 ; V. 1.5; A. 2.1.18; C. 17. 

Cuvier has received the above species from New- York, and is positive that it is identical 
with the Z. vomer of Linneus. 



6 e /(? ?i f Vfj-it er 



THE HAIR-FINNED ARC4YREI0SE. 

AKGYREIOans CAPILLARIS. 
PLATE XXVn. FIG. 82. —(STATE COLLECTION.) 
Hair-finned Dory, Zeus capUlaris. MiTCHILL, Lit. ,ind Pllil. Soc. Vol. 1, p. 383, pi. 2, fig. '2. 

Characteristics. The second and third rays of the first dorsal, and the anterior rays of the 
second dorsal, filamentous. Length 4^ inches. 

Description. The vertical and longitudinal diameters nearly equal, and the oblique facial 
line nearly parallel with the base of the anal, which gives a somewhat rhomboidal figure to 
the outline of the fish. The surface is covered with a smooth lustrous skin, in which occur 
granulations, more particularly towards the tail. Lateral line scaly, rising with an abrupt 
irregular curve over the pectorals, and then proceeding straight to the tail. Nostrils double, 
oblique, one above the other, and in a line with the pupil of the eye. Facial profile acute, 
descending at an angle of 60°, until it arrives at a point vertical to the eye, when it proceeds 
at an angle of about 15° to the first dorsal ; on this part are three rounded protuberances. 
Lower jaw longest, ascending with a distinct chin, and with minute asperities on the lower 
jaw. Upper jaw with similar asperities on its inner edge. Opercle smooth, and furnished 
with a lustrous silvery membrane. Several branchial rays. 

The first dorsal fin commences above the base of the pectorals, with a short spine closely 
applied to the succeeding ray, which is produced into a black filament three inches long, the 
third ray also ending in a filament an inch and a half long ; the last is simply spinous, and 
about • 2 long. Between this and the second dorsal are four low sharp recumbent spines, 
concealed in a furrow, and not connected with the first dorsal fin. These spines are appa- 
rently isolated, but are in fact connected with each other by a low membrane. At a short 
interval, but unconnected with it, commences the second, or what might be termed a third 
dorsal fin : first ray short and spinous ; the second filamentous, two inches long, and bifid at 
the tip ; the ne.\t filamentous, and one and a half inches long ; the succeeding one also fila- 
mentous, and one inch in length ; the remainder branched, and counting from the seventh ray, 
are subequal. Pectorals falciform ; the fifth ray longest, and reaching to the straight portion 
of the lateral line. Ventrals extend to the fourteenth ray of the anal fin, with the vent imme- 
diately behind them. Between the vent and the anal fin are two broad triangular spines. 
The first ray of the anal short, spinous, with a tooth on its base directed forward. The first 
two or three rays of the anal fin prolonged into filaments one and a half inches long; the 
remaining rays branched, subequal. Caudal deeply forked. 



126 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

Color. Nearly uniform, lustrous, silvery. Back bright plumbeous, or slate color. Dorsal 
and ventral filaments black ; those of the anal yellowish. Caudal light yellow, darker at 
the base. 

Length, 4-5. Depth, 2-5. 

Fin rays, D. 1.3.4.1.22; P. 18; V. 1.5; A. 2.1.19; C. 17 J. 

In the Memoir on the fishes of New-York, by Dr. Mitchill, he describes or figures four 
species under the name of Zeus. One of them is only figured under the name of Spinous 
Dory. As no description accompanied it, Cuvier, from an inspection of the figure alone, 
supposes it to be closely allied to, if not identical with, his TracJiinotus fuscus. I have 
described it as the T. spinosus. The next Zeus, we arrange under Vomer ; the third is the 
Argyreiosus vomer ; and the last is the A. capillaris, the one now described. Dr. Mitchill 
evidently supposed this to be the fish described under that name by Bloch, which, however, 
belongs to another genus. In speaking of the species now under consideration, Cuvier and 
Valenciennes observe, " Nous n'oserions afhrmer si ce deuxieme filament (de la premiere 
" dorsale) lui donne un caractere specifique suiEsant." We are disposed, however, from the 
other characters detailed above, to consider it specifically distinct, although closely allied to 
the preceding. As the same specific name is applied by Bloch and Mitchill, it might be 
questioned whether the name given by the latter should not be changed ; and in a catalogue 
which I drew up some years since, I had named it A. mitcliilli. As theybelong, however, 
to different genera, there appears to be no necessity for making the change. The practice of 
naming species after individuals has led to so many abuses, that it is gradually becoming 
relinquished among the best continental writers. 

This beautiful and strangely shaped fish appears in our waters, but in very inconsiderable 
numbers, about the latter end of August, when it is captured in gill-nets. I cannot, from 
experience, say whether it is a very palatable article of food, but its congener is said to be 
excellent. 



FAMILY SCOMBRID^. 127 

GENUS VOMER. Cuvier. 

Body compressed as in the preceding. No filaments or prolongations of the fins. Profile 
nearly vertical. 

THE BLUNT-NOSED SHINER. 

Vomer eeownii. S £>W,Wv%v-- 

PLATE XXV. FIG. 78. —(STATE COLLECTION.) 

Zeus setnpiimis, Bristly Dory. Mitch. Lit. and Phil. Soc. Vol. 1, p. 384, pi. 1, fig. 9. 
Vomer de Brown, V. hrownii. Cuv. et Val. Hist, des Poiss. Vol. 9, p. 237. 

Characteristics. Lustrous silvery. Ventrals very small. All the vertical rays short. Length 
8 inches. 

Description. Body strongly compressed. Tail small, cylindrical. Back carinate, hori- 
zontal, abruptly descending above the eye, and forming a concave profile. Upper part of the 
body above the lateral line, and a short distance beneath is destitute of scales. The sides 
beneath witli small orbicular scales, becoming larger on the tail. Lateral line abruptly curved 
to a point opposite the ninth ray of the second dorsal, where it goes off straight. On the sides 
of the tail, it is covered with slightly elevated plates. Eyes large, and nearly on a line with 
the base of the pectoral fins. Nostrils double, oval, approximate, and near the edge of the 
forehead. Mouth slightly protractile ; lower jaw longest. Teeth to be felt only on the jaws, 
and a narrow transverse rough band on the fore part of the vomer. Tongue pointed, black 
at the tip, with a rough band on its centre. Branchial rays seven. 

The first dorsal composed of short and apparently isolated rays, so deeply hidden in a 
groove as to be scarcely visible. When elevated, there are found to be seven unequal spines, 
connected together by a very thin membrane. The second dorsal commences above the third 
ray of the anal ; the second and third longest ; the first short, spinous : it is coterminal with 
the anal, and consists of one short spine and twenty-two branched rays. The pectoral fins 
long, falciform, and composed of one short and spinous, and eighteen articulated rays ; the 
fifth ray longest, and reaches to the thirteenth ray of the second dorsal. Ventrals beneath 
the pectorals, not quite two-tenths of an inch long, and composed of one spinous and tliree 
other rays. There are two concealed spines before the anal fin, but these I have occasionally 
found wanting. Anal fin with one spinous, and eighteen short subequal branched rays. 
Caudal deeply forked. Air-bladder very large, with two horns behind. Stomach cylindrical, 
with numerous cajca. 

Color. The whole body of a lustrous silvery tint, passing into leaden on the back. Irides 
yellow. Membrane of the second dorsal minutely punctate with black, tinged at its base 
with light yellow. Pectorals olive-green, verging to dusky. 



128 • NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

Length, 8-0. Height, 3' 5. Thickness, 0-75. 

Fin rays, D. 7.1.23; P. I.IS; V. 1.3; A. 1.18; C. 16 f 

This fish, so remarkable for its bizarre figure and histrous tints, is more common on our 
coast than any of the four preceding species. A native of the tropical seas, its geographical 
range is so great as almost to entitle it to be considered a cosmopolite. It is found on both 
sides of the Atlantic, and even in the Pacific on the coast of Peru. New-York is probably 
the limit of its northern range on this side of the Atlantic. It is esteemed for food, and 
appears in our waters in July and August. It is found occasionally one foot long. 



GENUS SERIOLA. Cuvier and Valenciennes. 

Lateral lines with scales, not larger than on the rest of the body. First dorsal fin loith a 
continuous membrane. No finlets. 

THE BANDED SERIOLE. 

Seriola zomata. 

PLATE IX. FIG. 26. 

.Scomber zonatus. Banded Mackerel. MlTCH. Lit, and Phil. p. 427, |)1. 4, fig. 3. 
La Seriole a ceinlures, S. zonata. Cuv. et Val. Hist, dcs Poiss. Vol. 9, p. 213. 

Characteristics. Bluish green. Six broad vertical brownish bands over the body and tail. 
Length seven to ten inches. 

Description. Body fusiform, subcomprcssed. Back slightly carinate. Scales small, gra- 
nular, with concentric striffi. Lateral line curved, not concurrent with the back, and forming 
a distinct ridge on each side of the tail. Nostrils double, vertically oval, adjacent, and nearly 
equidistant between the snout and the eyes. Numerous incurved card-like teeth in both 
jaws ; in the upper jaw, a small edentate space in front. A longitudinal band of fine asperities 
on the tongue ; an arrow-shaped patch of fine bristly teeth on the vomer, and similar teeth 
on the palatines and pharyngeals. 

The first dorsal fin spinous, subtriangular, lower than the second, and situated above the 
ventrals ; the fourth ray longest, the last two scarcely appearing above the skin. The second 
dorsal slightly excavated on its upper margin, with its third and fourth rays highest. Pecto- 
rals short and broad, of nineteen rays. Ventrals long, large and stout, the tip extending 
to the vent ; its posterior margin connected to the body by a delicate membrane. Anal 
fin commences under the eighteenth ray of the second dorsal, and is coterminal with that 
fin ; just anterior to the anal are two small distant spines, scarcely appearing above the skin. 
Caudal dcej)ly forked. Stomach a simple sac, with numerous cseca. Air-bladder large and 
simple. 



FAMILY SCOMBRID^ SERIOLA. 129 

Color. Silvery blue on the back and sides, becoming of a faint greenish yellow (which 
deepens after death) on the abdomen. Five and more, usually six, broad dusky bands nearly 
surrounding the body and tail ; another oblique band on each side, ascending from the nose 
through the eye to the first dorsal, and forming a sort of crescent in front. Summit of the 
head dark blue, leaving a lighter colored space between the eyes. Irides yellowish. A round 
black spot in the larger individuals, on the side of the body above the lateral line, and oppo- 
site the foremost rays of the second dorsal. Both dorsal fins deep olive ; the tips of the first 
four rays of the second dorsal edged with white, and the bases of the last rays of this fin 
also white. Ventrals bright olive-green above ; beneath, the rays are white. Anal olive- 
green, margined throughout willi white ; the last rays white. The colors of this fish are 
extremely fugacious, the belly and sides turning white a few minutes after death ; the bands 
then extend over the dorsal and anal fins. 

Length, 7-5. Depth, 2-0. 

Fin rays, D. 7.1.34; P. 19; V. 6; A. 1.20; C. 15 |. 

I have not seen many of these fish, which are usually caught in August, September and 
October. I have taken them by hook in Long Island sound, in company with the Big Porgee. 
They are exceedingly active and lively in their motions, as might indeed be inferred from their 
form. They are called Rudder-fish by the fishermen, who apply the same name to other 
fishes. In the specimens four inches long, the anal spines require to be dissected to make 
them appear. This fish, when fresh from the water, has a peculiar coppery smell. 

{EXTRALIMITAL.) 

S. boscii. (Cnv. et Val. Vol. 9, p. 209.) Silvery with brownish on the temples; faint strias on the 
opercles. Thirty-one soft rays to the second dorsal. Length five and a half inches. South- 
Carolina. 

S.fasciafa. (Id. Vol.9, p. 211.) Sixteen narrow ribbons in pairs over the body ; a black transversal 
band from one eye to the other. Length 6i inches. South-Carolina. 

S. leiarchus. (Id. Vol.9, p. 213.) Silvery; plumbeous on the back. Three black spots on the 
dorsal, and two on the anal. Length nine inches. Delaware. An juv. S. sonata ? 

S. cosmopolita. (Id. Vol. 9. p. 219, and pi. 74, fig. 237 of this work.) Silvery; back greenish; a 
black spot on the tail. Ventrals very small. D. 7. 1.28 ; A. 2. 1.27. From the East Indies 
and New- York. 



Fauna — Part 4. n 



130 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 



GENUS TEMNODON. 

Teeth on the outer void separate, flat, and lancet-shaped ; inner series croioded. Velvet-like 
teeth on the vomer, palatines and tongue. The first dorsal fin in a furrow. Ttvo short 
concealed spines before the anal. Tail unarmed. 

TFIE BLUE-FISH. 

Temnodon saltator. 

PLATE XXVI. FIG. 81. 

GastcTosleus sahatrix. LiN. 12 Ed. p. 421. 

Pomatome skip. Lacepede, Vol.4, p. 43G. 

Horse Mackerel, Scomber plumbeus. MiTCHILL, Lit. and Phil. Soc. Vol. 1, p. 424, pi. 4. fig. 1. 

Le Temnodon sautcur, Temnodon saltator. Cvv. et Val. Hist, des Poiss. Vol. 9, p. 225, pi. 260. 

Blue-fish, T. saltator. Stoker, Fishes of Massachusetts, p. 57. 

Characteristics. Bluish above ; ligliter on the sides and beneath. Length six to twelve inches. 

Description. Body oblong, subcylindrical, compressed ; facial outline gently sloping. 
Scales adherent, subquadrate, entire in some parts, faintly ciliate elsewhere ; extending over 
the head, opercles, and high up on the fins. Lateral line nearly concurrent with the back. 
Eyes large, one and a half diameters from the nose. Nostrils double, approximate ; the 
anterior round, the posterior a vertical slit. Lower jaw longest, with from ten to twelve 
lancet-shaped distant teeth on each side ; these teeth are minutely crenate on their edges. 
The upper jaw slightly protractile, with from twenty-five to thirty similar shaped teeth ; and 
behind these another series, in front of very small teeth. Card-like teeth on the palatines, 
disposed in three groups ; one anterior and triangular, the two others oblong. Tongue 
distinct, smooth, with a frenum ; on its base are two long parallel patches of recurved card- 
like teeth. Opercle rounded, with two indistinct flat points ; interopercle ciliate. Behind 
the symphisis of the chin, are two large cavities. 

The first dorsal fin commences five and a half inches from the end of the nose, and is 
composed of seven delicate flexible spinous rays, all capable of being received into a deep 
fissure ; the eighth ray, noticed by Cuvier, has escaped my observation. At an interval of an 
inch commences the second dorsal, which is high, and covered with a very thick membrane 
on its anterior portion ; it is composed of one short and twenty-five longer rays. Pectorals 
large, slightly anterior to the ventrals, with a scaly plate covering the outside of its base. 
Ventrals with one short spinous, and five branched rays ; the membrane from the last ray 
extends far back, and unites with that of the opposite side. The anal fin, in size, shape and 
structure, resembles the second dorsal : it commences a little behind the origin of that fin, 
and extends the same distance behind its termination. There are two very short spines, 
concealed under the skin, before the first short spinous ray. Caudal deeply forked, with its 
base and some of its rays covered with minute scales. 



FAMILY SCOMBRIDiE TEMNODON. 



131 



Color. Of tlie head and upper part of the body, bluish, or rather plumbeous ; sides and 
beneath with a mixture of liglit green. Irides brilliant jrellow. Pectorals, second dorsal and 
caudal fin, greenish brown. Vcntrals and anal fin white, tinged with blue. 

Length, 17- 0. Depth, 4. 

Fin rays, D. 7.1.25; P. 17; V. 1.5; A. 1.27; C. 19 |. 

The Blue-fish, or, as it is sometimes called, the Horse Mackerel, Green-fish in Virginia, and 
Skip-jack in Carolina, is a common inhabitant of our waters from May until late in the 
autumn. They are readily caught with a hook, baited with any bright-colored substance. 
They are highly esteemed as food, but lose much of their flavor shortly after they are drawn 
from the water. They arc usuaUy of the size indicated on the plate, though the specimen 
which furnished the above description was much larger. I have seen them weighing twenty 
pounds, and have been assured by credible persons that they have been taken of the weight of 
thirty-five pounds. 

The young, from four to six inches long, abound at the mouths of rivers and smaller streams ; 
at that time, their whole aspect is uniform silvery, except on the summit of the back and 
head, which in particular lights are bluish green ; they have, also, a light greenish spot inside 
of the base of the pectoral. From the avidity with which they seize even an unbaited hook, 
they have received at that age the name of Snapping Mackerel. Like many others of this 
family, they are exceedingly erratic, and occasionally appear upon the coast of New-York m 
great numbers. Such was the case in the summer of 1841, when they abounded in all the 
harbors, creeks and inlets, and ascended up the Hudson river as far as the Highlands, where 
many of the young were captured. 

The appearance and disappearance of the Blue-fish at irregular intervals on our coast, ap- 
pears to be a well established fact. Previous to the year 1764, " a large fat fisli, called the 
" Blue-fish, twenty of which would fill a barrel," had been " taken in great quantities on the 
" coast of Massachusetts. In the year above mentioned, they all disappeared ; and up to 
" the year 1792, they had not again made their appearance." This is the substance of a 
statement in the Massachusetts Historical Collections, cited by Dr. Storer. A few stragglers 
were noticed on tlie same coast about the year 1820 ; but ten years later, had greatly increased, 
and are now very numerous. On the coast of New-York, similar facts have been observed, 
but our records are not so definite nor minute. They were unknown upon our coast untd 
about the year 1810, when a few appeared. In 1817, Dr. Mitchill speaks of them as being 
numerous about the wharves of the city ; but it was not until 1825, that they became so nu- 
merous and sizable as to be an object of attention to anglers and fishermen. With the gi-adual 
appearance of this fish, was the equally gradual disappearance of the Weak-fish, which we 
have before noticed. It has been questioned whether " the blue-fish," on the coast of Massa- 
chusetts, cited above, was identical with our Temiiodon. Either the barrels previous to 
1764 were much smaller than at the present day, or the fish then were of a larger average 
size than we find them now ; or some other species, which is no longer found on our coast, 



132 NEW- YORK FAUNA. 

must have been intended. Old fishermen assure me tliat previous to the arrival of the Blue- 
fish on our coast, there were gi-eat numbers of a fish very different in appearance, much larger, 
exceedingly voracious, and from his general color also called the Blue-fish. None of these, 
they say, are now seen on the coast. Schoepff, who wrote a memoir on tlie fishes of North 
America, and more especially of the New- York waters, in 1788, states (p. 166), "The Blue- 
" fish of Rhode Island belongs to the genus of Perches, if indeed it is not in reality the above 
" described Black-fish." This above described fish is our Sea Bass, or Ccntropristes nigri- 
cans, which, it will be recollected, is also called Blue-fish. 

Cuvier, with his usual sagacity, has disentangled the synonimes of this fish ; but as it 
would have little interest to the American ichthyologist, it would be needless to repeat it here. 
It may, however, be observed, that the first figure and description was given by Catesby, and 
are equally insignificant. 

The Blue-fish has a very extensive geographic range, having been found on the coasts of 
Brazil, of New-Holland, Madagascar, Amboyna, and in the Mediterranean along the coast 
of Egypt. On this side of the Atlantic, they range from Brazil to Cape Cod on the coast of 
Massachusetts. 

GENUS CORYPH^NA. Cuvier. 

Head compressed, trenchant ; its profile elliptical or I'ounded. Eyes near the angle of the 
mouth. Ventrals thoracic. Scales small. Dorsal fin single, commencing at the nape, 
where it is usually most elevated, and extending along the back nearly to the tail. 

Obs. This genus, first established by Linneus, but subsequently remodelled and restricted 
by Cuvier, comprises about thirteen species, all closely resembling each other. They are all 
distinguished by the brilliancy of their color, and the varying hues which they assume while 
dying. They are called the Sailor's Dolphin, to distinguish them from a species of Delphi- 
nus or Porpoise which is also called Dolphin, and which is, for the sake of distinction, called 
the Dolphin of the aiicients, being the dolphin alluded to by the ancient poets. 

THE BOTTLE-HEADED DOLPHIN. 

CoHYPIIiENA GLOBICEPS. -Ttt^&ttV'-O 

PLATE X. FIG. 29. 
Common Coryphen£, C. hipptiris. Mitcuill, Lit. and Phil. Trans. N. Y. Vol. 1, p. 378. 

Characteristics. Head prominent, rounded, and much compressed above. Length of the 
lobes of the caudal to the whole length, as 1 to 4 '8. Length forty -two 
inches. * 

Description. Body compressed, lamelliform, elongated. Height of the body at the pec- 
torals to its total length, as 1 to 4' 8 ; at the tail, as 1 to 20. Length of the head one si.xth 



FAMILY SCOMBRID^ CORYPH^NA. 133 

of the total length. Height of tlie head at the nape to its length, as 9 to 7. The upper part 
of the head strongly compressed, trenchant, and becoming wider at the extremity of the 
upper jaw. The facial line ascends in front almost verlically, being slightly concave above 
the jaw for the distance of about two inches. Scales deeply imbedded on the body and pre- 
opercle, and extend high up on the caudal fin : they have the same form and variety of con- 
figuration as in the Lampugus hereafter described, and differ from them only in being much 
larger ; those on the base of the tail are, however, much larger in this species. The lateral 
line commences as usual, first slightly descending, almost immediately ascending, and forming 
a small curve above the pectorals, and then proceeds in a slightly wavering line through the 
centre of the body to the tail. Nostrils double, contiguous ; the posterior largest, and both 
above the superior margin of the orbit ; they are rather nearer to the jaw, than to a point ver 
tical to the centre of the eye. Eyes large; diameter of the orbit, 1'2; its lower margin 
distant 3*5 from the gill rays beneath, and 4" 5 from the crest of the nape. Lower jaw 
slightly advanced, and both furnished with small conic recurved teeth arranged in cards ; on 
the anterior part of the jaw, the external series largest ; similar teeth on the vomer, palatines 
and tongue. 

The dorsal fin commences directly over the eye ; the first four rays are short ; the seventh 
and eighth longest, and rather more than half the depth of the body at the pectorals, or to be 
more e.xact, the highest ray is 5'5 long ; from this ray, it diminishes almost imperceptibly to 
the tail. The whole length of this fin is 28 "0, and it comprises sixty-three rays. The anal 
fin commences under the fortieth dorsal ray ; the two first rays are short, the third and fourth 
longest : this fin terminates a short distance beyond the end of the dorsal, and contains 
twenty-nine rays, the highest of which are two and a half inches long. Pectoral fins small, 
acute, falciform, with twenty-one rays, the longest of which is five and a half inches long. 
Ventral fins similar to the last in shape and size, with a connecting membrane at the base, 
attached to the whole length of the last ray : this fin is situated behind the pectorals, with 
very much flattened and robust rays. Caudal fin deeply forked, and composed of nineteen 
complete rays, and six or seven accessories on each side ; its longest rays exceed nine inches, 
and the margin terminates in filaments like baleen or whalebone. 

Color. I have little to say in regard to the color of this species. It has been described to 
me as similar to the appearance exliibited in the figure. 

Length, 45 "0. Depth at the pectorals, 9"0. 
Fin rays, D. 63 ; P. 21 ; V. 7 ; A. 29 ; C. 19 f. 

This beautiful species was captured oflT the harbor of New- York, and presented to the 
Lyceum of Natural History in 182-. It was treated by Dr. Mitchill as the C. hippuris, noticed 
in his memoir on the fishes of New-York. It is obviously distinct from the hippuris, but 
bears a general resemblance to the S. sueri of Cuvicr and Valenciennes. The slight indica- 
tions given by the authors of that species are, however, insufficient to establish their identity. 
The proportional height and length of the dorsal leads me to suppose that they are specifically 



134 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

distinct. In many respects, our specimen agrees with C. equisetis, but the figure (pi. 
267), exhibits a different species. Under these circumstances, I sliall, until another oppor- 
tunity presents itself of examining a more recent specimen, consider it as hitherto undescribed. 



(EXTRA-LIMITAL. ) 

C. sucri. (Cuv. et Val. Vol. 9, p. 302.) Height of the anterior rays of the dorsal to its length, 
as one to seven and a half Dorsal fin with sixty-four, and anal with twenty-six rays. Length 
three feet. Coast of the United States. 



GENUS LAMPUGUS. Cuvier. 

Head not terminating in a rounded crest above. Dorsal suhequal throughout its length, not 
elevated in front. 

Obs. This genus was first clearly indicated by Cuvier, from Coryphcena, with which it is 
otherwise closely allied. 

THE SPOTTED LAMPUGUS. 

LAMPUGUS PUNCTULATUS. >- ' J/ ^ 

PLATE XI. FIG. 31. — (CABINET OF THE LYCEUM.) 
Lc Lampuge ponctue, L. pimclidafus. Cuv. et Val. Hist, des Poiss. Vol. 9, p. 327. 

Characteristics. The last ten or twelve rays of the dorsal somewhat elevated. A scries of 
rounded distant blackish dots along the base of the dorsal ; others irregu- 
larly distributed on the sides. Length two feet. 

Description. Body elongate, compressed. Length of the head rather less than one-eighth 
of the total length. Height of the body at the pectorals one-eighth, and at the base of the 
caudal one-twentieth of the total length. Its facial outline slightly and equally curved from 
the origin of the dorsal to the point of the upper jaw. Scales small, oblong, deeply imbedded ; 
largest at the posterior end, and gradually attenuated at thejr radical margin (see figure). The 
free extremity rounded, with deeply impressed concentric striae. Lateral line waving irregu- 
larly above the pectorals, thence straight. Several series of long acute spicular scales along 
the anterior part of the dorsal fin (see fig.) ; these scales have concentric impressions on their 
posterior extremities, and are 0'2.5 long, with their greatest diameter 0'04. Eyes large ; the 
orbits 0" 7 in diameter, and rather more tlian their diameters distant from the point of the 
jaw. Nostrils double, adjacent ; the posterior largest, with a valvular membrane on its ante- 
rior margin ; a similar membrane on the hinder part of the anterior nostril. Jaws nearly 
equal, with numerous acute minute recurved teeth in broad patches ; the external row largest. 



FAMILY SCOMBEID^ LAMPUGUS. 135 

Similar but smaller ones on the vomer and palatines, and exceedingly minute ones on the 
tongue. Seven branchial rays. 

The dorsal fin long and subequal, composed of fifty-three rays, the posterior third in a slight 
furrow. It commences on the nape, just posterior to the orbits, and reaches to within half an 
inch of the base of the caudal fin ; the ten or twelve last rays rise somewhat higher than the 
five or six preceding ones, and pass slightly beyond the membrane. The membranous slips 
on the tips of the rays, when the fin is supine, resemble the finlets or spurious fins on the 
mackerel. The pectoral fins small, triangular, falcate, and placed beneath the ninth dorsal 
ray ; its longest ray is two inches in length. The ventral fins are long and pointed, with the 
third and longest ray two and a half inches. The anal fin long and low, subequal, its middle 
rays shorter ; it commences below a point nearly equidistant between the posterior margin of 
the orbits, and the base of the caudal : it contains twenty-five rays. Caudal fin deeply fur- 
cate ; the lobes three and a half inches long, with four accessory rays on each side. 

Color. Sea-green above the lateral line ; silvery on the sides, with metallic reflections on 
the opercles. Pupil black ; iridcs yellowish. Dark reddish brown stripes across the head ; a 
series of distant rounded spots along the base of the dorsal fin ; a few scattering ones on the 
back part of the head, and confused series of similar spots on the sides below the lateral line. 
Dorsal, pectorals and ventral brown ; anal and caudal fins light-colored. 

Length, 24-0. Of the head, 3 '2. Height, 3-0. 
Fin rays, D. 53 ; P. 20 ; V. 5 ; A. 25 ; C. 18 f . 

This rare and exceedingly beautiful fish was taken several years since by Capt. Barnard, 
who caught it with a hook, at the light-ship off the harbor of New- York. It was presented 
to the Lyceum in a fresh state. From notes taken at the time, I am enabled to give the colors. 
I suppose it to be identical with the punctulatiis of Cuvier and Valenciennes, notwithstanding 
slight discrepancies in the descriptions. Those writers had only a small cabinet specimen, 
thirteen or fourteen inches long, and their description is very succinct. 

The Spotted Lampugus is a tropical species, and its farthest northern range hitherto dis- 
covered is the latitude of New- York. 



136 NEW-YOKK FAUNA. 

GENUS RHOMBUS. Lacepede. 

Head and body compressed. Body covered ivilh 7ninute scales. A small trenchant and 
pointed blade before the vent ; a horizontal partially concealed spine before the dorsal and 
anal fins. 

Obs. Tliis genus had been named Peprilus by Cuvicr in the second edition of his Regne 
Animal ; tlie prior name of Rliombus, given to it by Lacepede, having escaped his notice. 
This compels us to change the name of Rhombus among the Pleuroncctidae. It contains five 
species, all from the shores of America. 

THE LONG-FINNED HARVEST-FISH. 

Rhombus longipinnis. '\3aj\AA., 

PLATE LXXV. FIG. 239. 
Chetodon alepidotiis. LiN. Syst. Nat. 

Harvest-Jishf Stromateus longipinnis. MiTCHiLL, Lit. and Phil. Soc. Vol. 1, p. 306. 
Peprilus alepidotus. CuviER, RSgne Animal, 2d Edition. 
Rhombus longipinnis, Le Rhomhe a longue nagcoircs. Cuv. et Val. Hist, des Poiss. Vol. 9, p. 401, pi. 274. 

Characteristics. Anterior rays of the dorsal and anal fins more than half the length of their 
respective bases. Length seven inches. 

Description. Form oval. Head and body much compressed ; the facial line descends with 
a curve, which becomes slightly concave above the eyes ; just anterior to the eyes, it sud- 
denly descends, producing a blunt snout. Eyes large, nearer to the snout than to the margin 
of the opercle. Nostrils double, adjacent ; the anterior small and round, the posterior verti- 
cally oval. Mouth small ; the lower jaw, when extended, longest, but shuts within the 
upper. Scales small, round, and little apparent, particularly on the fins, where they are 
scarcely discernible ; they are wanting on the opercles and the head. Lateral line with large 
scales ; it rises with a broad curve, but is not concurrent with the back. Linneus, who had 
received this fish from Garden of South Carolina, not perceiving the scales, gave it the false 
name of alepidotus. On each jaw, a row of very small slender pointed teeth. Lower edge 
of the opercle concave. Branchial rays seven. 

The dorsal fin commences posterior to the branchial aperture ; the first three rays are 
spinous, the anterior very short, thence successively increasing to the ninth, when they again 
rapidly diminish to the eighteenth, after which they are short and subequal : a short spine or 
blade recumbent in front of this fin. Pectorals long and pointed, with twenty-three rays. 
The vent is placed between two spines, one directed backward, and the other a broad blade 
with its point directed forward in front of the anal fin ; this latter fin resembles the dorsal in 
size and shape. Caudal deeply forked. 

Color. " Silvery, with tints of blue, green, and iridescent ; dusky on the head ; and with 
" inky patches on the belly towards the tail, which in certain lights appear beautifully red 
" and purple : back bluish, with occasional clouds." Mitchill. 



FAMILY SCOMBRID^ — RHOMBUS. 137 

Length, 7'0. 

Fin rays, D. 3.44; P. 23; A. 4.43; C. 19 |. 

I have had several of these fish in my possession, but their color had vanished, and I 
accordingly employ the description of Mitchill. It is not as common as the succeeding, but 
is equally esteemed for eating. On a drawing of tliis species, belonging to my friend Dr. 
Holbrook, I find that it is named Rudder-fish at Charleston. As the name given by Linneus 
conveyed an erroneous idea, Cuvier has deemed it proper to adopt the more appropriate name 
given to it by Dr. Mitchill. 

Its present ascertained geographical range is from South-Carolina to the coast of New- 
York. 



THE SHORT-FINNED HARVEST-FISH. 

Rhombus triacantiids. 
plate xxvi. fig. 80. 

SiTomatms Iriacanihus. Peck, Mem. Am. Acatl. Vol. 2, part 2, p. 48, pi. 2, fig. 2. 

(S. cryptosus. MiTCHILL, Report in part, &c. p. 3. 

Cryptous Broad-shiner, S. id. Id. Lit. and Phil. Soc. N. Y. Vol. 1, p. 365, pi. 1, fig. 3. 

Pcprilus id. CoviER, Regne animal, 2d edition. 

Le Rhombc a fossMes, R. cryptosus. Cvv. et Val. Hist, des Poiss. Vol. 9, p. 40S. 

Thrcc-spined Pcprilus, P. triacanihus. Stoker, Mass. Report, p. 60. 

Characte^-istics. More elongated than the preceding ; its anterior dorsal and anal rays slightly 
elevated. Length seven to nine inches. 

Description. Body elliptical, much compressed ; its height one-half of its length nearly. 
Dorsal outline forming the curve of a larger circle than in the preceding, and, like that, suddenly 
descending before the eyes, producing a somewhat truncated snout. Scales small, orbicular, 
caducous. The lateral line scaly, nearly concurrent with the back. Beside this, there is a 
slight depressed line not furnished with scales, proceeding from the origin of the lateral line 
straight through the centre of the tail ; and a third similar line originating under the base of 
the pectorals, running nearly concurrent with the abdominal outline, and also terminating on 
the side of the tail : this last may be considered as the counterpart of the lateral line, but 
curved in an opposite direction. They are less obvious after death. Along the back, on each 
side of the base of the dorsal fin, is a series of round lioles, the orifices of mucous ducts. 
From fifteen to twenty may be counted in front, but they become gradually effaced behind. 
They have each a slight furrow or depressed line running up to the base of the dorsal fin, and 
parallel with each other. Eyes large. Nostrils double ; the posterior a vertical slit. A 
single series of minute crowded teeth in both jaws. Fine crowded teeth on the pharyngeals. 
Tongue large, spotted, smooth, free. In the oesophagus, which is dilated, and surrounded 
by two muscles of considerable size which arc separated from each other, the interior is 
covered by long irregular bony processes, disposed in rounded patches, and opposed to each 

Fauna — Part 4. 18 



138 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

Other. This pecuharity of structure occurs in both genera of Stromateus and Rhombus, and 
has been described as the stomach. Vertebra thirty-one. 

The dorsal fin has three spinous and forty-five rays, of which the six first are longest, the 
posterior branched ; before the dorsal is a recumbent spine, directed forward. Pectorals long 
and pointed. Anterior to this fin, is a broad acutely tipped movable spine ; and before this, 
a broad axe-shaped moveable plate or spine (see figure), occupying the place of the ventrals. 
Caudal fin deeply forked. 

Color. Brilliant metallic green, blue and golden. Deep blue on the back, which in the 
living specimen is obscurely mottled. Head and opercle golden green ; belly and anal, in 
certain lights, giving a glistening pinkish hue. Irides bluish and white. 

Length, 3-0 -9-0. 

Fin rays, D. 3.45; P. 19; A. 3.42; C. 19 f. 

This fish is equally remarkable for the splendor of its coloring, and its excellence as an 
article of food ; although many fishermen consider them unfit for eating, on account of the 
unpleasant odor which they emit when opened. They are believed to feed chiefly on marine 
plants. I found the esophagus, in many which I opened, filled with pebbles about the size 
of a pin's head. When taken out of the water at night, I am told that tiiey emit vivid phos- 
phoric flashes. It has been conjectured, though upon very insufficient grounds, that this is 
the male of the preceding species. 

Their known geographic range is at present limited. Peck described them on the coast of 
New-Hampshire, and Dr. Storer speaks of them as being so abundant at Cape Cod as to be 
used as manure. How far south of New-York they have been seen, I have no means of 
ascertaining ; but it probably extends far to the southward, as its congener the longipinnis, 
with which it appears to be constantly associated, is extremely common on tlic coast of the 
Carolinas. This species appears with us about the first of July, and I have obtained them 
from fikc-nets in the harbor of New- York as late as the twelfth of October. 

(EXTRA-LIMITAL) 

Genus Pteraclis, Cut. et Val. Dorsal and anal fins each more than twice the height of the body, 
and extending from before the eyes to the caudal fin. Body elongated, compresseJ, and with 
large scales. 

P. caroUmis. (Guv. et Val. Vol. 9, p. 368.) Silvery, with bluish reflections. Fourth dorsal ray 
longest. D. 52 ; A. 44. Length four inches. Seacoast of Carolina. 

In concluding the history of this family, we have to notice a statement made by the autlior 
of a popular essay on the fishes of Massachusetts, in which he notices the common Dory of 
Europe, the Zcusfahcr, Lin., to have been detected in Boston bay. We are not aware that 
this fact is confirmed by the observations of any American naturalist. 

The tcntli family of TyENioiD/E, or Cepolid^, has no representative on the coast of New- 
York. 



FAMILY TEUTHIDiE ACANTHURUS. 139 



FAMILY XI. TEUTHID^. 

Body compressed, ovate, ohlong. Mouth small, 7iot protractile. Teeth often dentated, and 
disposed in a single row in hoth jaws. Palate and tongue smooth. A single dorsal, 
usually long. 

Obs. This family, which is peculiar to the warmer regions of the ocean, has been esta- 
blished upon a few genera, which, at the ciid of the last century, did not comprise more than 
eight or ten species. In the great work of Cuvier and Valenciennes, now in course of publi- 
cation, one hundred species arc enumerated. It is allied to the family Scombridae, and might 
be considered as a group subordinate to that family. The species appear to be chiefly her- 
bivorous. I am not aware that we have more than one representative of this family on the 
coast of New-York, although farther south we shall undoubtedly find many others. 

GENUS ACANTHURUS. Cuvier and Valenciennes. 

Teeth cutting and serrated. A movable spine on the side of the tail. Head deep, com- 
jyressed. Eyes placed high up on the head. The skin thick, and, usually covered with 
small scales. 

THE SURGEON. 

ACANTHKRUS PHLEBOTOMUS. <Ji/ujd\,<^ AJy:/^ CM.'-.^ 

PLATE LXXni. FIG. 234. 

Barbero. Parra, Desc. de diff. &c. p. 45, pi. 21, fig. 2. 
L'Acanthurc saignciir. Cuv. et Val. Hist, des Poiss. Vol. 10, p. 17G. 

Characteristics. Opcrcles deeply striated ; the scapular also striated. Bluish brown. Tail 
nearly even. Length 6-12 inches. 

Description. Body elliptical and compressed. Front nearly regularly curved to the snout. 
Mouth very small. The opcrcles with radiating striae, and the scapular equally so with the 
humeral bone. Nostrils double, approximated, and the small posterior one very near the 
orbit. Scales small, rounded, extending over all the body and head, except on the opercular 
bones. Lateral line concurrent with, and near the dorsal outline. On each side of the tail 
is a strong, acute, compressed, lancet-shaped spine, narrowed at the base. This lies in a 
furrow, but can be elevated forwards at an angle of 45'', and become a powerful weapon. 
Teeth not covered by the lips, wide, compressed, serrated on their edges ; from twelve to 
fourteen above, and about twenty below. Branchial rays five. 

The dorsal fin compound, extending from above the branchial aperture nearly to the tail, 
and nearly subequal throughout ; the first spinous ray very short. Caudal fin very slightly 
excavated, nearly even. 



140 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

Color. Bluish brown. Pectorals partly yellow. In some specimens, there appear to be 
bands on the flanks. 

Length, 3-0- 12-0. 

Fin rays, D. 9.24; P. 15; V. 1.5; A. 3.23; C. 16. 

The above is a brief account of a species which is very common in the Caribbean sea, and 
a specimen of which Cuvier received from New- York. According to Parra, it is eaten. 
Through inadvertence, Richardson cites the A. hepatus among the fishes of New- York {Faun. 
Vol. 3, p. 86). Schcepff merely states that he saw this species at the Bahamas ; but as he 
refers to Catesby, we are enabled to know that he intended the Acanthio'us ccendeus, which 
occurs on the coast of Carolina ; the hepatus, on the other hand, is only found in the waters 
of the East Indies. Our species is very rare, and can only be considered as a casual visitor. 
I am indebted to Cuvier for the description and figure. 

{EXTRA-LIMIT AL.) 

A. caruleus. (Cuv. et Val. Vol. 10, p. 179.) Bright blue throughout. Dorsal and anal streaked 
alternately with light and dark blue. Length four to eight inches. Seacoast of South-Carolina, 
Florida. 



FAMILY ATHERINID^ ATHERINA. 141 

FAMILY XII. ATHERINID^. 

Mouth protractile ; no notch on the upper jaw, nor tubercle on the lower. Suborbital not 
dentated. A broad silvery band on the side. Very small crowded teeth on the pharyn- 
geals. The first branchial arch ivith long pectinations . Two dorsal fins, most commonly 
distant. Venlrals behind the pectorals. 

Obs. This family was founded by Cuvier on the genus Athcrina of Linneus, and is so 
closely associated with the MugilidcB, that many ichthyologists still arrange them under that 
family. By others they are also placed under that family, but form a distinct section or tribe. 
In common with the Mugilidss, they have two dorsals, but these are not always distant ; their 
ventrals are usually much farther behind ; nor have they the pharyngeal apparatus, nor the 
gizzard of that family. They have six branchial rays. The Atherinidee as yet are all in- 
cluded under one genus, but it is susceptible of several subdivisions. Some years since, I 
arranged, from the suggestions of Cuvier, under the genus Argyrea, several of our American 
species with the following characters : Vomer and palatines smooth and perfectly edentate ; 
maxillaries at their lower ends terminating in a point, etc. It requires, however, a careful 
examination and rigorous comparison of all the species, such as was not within my reach, to 
establish a genus which should be beyond the reach of cavil. The species of this family on 
the North American coast, are uniformly small. On the shores of South America, some 
species exist nearly two feet long. 

GENUS ATHERINA. Linneus. 

Body elongated, cylindrical, loith large scales. The other characters included in those of 
the family. 

THE DOTTED SILVERSIDE. 

Atherina notata. 

PLATE XXVni. FIG. 88. Jt'^.^-.J^ O^Ot^ JujCM*>^'^»' 

Atherina menidia. LaCEPEDE, Vol. 5, p. 37G, (excl. synon.) 

The Small Silverside, A, notata. Mitch. Lit. and Phil. Soc. Vol. 1, p. 446, pi. 4, fig. 0. 
Jj'Athcrine de Bosc, A. boscii. Gov. et Val. Hist, des Poiss. Vol. 10, p. 465. 
The Small Silverside, A. id. Storer, Massachusetts Report, p. 62. 

Characteristics. Depth one-sixth of its length. Black points at the base of the anal rays. 
Dorsals contiguous ; the second coterminal with the anal. Length three 
to four inches. 

Description. Body elongated, cylindrical, subcompressed. Scales large, rounded ; mar- 
gins smooth, with concentric impressions. Lateral line straight. Head moderate, somewhat 
flattened above, and one-fifth of the total length. Eyes rather large, 0-2 in diameter. Jaws 



142 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

very protractile ; the lower somewhat longer ; both armed with a single series of hooked 
teeth, those in front largest. 

Dorsal fins two ; the first triangular, with five simple rigid rays, gradually decreasing in 
size from the anterior ray : its position is above the vent. The second dorsal arises 0'2 be- 
hind the first, is composed of one spinous and nine articulated rays, with its upper margin 
slightly excavated. The pectorals long and pointed ; placed high up, and extending nearly 
to the base of the ventral rays. Ventrals short and feeble, composed of one simple and five 
articulated rays. Anal fin long, with its anterior rays longest, and a broadly concave margin. 
Caudal fin deeply emarginatc, with nineteen rays. 

Color. A broad silvery band arises from the branchial aperture, and extends straight to the 
tail. Gill-covers and eyes silvery. Jaws margined with dusky. Body, above the broad 
longitudinal stripe, of a translucent sea-green color. Under the lens, each scale is marked 
by a convex series of dark points. A dark rounded spot at the base of each anal ray. 

Length, 3-5. Of the head, 0-7. Depth, 0-6. 
Fin rays, D. 5.1.9; P. 15; V. 1.5; A. 1.25; C. 19. 

This is a common species in the harbor of New-York, but they do not appear to be as 
numerous now as they were twenty years ago, when they were caught from the wharves and 
sold for bait. They are known under the names of Anchovies and Sand Smelts. They are 
esteemed a savory food. Their present ascertained geographical range extends from South- 
Carolina to Cape Cod in Massachusetts. We are at a loss to know why Cuvier and Valen- 
ciennes changed the prior and appropriate name given to this species by Dr. Mitchill. 

THE SLENDER SILVERSIDE. 

, , ,. Atherina menidia. 

plate lxxiv. fig. 236. 

Atherina menidia. Linn. Syst, Nat. Ed. l2mo. p. 519, (escl. syn.) 

A. menidia. Peck, MassachiiseMs Hist. Collections, Vol. 5? p. 202. 

Green-striped Silverside, A. viridescens. MncH. Lit. and Phil. Soc. Vol. 1, p. 417. (Young and imperfect?) 

Characteristics. Body long and slender. Dorsals distant ; the second dorsal nearly over the 
middle of the anal. Length five inches. 

Description. Height to its length, as one to seven. Length of the head to the total length, 
as one lo five and a half. Summit of the head smooth and convex. The gape of the mouth 
extends but half of the interval between the eye and the end of the snout. Its small teeth 
are very evident. The pectorals to the total length are as one to seven. Anal fin two and a 
lialf times longer than the second dorsal, which is placed nearly opposite its middle portion. 
The longitudinal band has a bluish border above. The black points on the edge of the scales 
are very small, so that the fish is light-colored. This species has two ovaries. Air-bladder 
simple. Vertebrffi forty-four. Branchial rays six. 



FAMILY ATHERINID^ ATHERINA. 143 

Length five inches. 

Fin rays, D. 5.1.9; P. 15; V. 1.5; A. 1.25 ; C. 19. 

I am unacquainted with this species, and insert it on the authority of Cuvier and Valen- 
ciennes, who received it from New- York. For the figure, I have been indebted to Dr. Hol- 
brook. It appears to be widely different from the preceding, by the distance of the dorsals 
apart ; by the position of the second dorsal, which is far from being coterminal with the anal ; 
by tlie more deeply excavated or crescent-shaped caudal, and by other particulars cited 
above. 

I make a reference to Peck with much doubt. " This little fish," he says, " is called by 
" Linneus, Atlicrina inenidia, pinna ani radiis 24. It is four inches long, is semitransparcnt, 
" and has a broad silvery line extending from the opening of the gills to the insertion of the 
" tail. The tail is forked ; the iris silvery ; the back is marked in diamonds by dotted lines. 
" It is found in great numbers in the river Piscataqua, in the months of August and Septem- 
" ber. It feeds on minute aquatic insects of the monoculus kind, and is preyed upon by 
" various fishes as well as by shelldrakes." 

The Green Silverside, Athcrina viridescens of Mitchill, is evidently to me a young and 
mutilated specimen of this species. With regard to the Atlierina mordax, or large Silverside 
of the same author, there is more difliculty. From its dental armature and adipose dorsal, 
it cannot be arranged in this family. In his Report in part, he states that " it may be A. 
" hroionii ; if it be so considered, we shall know it better for the future." I am not acquainted 
with the species here referred to, but have no doubt that the mordax is the true Osmerus of 
the family Salmonidae. I am disposed to believe that my late venerable friend has, by mis- 
take, apphed the description of Osmerus cpcrlanus to tliis species. 

(EXTRA-LIMITAL. ) 

A. Carolina. (Cuv. et Val. Vol. 10, p. 445.) Snout pointed. Height toils total length, as one to 
six and three-quarters. D. 8. 1. 12; A. 1. IG. Length four inches. South-Carolma. 



144 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 



FAMILY XIII. MUGILIDjE. 

Opercle entire. Body covered with large scales, extending over tlie head, where they some- 
times become polygonal plates. Tivo dorsals ividely separate. Ventrals placed behind 
the pectorals . No cirrus to the loiver jaiv. Teeth, tvhen present, very minute. 

Obs. This family was established by Cuvier, on the genus Mugil of Linneus, which in his 
time contained two species, and those badly determined, and now comprises about sixty 
species arranged under five genera. They chiefly inhabit the seas of the temperate and torrid 
zones. The representatives of but one genus only occurs on the coast of New- York. 

GENUS MUGIL. Cuvier. 

Ventrals placed a short distance behind the pectoral fins. The first dorsal fin. with four spi- 
nous rays. The middle of the wider jaw tubercidated ivithin, and a corresponding cavity 
in the upper jaw. Teeth very small. 

Obs. The American species so closely resemble each other, that according to M. Valen- 
ciennes, it is almost impossible by words alone to express their characteristic difference. It 
is only by having all the species side by side, that the various proportions of the head to the 
body, the position of the eye in relation to the snout, and slight shades of difference in the 
curves of the opercular pieces, render them distinguishable from each other. 

THE STRIPED MULLET. 

Mdgil lineatos. 
plate xv. fig. 42. — (state collection.) 

Mngilhnenhis. M1TCHII.L, MSS. communication to Cuvier. 

Le Mugerayc, M. lineaius. Cov. et Val. Hist, des Poiss. Vol. 11, p. 96. 

Characteristics. Lower jaw equaling or exceeding the upper in length. Ten or twelve dark 
longitudinal stripes. Dorsal outline convex. Length six to eight inches. 

Description. Body cylindrical ; dorsal outline nearly as convex as that of the abdomen. 
Scales large, easily detached, rounded, truncate in front, with a triangular area at that part, 
marked by numerous parallel raised lines, the exposed portion rounded with concentric lines ; 
the scales extend over the opercles, the head (where they are completely rounded) to the extre- 
mity of the snout, and some distance up the caudal rays. I could not trace the lateral line. 
Head smaller than in most of the species, being 1 .5 in length measured to the upper part of 
the opercle ; it is flat above, and declivous. Eyes large, with a thick membranous skin. 
Nostrils double, distant and small ; the anterior smallest and rounded. Suborbital obtusely 
truncated, finely denticulated on its anterior margin and at the end. Mouth protractile, with 



FAMILY MUGILID.E MUGIL. 145 

numerous minute acute bristly recurved teeth, loosely inserted in the gums. Lower jaw- 
slightly pointed, with an elevated ridge over the symphisis, which is received into a cor- 
responding cavity in the upper jaw. A transverse membranous fold on the upper jaw. 
Palatines with asperities in front. Tongue free, triangular, ridged in the middle. 

The anterior dorsal fin commences at the distance of 3' 1 from the end of the snout, and 
is placed in a slight depression, with an elongated scale on each side of the base ; it contains 
four spinous rays, of which the first is longest, the last slender and delicate. The second 
dorsal fin larger, subquadrate, and excavated on the posterior part of its margin ; composed 
of eight branched rays, the last longer than the three preceding. Ventral fins with axillarj' 
plates, and with a robust spinous ray equaling in length the last branched ray ; these fins are 
placed under a point equidistant between the base of the pectorals and the first dorsal. Pec- 
toral fins with sixteen articulated rays ; the first simple, the remainder branched. Anal fin 
beneath the second dorsal, with three spinous and eight branched rays ; the first spinous ray 
very short ; the first and second branched rays longest, the sixth shortest, the fifth and eighth 
subequal. Caudal fin deeply emarginate. 

Color. Purplish brown above ; lighter on the sides, with ten to twelve dark brown longi- 
tudinal stripes on the sides of the body ; these disappear soon after death. Head with 
greenish metalhc reflections ; sides of the head yellowish. Pupils black ; irides yellowish 
or soiled white. A dark bluish or purplish spot at the base of the pectoral fins. Abdomen 
pearl-grey. 

Length, 7 '5. 

Fin rays, D. 4.8 ; P. 16 ; V. 1 .5 ; A. 3.8 ; C. 12 f. 

This Mullet was first detected on our coast by Dr. Mitchill, who sent a specimen, with the 
name and a description, many years ago. They appear in our markets in the beginning of 
September, and are highly esteemed. The fishermen believe them to be identical with the 
preceding. I have seen specimens three inches long, which I suppose to be the young of this 
species. In these the dorsal outline is nearly straight, and the abdomen cultrate. This pro- 
duces such a strongly marked variation from the original form, that if considered by itself, it 
might readily be taken for an undescribed species. 

Its geographic limits are unknown. It is probably common along our whole southern coast, 
and New-York is probably its farthest northern range. 



Fauna — Part 4. 19 



146 NEW- YORK FAUNA. 

THE WHITE MULLET. 

MUGIL ALBULA. 

MugU albula. Lin. Syst. Nat. Ed. 12ma, p. 520. 

M. id., New-York Mullet. Mitch. Lit. and Phil. Soc. Vol. 1, p. 447. 

Le Muge blanquelli; M. id. Cuv. ct Val. Hist, des Poiss. Vol.11, p. 94. 

Characteristics. General liue whitish. Caudal with a blackish border. Lips finely pecti- 
nated. Length nine inches. 

Description. Body almost cylindrical, tapering. Head moderate. Eyes covered with a 
thick membranous skin. Scales on the head and body large and rounded. Forty-two were 
counted in a line from the branchial aperture to the base of the caudal fin. A series of small 
scales on the snout, between the anterior nostrils. Lateral line indistinct or wanting. Scaly 
plates at the base of the pectorals and ventrals ; small scales on the pectoral, ventral and caudal 
fins, those on the latter fin ascending high up. Mouth protractile. Lips thin, finely pectinated, 
with membranous slips. Jaws nearly even ; the lower with a distinct j)rominence in the 
centre, within, and received into a corresponding depression in the upper jaw. Tongue 
ridged along the medial line, smooth, covered with large papilla;, as are the pharyngeals, 
but with no vestige of teeth. 

The first dorsal fin placed just over the point reached by the tips of the ventrals ; the second 
ray slightly longest. Second dorsal fin composed of one short feebly spinous, and eight arti- 
ticulated rays ; the first two longest ; the fifth, sixth and seventh short ; the last equaling the 
fourth in length. Pectorals small and pointed, composed of one simple and fourteen branched 
rays. Ventrals short and broad ; the first ray acutely spinous, the others very ramose. Anal 
fin opposite the second dorsal, which it resembles in shape and size, is composed of one 
short sharp spine and seven branched rays. Caudal fin deeply emarginate ; its extremities 
ragged, and covered high up with small oblong scales. 

Color. A uniform white, rather darker along the sides of the back, with a few dark-colored 
longitudinal stripes, which occur in many species. 

Length, y-O. Of the head, TS. Depth at the dorsal fin, S'O. 
Fin rays, D. 4 . 1 .8 ; P. 15 ; V. 1.5; A. 1.7; C. 15. 

Whether this be the M. albula of Linneus, may well be doubted. There are also discre- 
pancies in the radial formula as given by Mitchill, Cuvier and myself, which I cannot pretend 
to reconcile. In all the characters given by Mitchill and myself, except in the radial formula, 
our specimens agree. In one particular, the pectinated lips, which are distinctly mentioned 
by Mitchill, do not appear to have been noticed by Cuvier and Valenciennes. This character 
approximates it to the M. labes of the Mediterranean ; but in our species, the lips arc not 
tliick. It is also distantly allied to the M. cirrost07nus of Forster, from the Pacific. 

The figure of this species, as given by Catesby, (if indeed it be this species,) may well be 



FAMILY MUGILID.E — MUGIL. 147 

supposed to have been drawn from memorv. The ventrals are placed under the first dorsal, 
and he has forgotten the pectorals altogetlicr. 

The White Mullet is in high repute among epicures. It is a plump firm tish, and appears 
in our markets in July and August. Dr. Mitchill speaks of one unusually large, which 
weighed two and a half pounds. Schfepff describes them as being very abundant on the 
shoal and sandy coasts of Virginia and Carolina. They appear, he says, at certain intervals 
in large scholes, and ihen are caught in great numbers and salted. Our coast is probably the 
extreme northerly limit of its geographic range. 

THE ROCK MULLET. 

MuGIL PETROSCS. 

M. prirosu!:, Le Miigc des Rochts. Civ. ct Val. Hist, dcs Poiss. Vol. 11, p. 38. 

Characteristics. The second dorsal and anal covered with scales. No spot at the base of the 
pectoral. Length 6-7 inches. 

Description. Eyelids covered with a thick mucosity. Maxillaries slender, and covered by 
the suborbital bones. The second dorsal and anal covered with scales. Lips thin. The 
edge of the caudal fin scarcely blackish. 

Length, 0-0- 7-0. 

The above brief notice of this fish we extract from the Histoire des Poissons, where it is 
spoken of as a southern species. It ranges from Brazil to the coast of New-York, from 
which latter place the authors received specimens. 

THE SPOTTED MULLET. 

MuGIL PLUMIERI. 

Le Mugc de Plumier, Cuv. ct Val. Hist, des Poiss'. Vol. 11, p. 90. 

Characteristics. The second dorsal and anal without scales. Height of the body to its length, 
as one to four and a half nearly. Scales small. 

Description. Resembles the preceding, but the body is deeper, and the head still more so. 
At the nape, the depth of the head is equal nearly to three-quarters of the total length. 
Second dorsal and anal without scales. From forty-two to forty-five scales are counted in a 
line from the gills to the base of the caudal fin. The skin over the eye is very thick. Sub- 
orbital truncated, and minutely dentated near its end. Lips thin. Tongue thick and rounded, 
with two small patches of asperities on its sides near the root. Two large plates, covered 
with strong asperities, on the palatines. Vomer crescent-shaped. 



148 NEW- YORK FAUNA. 

Color. Edges of the scales golden yellow ; a blackish blue spot on the base of the pectoral, 
and a small spot of the same color on every scale. 

MM. Cuvier and Valenciennes give no farther descriptive details of a species, which ranges 
from Brazil to New- York. They have received it from both places. At Martinique, according 
to M. Plee, it is considered scarcely fit to cat, from its insipidity. 

FAMILY XIV. GOBID.E. 

Body more or less elongated. Scales small, or entirely wanting. The spines of the dorsal 
fin slender and flexible. Branchial aperture small. Ventrals, when present, placed in 
advance of the pectorals. Many viviparous. 

Ob.s. This family was established by Cuvier, and comprises about two hundred species, 
distributed among twenty-nine genera. Almost all the members of this family have such 
slender and flexible rays, that in one genus, Zoarces, many ichthyologists have hesitated 
whether they should not be considered as soft rays. On the other hand, in the genus Giin- 
nellus, the dorsal rays become short, robust and acute spines. They all resemble each other 
in the conformation of their viscera ; the intestinal canal is simple, nearly equal throughout, 
and without cfecal appendages. No air-bladder. 

GENUS BLENNIUS. Cuvier. 

Body elongated. Dorsal fin single, extending along the back, and composed of simple 
flexible rays. Skiyi smooth, and without scales. Branchial rays six. Ventral fins placed 
under the throat, and composed apparently of two rays ; the internal one being often 
subdivided wider the skin. The eyes, and occasionally the nape and nostrils, with fila- 
ments. Teeth stout, simple, and crowded- in a single row ; often ending with a long canine. 

Obs. The males of this genus are recognized by rows of papillae near the aperture of the 
vas deferens and the urinary bladder. The aperture of the ovaries in the females is small, 
and placed behind the vent and before the exit of the urinary bladder. Thev are not vivi- 
parous, and are of small dimensions. , 



FAMILY GOBID^ BLENNIUS. 149 

THE SEA-WEED BLENNY 

Blennius pucorum. 
plate xxii. fig. 66. 

Le Blennic des funis, B. fucorum. Cnv. et V.\L. Hist, des Poiss. Vol. II, p. 263, pi. 324. 

Characteristics. Greenish brown, with brown spots above the lateral line. Bifid cirri over 
the eyes, as long as the head. Length one to two inches. 

Description. Body small and scaleless ; the lateral line curves broadly above the pectoral 
Hn. Head large, and deeper than long. Eyes large and prominent, and the orbits projecting 
beyond the facial outline. Length of the head to the total length as one to five. A thread- 
shape cirrus on the upper part of each orbit, nearly as long as the head, bifid at the tip, witli 
some fine threads at its internal base. Teeth fine, fixed and crowded ; twenty-four in each 
jaw, and behind, on each side, above and below, a strong canine tooth. 

The dorsal fin commences just behind the nape, and declines gradually to the eleventh ray ; 
It then gently rises, and extends with nearly subequal rays almost to the caudal fin. The anal 
is cotcrminal with the dorsal, and contains eighteen or nineteen rays. Caudal rounded, with 
thirteen or fourteen rays. 

Color. Soiled greenish, changing to brownish above, with numerous brown spots on the 
cheeks and sides of the body. Throat and belly faintly rosaceous. Iris bluish, with reddish 
points radiating about the pupils. 

Length, 2" 5. 

Fin ray.«, D. 11 . 17 ; P. 14 ; V. 3 ; A. 18; C. 14. 

\i\ a voyage from Constantinople in 1831, I met with this species swimming about sea- 
weed, not far from the coast of New- York, and made notes of it at the time, considering it as 
either a young individual of some larger species, or as undescribed. My specimen was not 
more than an inch and a half long. It agrees so entirely with the figure and description of 
Cuvier, that I have no hesitation in referring it to that species. The specimen described by 
Cuvier and Valenciennes was taken south of the Azores. 

{EXTRA-LIMITAL.) 

R. geminatus. (Wood. Ac. Sc. Vol. 4, p. 278.) Spotted ; a black spot on the anterior part of the 
dorsal fin; a trifid cirrus over each eye. D. 27; P. 13; V. 2; A. 17; C. 14 |. Length 2-3 
inches. South-Carolina. 

B. piinctaius. (Id. lb. p. 279.) An irregular blackish spot between the first and third rays of the 
dorsal ; a bifid cirrus over each eye. Body thickly covered with small blackish spots, confluent on 
the sides. Caudal with five obscure bands. V. 3; C. 11. Length 3 inches. South-Carolina. 



150 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

GENUS PHOLIS. Fle?ning. 

No cirri on the orbits, nor even -fleshy crests. 

Obs. This subdivision, first proposed by Fleming, has been adopted by Cuvicr, aUhougli it 
is considered of httle importance. In all other respects it resembles the preceding genus, 
from which it has been separated. It contains but few species, among which we notice on 
our coast 

THE RADIATED SHANNY. 

Pholis sub-eifurcatus. 
The Sub-bifurcated Phohs, P. sub-bifiircatus. Storch, Jlassachusetts Report, p. 63. 

Characteristics. Dorsal extending to the tail. Filaments on the nostrils. Three dark bands 
passing from the eyes. Lateral line sub-bifurcated. Length 51 inches. 

Descrijjtion. Length of the head to the total length as one to three. Jaws protractile, and 
armed with prominent sharp teeth. A luinute filament over the nostril, one-third of a line in 
length. Lips large and fleshy. The lateral line commences just above the angle of the 
opercle, and having advanced two lines, sub-bifurcates ; the lower branch passes down in a 
gradual curve a little more than a line, and goes ofi' straight to the tail ; the ujiper abruptly 
terminates opposite the fourteenth ray of the dorsal fin. Surface of the body with very 
minute scales. 

Dorsal fin beginning on a line with the posterior angle of the opercle, is continued to the 
caudal fin ; the first five rays shorter than the sixth ; the rays become again shorter as they 
approach the tail. Pectorals three lines long, and are rounded. Ventrals three-rayed, with 
free extremities, but united during the greater part of ihcir extent : they are placed two lines 
in front ot the pectorals. The anal fin commences at a point midway between the tip of the 
snout and the extremity of the tail. Caudal fin rounded. 

Color. Above reddish brown. Opercle and preopercle yellowish. Light-colored circular 
patches along the base of the dorsal fin ; beneath the lateral line, lighter. Abdomen yellowish 
white. From beneath the eye, a broad black band, which is widest at its origin, crosses the 
opercle obliquely ; two other bands of the same color extend from behind the eye backward, 
in nearly a straight line, to a distance of from one to two lines. Numerous black spots on the 
dorsal fin, which are larger on the first five rays. Pectorals light, with darker shades. Anal 
fin with a dark-colored margin. Caudal with small dusky spots. 

Length, 5 -.5. Depth, TO. 

Fin rays, D. 43 ; P. 13 ; V. 3 ; A. .30 ; C. 14. 

This is a rare species. I have not had an opportunity of examining it, and am indebted to 
its original discoverer. Dr. Storer, for the above description. I may here observe, that I have 



FAMILY GOBIDiE CH.\SMODES. 151 

noticed abnormal deviations in the lateral line so frequently, that I am inclined to suspect it in 
the foregoing description. 

This species was found among sea-weed at Naiiant in Massachusetts bay, and will very 
probably be discovered on our coast. 

(EXTRALIMITAL.) 

P. carolinus. (Cuv. et Val. Vol. 11, p. 277.) Greenish, with four or five irregular spots along the 
back. Teeth If , with stout canines. D. 12. 18; A. 18. Length four inches. Coast of South- 
Carolina. 



GENUS CHASiMODES. Cuvier. 

The branchial aperture open only above the pectoral Jin. Mouth deeply cleft, with teeth only 
on the anterior part of the jaws ; these are firm, regular, and in a single row. 

Obs. This small group comprises at present but three species, all from the coast of the 
United Slates. 

THE SIX-BANDED CHASMODES. 

CHA.SMODE.S BOSaUlANUS. 

PLATE XXIV. FIG, 73. — (CABINET OF THE LYCEUM.) 

Blennius pimhs. MiTCHiLL, Lit. and Phil. Soe. N. Y. Vol. 1, p. 374. 

Blmnius hmtz 1 Lesceijr, Journ. Acad. Sc. Vol. 4, p. 363. 

he Chasmodes bosqnien, C. bosquianus. Cov. et V.\L. Hist, des Poiss. Vol, 11, p. 295, pi. 327. 

Characteristics. Dorsal united with the caudal. A minute tilament over the eye. Six vertical 
bands. Length three inches. 

Description. Head thick ; its length to the total length as one to three and a half. Moutli 
excessively cleft, and extending to the posterior margin of the orbits. Teeth excessively fine, 
and crowded together like the teeth on a fine comb, on the anterior part of the jaws ; those 
above are blunt-pointed, and about fifty in number ; those below are acute, recurved, and 
about the same number : no canines. The branchial rays are six, and the aperture is reduced 
to a small opening above the base of the pectorals. Lateral line indistinct, and obsolete 
behind. 

The dorsal fin is equal throughout its whole length, and equals in height one-third of the 
depth of the body ; it unites with the caudal upon one-quarter of the length of the latter fin. 
The dorsal fin contains twenty-nine equally flexible rays ; about the seventeenth, traces of 
articulation are perceptible. The anal distinct from the caudal fin, with nineteen rays ; it 
commences about the middle of the body. Ventrals two-rayed, with a filamentous termina- 
tion, and are about one-sixth of the total length. Caudal fin rounded. 



152 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

Color. Brown, with lighter colored clouds, forming six broad clouded vertical bands. 
Dorsal fin brown, with a light longitudinal band included between two darker ones. The 
caudal and pectoral fins brown ; anal and ventral darker. 

Length, 3-5. 

Fin rays, D. 29 ; P. 14 ; V. 2 ; A. 19 ; C. 15. 

This is a rare species. According to Mitchill, his specimen was found in an oyster. 
Another specimen was sent to Cuvier from New-York. The specimen in the Cabinet of the 
Lyceum at New-York, was obtained from the harbor. 

(EXTRA-LI31ITAL.) 

C novemlineatus. (Wood. Ac. Sc. Vol. 4, p. 280.) Witli nine vertical bands. Dorsal fin with an 

irregular blackish spot between the first and second rays ; remainder of the fin clouded. D. 30; 

A. 20. Length three inches. South-Carolina. 
C. quadrifasciatus. (Id. lb. p. 282.) With four vertical bands. Dorsal not connected with the anal ; 

circular yellow spots near the base of the anal fin. D. 27; P. 11; A. 15; C. 9. Length two and 

a half inches. Maryland. 



FAMILY GOBID^. 153 

GENUS GUNNELLUS. Cuvier. 

Body elongated, much coynpresscd. Head oblong. Mouth small. Teeth velvet-like, or in 
cards. Dorsal rays spinous throughout. Ventrals excessively small, and reduced often 
to a single spine. 

Obs. This genus was first named Centronotus by Bloch, but this name has been applied 
by Lacepede to another group among the Scombridas. Some Enghsh ichthyologists have con- 
tinued to use the badly characterized genus Murenoides of Lacepede, without being aware, 
that while he retained the gunnellus of Linneus, he formed his new genus out of the B. 
murenoides of Sujef, not knowing that the two species were identical. 

THE AMERICAN BUTTER-FISH. 

GuNNELLUS MnCRONiTUS. 

PLATE XII. FIG. 36. — (STATE COLLECTION.) 

Ophidium mucronatum. Mitchill, Lit. and Phil. Soc. Vol. 1, p. 249, pi. 2. fig. 1. 
Gunnellus mucronatus, Le Gonelle cpineiu:. Cuv, et Val. Hist, des Poiss. Vol. 11, p. 247, 
Blenmus {CeiUroiiotus) gwinellus. Richardson, F. B. A. Fishes, Vol. 3, p. 91. 
Murenoides guttata^ The Spotted Gunnel. Storer, Mass. Report, p. 65. 

Characteristics. Greyish, with a series of dusky oval rings along the sides. Dorsal not united 
to the caudal. Two short spines in place of the ventrals. Length four 
to seven inches. 

Description. Body elongate, linear, much compressed. No scales could be detected with 
a strong lens ; nor could I discover, in several specimens, any traces of a lateral line. Head 
small, subcannate above ; its length as one to nine compared with the total length. Mouth 
nearly vertical. Teeth acute, distant in both jaws, and a small group on the vomer ; lower 
jaw, when extended, longest. Branchial rays six, with a large branchial aperture. Body 
covered with a thick coating of mucus of the consistence of butter, from which is derived 
its popular name. 

The dorsal fin single, long, subequal, commencing above the branchial aperture, and ex- 
tending nearly to the base of the caudal ; is composed of a very thick membrane, supported 
by from seventy-five to seventy-eight sharp spinous rays. The pectorals rounded and feeble. 
Beneath these, and slightly in advance, are two short and sharp spines, occupying the place 
of ventrals. The anal fin is nearly equal throughout its whole extent, not as high as the 
dorsal : it approaches still nearer to the caudal than the upper vertical lin, but is not con- 
nected with it. The two anterior rays are short acute spines, the remainder soft and flexible. 
Caudal fin rounded. 

Fauna — Part 4. 20 



X54 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

Color. This is extremely fugacious. I was fortunate in being able to have a drawing made 
from a living specimen, caught near my house, on the northern coast of Long Island. The 
general color, as will be seen by reference to the plate, is greyish, with a series of oval ver- 
tical dusky rings along the sides. Abdomen greyish white, tinged with yellow. Irides 
white. Dorsal fin grey, with fourteen black vertical distant stripes. Pectorals and caudal 
yellow. Anal fin greenish grey, with alternate darker stripes. 

Length, 4-5. Depth, 0-5. 

Fin rays, D. 78 ; P. 12; V. 1; A. 2.36 ; C. 16 f. 

In another specimen, D. 75 ; P. 11 ; V. 1 . A. 2.40 ; C. 18. 

This pretty little species is frequently found among rocks along the sea-shore, and in the 
mud. It swims with great rapidity, although its usual habit is that of creeping slowly among 
rocks, in which it is probably assisted by its spiny ventrals. It abounds in Robyn's reef in 
the harbor of New-York. The description given by Mitchill, incomplete as it is, I have 
reason to know, applies to our species. It resembles the G. vulgaris of Yarrel (Vol. 1, p. 
239) ; but from the above description, is evidently distinct from that species. Its present 
knovm limits are from Massachusetts to New-York, but it probably ranges still farther north. 

(EXTRA-LIMITAL.) 

G. vulgaris. (Richardson, F. B. A. Fishes, Vol. 1, p. 91.) Dorsal united to the caudal fin; ten 
or twelve dark spots along the base of the dorsal. Length seven to twelve inches. Northern Coast. 



FAMILY GOBID.E. 155 

GENUS ZOARCES. Cuvier. 

Body elongated, and covered with a mucous secretion, in which are imbedded very small 
scales. Dorsal, anal and caudal united ; no spinous rays in the dorsal, except on its poste- 
rior part. Ventrals jugular, small. Vent tvith a tubercle. Teeth conical ; in two or 
three rows in front ; in a single roiu on the sides ; none on the palate or tongue. Branchial 
rays six. 

THE THICK-LIPPED EEL-POUT. 

ZOARCES ANGHILLARIS. 

PLATE XVI. FIG. 45. And view of the moiith and under side. — (STATE COLLECTION. CABINET OF THE LYCEUM.) 

Blennhis annularis. Peck, Mem. Am. Acad. Vol. 2, part 2, p. 46, figure. 
Large-lipped Blmny, B. labrosus. Mix, Lit. and Phil. Soc. Vol, 1, p. 375, pi. 1, fig. 7. 
Le ZoaTces a grosses levres. Cuv. et Val. Hist, des Poiss. Vol. 11, p. 466, pi, 341. 
Z. aiiguillans, The Eel-shaped Blenny. Storer, Massachusetts Report, p. 6G. 

Characteristics. Dark olive-brown, varied with dusky blotches. Dorsal and anal fin margined 
with rufous. Length two to three feet. 

Description. Body elongate, cylindrical, compressed, and tapering to the tail. Upper lip 
very large and fleshy, overhanging. Surface smooth and slimy ; with obscure traces of a 
lateral line, which has a slight curve above the pectorals, and then passes off straight. Nos- 
trils tubular, about midway between the eyes and the end of the snout. Teeth stout, conical ; 
those behind more acute, and all with smooth points and a slight circular furrow around the 
base, and also furrowed longitudinally at the base. On the upper jaw, three series of teeth 
in front, of which those in the foremost row are largest ; in the lower jaw, the internal row 
has four, and the intermediate row three teeth. Stout conical teeth on the pharyngeals, but 
none on the palate or tongue. Eyes rather moderate in proportion to the size of the fish, and 
about midway between the end of the snout and the origin of the dorsal fin. Branchial aper- 
ture moderate, with six rays. 

The dorsal fin commences anterior to the base of the pectoral, is long and low, and unites 
indirectly with the caudal ; it is highest in front, and very gradually diminishes posteriorly 
until it approaches near the tail, when it suddenly subsides, and exhibits eighteen short spinous 
rays, which become continuous with the caudal. Pectorals broad and rounded, of twenty rays. 
Ventrals very small, four-rayed. Anal fin long and low, not as high as the dorsal, composed 
of about one hundred and five rays, which are almost impossible to separate from the caudal. 
Caudal fin pointed. 

Color. Olive-brown above, clouded with deeper brown. Head darker, with black blotches 
irregularly distributed on the side. Sides of the body with obscure dusky marks. Dorsal 
fin with dull distant spots ; its upper margin, as well as that of the anal, dusky rufous. 
Pectorals tinged with orange. Irides ashen, tinged with red. 



156 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

Length, 30-0. 

Fin rays, D. 114.18; P. 20 ; V. 4 ; A. 105; C. 20. 

From the extreme difficulty in counting the rays in this species, a great variety has arisen 
among different describers. According to 

Peck, D. 146; P. — ; V. 3; A. 123 ; C. 

MiTCHiLL, D. 125 - 8 or 9; P. 19; V. 4; A. 103; C. 

Stoker, D. 120.17 or 18 ; P. 19 ; V. 2 ; A. 100. 

Cuv. et Val. D. 92.21.22=135; P. 20 ; V. 4; A. 110; C. 19. 

I have noticed tliis fish most abundantly in the market in February and March. It is 
cautfht on the coast, in company with the common cod. It feeds on various marine shells, 
and affords a very savory food. I have employed the English name of Eel-pout, which is 
applied to its congener the Z. viviparus, to designate this fish. It is called, absurdly enough, 
by the fishermen, Ling and Conger'-eel. According to Cuvier, this species has one hundred 
and thirty-seven vertebras. 

THE BORDEPtED EEL-POUT. 

ZOARCES FIMBraATCS. 

PLATE XVI. FIG. 44. 

The Frmged Blmny, B. ciUatus. MiTCHiLL, Lit. and Phil. Soc. Vol, 1, p. 374, pi. 1, fig, 6. 
La Zoarces /range, Z.fimlmalus. Cuv. et Val. Hist, des Poiss. Vol. 11, p. 468. 

Characteristics. Head greenish brown. Body and tail salmon-colored. Dorsal fin dark green, 
margined with yellowish. Length 18-20 inches. 

Description. Form of the head and body similar to the preceding, smooth and scaleless. 
Teeth on the sides of the jaw, large, distant, obtusely conical, and sufficiently translucent to 
permit the central vascularity to be seen. In front there are two rows ; the outer row con- 
sisting of five on each side, projecting outwardly ; and both rows composed of smaller teeth 
than those on the sides. In the upper jaw, the teeth are more acute, subequal, except the 
two anterior, which are slightly longer ; behind these is a short series of minute teeth. The 
pharyngeal teeth small and acute, and ranged in transverse series. Tongue broad and smooth. 
Branchial rays six. 

The dorsal fin commences above, and slightly in advance of the ventrals ; it contains ninety- 
five distinct rays, enveloped in a thick membi'ane ; then follow sixteen low spines ; and from 
thence to the tip of the pointed caudal, are twenty-six rays. As the connection between the 
anal and caudal is continuous (as in the preceding species), it is impossible to say where the 
anal terminates, or the caudal fin proper begins. The anal, counted to the extreme tip of the 
tail, contains one hundred and twenty-five rays. On the supposition that those rays which 
in other species constitute the caudal fin amount to twenty on each side, we would have for 



FAMILY GOBID^ — ZOARCES. 157 

the dorsal fin 95.16.16, and the anal 115. The pectorals broad and rounded, digitated on 
the margin, and composed of twenty rays ; it reaches to the seventeenth ray of the dorsal. 
Ventrals feeble, with four delicate spines in each, enveloped in a thick membrane ; these 
spines are • 6 long. The vent is opposite the twenty-sixth dorsal ray, and the meatus for 
the urine, communicating with a bladder which is 1 "3 long, is placed 0-4 behind the vent. 

Color, of liie head, dark brown, mixed with green, with lighter hues on the cheeks. Irides 
yellow. Chin and inside of tiie mouth flesh-colored. Sides of the body and tail pale olive or 
salmon-color. Abdomen faintly rosaceous. The dorsal fin dark green throughout its whole 
length, lighter along its base, and with a faint yellow border on its margin. Nearly one-half 
of the anal fin, from its commencement, is of a dark green color ; the margin tipped with 
greenish yellow, which, about the middle, becomes the universal color of the fin. Pectorals 
light ohve-grecn, becoming darker at the base. 

Length, 20-0. Greatest depth, 2-0. 

Fin rays, D. 95.16.16= 127; P. 20 ; V. 4 ; A. 115; C. 20. 

Except in color, I can find scarcely any differences between this and the preceding. It was 
first described by Dr. Mitchill, who inadvertently named it ciliatus. If I have enumerated 
aright the soft dorsal rays, a good specific character might be drawn from their number. It 
is invariably smaller than the other species, and is supposed by some ichthyologists to be the 
young. A specimen which is supposed to be the young of the Thick-lipped Eel-pout, and 
which resembles the one now described in its general colors, is noticed by Dr. Storer as 
having all its fins transparent. 

Its habits, and the time of its appearance, are the same as in the preceding species. 



158 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

GENUS ANARRHICAS. Artedi. 

Head smooth, globular, with an obtuse snout. Body elongate, with minute scales. No 
ventral fins. Dorsal and anal distinct from the caudal fin. Teeth of two kinds : one 
elongated, curved and pointed ; the other truncated, or abruptly rounded. Branchial 
rays seven. 

Obs. This genus, in the proportions and form of its head, the disposition of the fins, and the 
thin scales imbedded in mucus, exhibits its affinity with tlie genus Blennius. In the preceding 
genus, we have seen the ventrals reduced to mere rudiments ; thus marking a natural passage 
to the present, where they totally disappear. One species only is well determined; this 
inhabits the Atlantic in high northern latitudes, descending along the shores of Europe to the 
channel between England and France, and on the American coast, as low down as the sea- 
shore of the State of New- York. 

THE SEA WOLF. 

Anarrhicas lupus. 

PLATE XVI. FIG. 43. 

Anarrkicas lupus. LiN. Syst. Nat. 

Sea Wolf, A. id. Mitch. Am. Month. Magazine, Vol. 2, p. 242. 
L'Ananhique loup. Gov. et Val. Hist, des Poiss. Vol. 11, p. 473, pi. 342. 
Wolf-fishj A. lupus. Storer, Massachu.setts Report, p. 69. 

Characteristics. Leaden grey, with dusky vertical bands on the dorsal fin, extending irregu- 
larly over the sides. Length three to five feet. 

Description. Form subcylindrical, slightly compressed, elongate, and tapering gradually 
to the tail. Body covered with a thick coating of mucus ; when this is scraped away, the 
small orbicular scales are seen deeply imbedded in the skin, and giving it the appearance of 
shagreen. Profile of the head, arched from the nape. Head compressed, rounded, slightly 
flattened above. Nostrils small ; the posterior midway between the eye and the end of the 
nose, with a raised margin. A circular row of pores, the termination of mucous ducts, around 
the orbits, about half an inch apart, and nearly at the same distance from the orbit. In the 
recent specimen, these pores may be seen crossing the snout, and meeting others from the 
opposite side. Another series commences an inch and a half behind the eyes, and at the 
same distance below the nape of the neck ; it first curves down, but almost immediately 
rising to the same plane, pursues a straight course along the back an inch below the base 
of the dorsal fin, and becomes eff'aced about the middle of the body. Another series of from 
four to six pores obliquely on the cheeks, and a few scattering ones on the lower jaw. Eyes 
moderate. Branchial rays seven. 



FAMILY GOBID.E ANARRHICAS. 159 

Four large projecting teeth on the intermaxillary above, diverging outward, and seven 
smaller acute teeth behind, conic, pointed, with large tubercles on the imier side. Nine on 
'the vomer, with flat crowns, becoming larger behind ; the last, however, small. In a large 
individual, the vomerine teeth were apparently consohdated into one mass. On the upper 
pharyngeals are sharp and recurved teeth, disposed in two series ; in a large individual, they 
were very robust, and nine in number on each side. In the lower jaw, two large projecting 
teeth in front, and two others of the same size, but recurved. Three to four smaller acute 
irregularly disposed teeth on each side, followed by thirteen flat crowned molars disposed in 
a double series. Two other rows of small acute teeth, arranged in a lunate order, on the 
lower pharyngeals. 

The dorsal fin is nearly of a uniform height throughout, extending from the nape to the 
caudal ; the last ray lying almost in contact with the external accessory ray of the caudal fin. 
The dorsal fin is composed of simple rays, included in a very tough membrane ; and they 
would scarcely be recognized as spinous, except posteriorly, where the rays pierce the skin. 
Pectorals broad, rounded, four inches long, and scolloped on the margin. Anal long and low, 
commencing about the middle of the body, and terminating near the caudal, from which, 
however, it is separated by a distinct interval. Caudal rounded. The duodenum is so large 
as to present the appearance of a double stomach. Urinary bladder very large. 

Color. From a recent specimen four feet long, taken off Block island, we are enabled to 
state the following particulars : General color leaden grey. Eleven or twelve broad black 
bands on the sides, becoming indistinct towards the tail ; these bands bifurcate on the middle 
of the body, each posterior branch anastomosing with the branch of the succeeding band or 
stripe, and by their union giving rise to another vertical band, which ascends on the dorsal 
fin : this fin, as well as the anal, bordered above with blackish. The rays of all the vertical 
fins black. Irides yellow. Abdomen brownish ash, tinged with pink. 

Length, 30-0. Depth, 5-0. 

Fin rays, D. 74 ; P. 20 ; V. ; A. 45 ; C. 14 |. 

The voracious and savage character of this fish is manifest in the formidable array of teeth 
with which he is provided, and by his vicious and pugnacious propensities when first drawn 
from the water. Marvellous tales are related of the strength and power of his jaws, but 
these more properly belong to the romance of Natural History. He is known under the 
various popular names of Cat, Wolf-fish, and Sea Cat. His ill-favored aspect causes him 
to be regarded with aversion by fishermen, but his flesh is by no means unsavory ; when 
smoked, it is said to have somewhat the flavor of salmon. He prefers rocky coasts, and is 
said to spawn in May. They are not unfrequently taken olf Rockaway beach, as I am in- 
formed, in company with the common cod. This I suppose to be the most extreme southerly 
limits yet observed. In high northern latitudes, it is said to attain to the length of six and 
eight feet. 



160 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

GENUS GOBIUS. Liniieus. 

Ventrals joined together, forming a holloio disk, placed under the thorax. Two dorsals. 
Teeth velvet-like, or in cards. 

Obs. This genus, restricted as it now is, contains, in the great work of Cuvier and Va- 
lenciennes, ninety species. On this coast we have only to notice 

THE VARIEGATED GOBY. 

■^ S^Fiy<r-: tJV^-{<. GOBIUS ALEPIDOTHS. 

PLATE XXni. FIG. 70. — (CABINET OF THE LYCEUM.) 

Gobius tdepidotus. Bosc, Block, Schnieder, p. 547. 

G. boscii. Lacepede, Hist. Poiss. Vol. 2, p. 555, pi. 16, fig. I. 

Varirgatcd Goby, G. viridipallidus. MiTCHILL, Lit. and Pliil. Soc. Vol. 1, p. 379, pi. 1, fig, 8. 

Le Gobic de Bosc. Cdv. et Val. Hist, des Poiss. Vol. 12, p. 96. 

Characteristics. Greenish brown, with seven vertical dusky bands. Length two to three 
inches. 

Description. Body oblong, cylindrical, slightly compressed on the sides. Surface of the 
body, examined under a lens, totally destitute of scales. The lateral line not apparent. Head 
one-fifth of the total length, broad, and flattened behind the eyes, with a longitudinal medial 
groove. Eyes more oblong than round, vertical ; the upper portion of their orbits nearly 
contiguous, and only separated by a narrow furrow. Nostrils double, and near the eyes. A 
bony triangular process on the summit and extremity of the upper jaw. Opercles susceptible 
of great dilatation. Mouth terminal, with a wide gape ; the lower jaw, when opened, longest. 
Both jaws furnished with small pointed conical recurved teeth, thickly crowded, in many 
series in front, and in a single series behind ; the outer row in front longest. Tongue smooth 
and free. 

The rays of all the fins very slender and delicate. The first dorsal fin is composed of six 
rays, extending beyond the membrane ; they are subequal, but the first and last are shortest. 
This fin arises 0"55 from the end of the upper jaw, and is connected by a low rayless mem- 
brane with the second. This second fin commences at a point rather nearer to the head than 
to the extremity of the tail ; it is composed of fourteen rays, and terminates within • 2 of 
the base of the caudal, with its first rays slightly shortest. Pectoral pointed, its tip reaching 
a point under the commencement of the second dorsal ; the middle rays longest, those above 
and beneath successively shorter. Seventeen rays were counted, but at tlie base were seen 
the rudiments of three or four more. Ventrals funnel-shaped, with twelve or tliirteen rays, 
the anterior being short and indistinct ; the length of its longest rays, • 2. The anal fin 
commences under the fourth ray of the second dorsal, and terminates within 0"3 of the base 
of the caudal, with eleven subequal rays. Caudal long, lanceolate, with nineteen rays. Vent 
with an elevated rounded tubercle behind. 



FAMILY GOBIDiE GOBIUS. 161 

Color. " Surface greenish brown, with seven or eiglit paler transverse bars over the body 
" and tail ; fins dark brown, with a bhiisli shade" (MitchiU). Caudal fin with two or three 
curved bars. 

Length, 2-0. Depth, 0-3. Breadth of the head, 0-3. 
Fin rays, D. 6.14; P. 17; V. 12 or 13; A. 11; C. 19. 

Tliis species must, from the absence of scales, and its indistinctly connected dorsals, form 
the type of a new genus. It is with some hesitation that I have annexed the synonimes of 
Bosc and Laccpede, but they evidently point to this or a very closely allied species. It is 
found rarely in the harbor of New- York. I have seen some specimens an inch long, with the 
vertical bars quite indistinct. Its known geographical range is at present included between 
New-York and Charleston. 



Fauna — Part 4. 21 



162 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

FAMILY XV. LOP HID Ai. 

Scales usually absent, or replaced by bony plates, or by small grains armed with spines. 
The tico carpal bones elongated, and forming a kind of arm to support the pectoral fin . 
Branchial aperture round, or a vertical slit behind the pectorals. Suborbital bone want- 
ing, except in the genus MallliKa. 

Obs. The genera wliicli now compose this family, were for a long lime arranged among 
the cartilaginous fislies, from the apparently soft and yielding nature of their skeletons. Cuvier 
has however, clearly demonstrated its fibrous structure, and established its place in the natural 
series of bony fishes after the family Gobidae. In his great work, it is designated as " Pec- 
torales pediculees ;" which we designate, however, under the name of Lophidce, in accord- 
ance with our general system of nomenclature. It is divided into five genera, including at 
present about fifty species. 

GENUS LOPHIUS. Artedi, Cuvier. 

Head enormously large, broad and depressed. Mouth large, armed ivith slender conical 
teeth on the jaws, palatines, vomer and pharyngeals. Tongue smooth. Branchial rays 
six ; branchial arches three. Dorsal fins two ; the anterior rays distant, detached, forming 
long filaments supporting fleshy slips. 

THE AMERICAN ANGLER. 

LOPHIUS AMERICANUS. 

PLATE XXVni. FIG. s:. 

Lophhts piscalor, Sea Devil. MiTCHiLL, Report, p. 28. 

L. piscalorius. Id. Lit. and Phil. Soc. N. York, Vol. 1, p. 405, 

The Angler, L. id, Stoeee, Mass. Report, p. 71 and 404. 

Characteristics. Intermaxillary teeth smaller, and those of the vomer larger, than ni the 
European species. Length two to three feet. 

Description. Body flat, orbicular in front, elongate and attenuated behind. Head broad, 
depressed. Surface covered with a smooth skin. Lower jaw longest, with a scries of fleshy 
cirri an inch long arranged along its margin, and extending as far back as the pectorals. 
Along the flanks there are also series of fleshy processes, extending to the base of the caudal 
fin. On the central portion of the upper jaw are also two rounded pendulous processes. 
Eyes large, vertical, longitudinally oval, with a depression between them. Supra-orbital crest 
prominent and tubercular. 

Teeth. A single row of long slightly recurved conical unequal teeth on each side, and a 
double row of large teeth in the upper jaw ; the lower with a single row of long acute teeth. 



FAMILY LOPHIDjE LOPHIUS. 163 

Very large teeth on the vomer and palatines. Two rows of teeth on each of the lower pha- 
ryngeals, which are advanced so far forward as to lead some naturalists to suppose that the 
leeth arc placed on the tongue. 

The first dorsal fin is composed of six rays, of which the three first are distant and detached, 
while the remainder are united by a membrane. The first isolated ray is six inches long ; it 
rises near the margin of the upper lip, at the distance of an inch from it, and between the 
nostrils. On its tip, it supports a fleshy bifid slip, two inches long. (In the European species, 
according to Bailly, this ray is moved by twenty-two distinct muscles.) This ray is often 
divided down to its base : behind this, at the distance of about an inch, is a second ray 
(omitted by the carelessness of the engraver), and without any fleshy slip ; a third arises in 
a line with the posterior margin of the orbits, with the rudiment of a membrane at its base. 
The remaining three connected rays originate behind the base of the pectorals ; the furst ray 
three inches high ; • the others successively shorter : the connecting membrane covers about 
two-thirds of the body of the rays. The second dorsal arises about two inches behind the 
first, and comprises twelve subequal rays. The pectorals supported on a stout pedicel ; its 
external margin truncated, and composed of twenty-five slender rays projecting beyond the 
membrane. Ventrals with five soft rays, and a small spine on their external edges. The 
anal fin commences slightly behind the origin of the second dorsal, and contains five rays. 
Caudal even, slender, and composed of nine rays. 

Color. Olive brown above-; beneath white. Ventrals, and the posterior part of the body 
beneath, dusky. 

Length, 30-0. 

Fin rays, D. 3.3.12: P. 25; V. 1.5; A. 10; C. 9. 

This is not an uncommon fish in our waters. Its monstrous form lias given rise to many 
popular names, such as Sea Devil, Fishing Frog, Bellows-fish, Angler, Goose-fish, Monk- 
fish, and various others. The largest one I have seen was four feet long. They are not 
eaten, but are often opened by fishermen for the sake of the numerous fishes which are found 
in their stomachs. 

This species occurs from the capes of the Delaware northwardly. 



/ 



164 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

GENUS CHIRONECTES. Cuvier. 

Head vertically compressed. Three free rays on the summit of the head. Mouth cleft more 
or less vertically ; opening to the gill by a round aperture behind the pectorals. Tongue 
edentate. Intermaxillarics, lower jaw, vomer, palatines and pharyngeals with minute card 
teeth. Dorsal long. 

Obs. This genus was first indicated by Commerson under the name of Antennarius, but 
separated from Lophius, and finally established in 1816 under its present name by Cuvier. 
This group is composed of small species, many of which arc found swimming among sea- 
weed. MM. Cuvier and Valenciennes have described twenty-four species, beside indications 
of others which are not yet sufficiently determined. Tlie species are all closely allied, and 
possibly varieties have been mistaken for species. 

THE GIBBOUS MOUSE-FISH. 
pr^roloh-ri^r^t. ^'^i^«- Ch.ronectes g.bbus. 

PLATE XXIV. FIG. 74.— (CABINET OF THE LYCEUM) 

The Mouse-fidi, L. gibbus. Mitchill, Lit. and Philos. Soc. Vol. 1, pi. 1, fis- 0. (no doscripUon.) 
L. id., The Mome-fish. Id. Am. Month. Mag. Vol. 3, p. 323. 

Characteristics. Surface of the body granulate. Tail rounded, with concentric bars. Poste- 
rior portion of the dorsal fin rounded. Length 2 inches. 

Description. Body compressed, thickest about the pectorals ; greatest depth half of the 
total length. Body minutely granulate, and with short distant flattened filaments distributed 
irregularly over it. In some instances, they are replaced by small rounded elevated tubercles. 
The course of the lateral line is represented by a series of pores ; this series is highly curved 
above the pectorals, descending rapidly to the middle of the body, and then going off straight 
to the tail. On the anterior part of the head, and between the eyes, is a cylindrical soft ray 
0" 25 long, covered with numerous cuticular processes; and at the base, a slender filament 
enlarged at its tip. Behind and above this are two other soft rays, enveloped in a common 
granular membrane ; the summit of the first is bifid, terminating in two flattened processes. 
Eyes apparently very small, and near the mouth. Mouth nearly vertical, with minute teeth 
in the jaws. Tongue smooth. Chin and throat with numerous distant cuticular processes,. 
Branchial aperture small and rounded underneath, and attached to the base of the pectorals. 

The dorsal fin of twelve soft and feebly branched rays ; longer than high, commencing over 
the pectorals, and coterminal with the anal. Pectorals with ten subequal rays. Ventrals 
before the pectorals, elongated, horizontal, contiguous, and with five rays. The anal fin 
commences under the eighth dorsal ray, rounded on its margin, higher than long, and com- 
posed of one simple and si.x bifid rays. Caudal fin expanded, much rounded, and containing 
but nine rays. 



FAMILY LOPHID.E CHIRONECTES. 165 

Color. I have never seen this species in its recent state, and therefore cite Mitchill's 
description : " Color pale brown, variegated along the sides with dark yellowish and ruddy, 
" so as to resemble some sorts of iron-stones or fractures of ferruginous carliis ; the deeper 
" dark [markings ?] cross the dorsal rays obliquely and transversely, and the caudal in con- 
" centric curves." 

Length, 2-0. Height, 1-0. 

Fin rays, D. 12 ; P. 10 ; V. 5 ; A. 7 ; C. 9. 

We think iliis species wrongly cited both by Cuvier and Storer ; its radial formula differs 
considerably, as well as its surface and rounded tail. Neither of these authors appear to 
have been acquainted with Mitchill's description. 

This small species has been brought to me from oyster boats, and had been caught in the 
harbor of New- York. 

THE SMOOTH MOUSE-FISH. 

C'hIRONECTES L^EVIGATUS. 

PLATE XXVII. FIG. 83. 

C. tccvigalus. Cuvier, Memoires da Museum, Vol. 3, p. 423, pi. 16, lig. 1. 

Le Cliironeclc uni. Cnv. et Val. Hist, des Poiss. Vol. 12, p. 399. 

The Smoalh Cliironectes, C. Itevigatus. Storer, Massachusetls Report, p. ~3. 

Characteristics. Surface of the body smooth. Posterior portion of the dorsal longest. Color 
as in preceding. Size of the preceding. 

Description. Surface of the body with no vestige of granules. Minute cutaneous slips 
beneath the jaws. The appendages on the anterior portion of the head as in the preceding. 
The dorsal fin with eleven rays, gradually increasing in length from the first to the last. 
Pectorals with eight rays e.xtending beyond tlic membrane. Ventrals with five rays, of which 
the second and third rays are elongated. Anal elongated, and with seven rays. Caudal 
rounded, but not as much so as in the preceding species. 

Color. Irregular blackisli blotches upon a brownish ground, tinged with reddish. Small 
white spots irregularly distributed on the sides. Brown transverse bars acros.s the dorsal, pec- 
toral and caudal fins. 

Length, 2-2. Depth, \-\. 

Fm rays, U. 11 ; P. 8 ; V. 5 ; A. 7 ; C. 9. 

I remarked on this species but three or four of the cuticular slips, so numerous on the pre- 
ceding species. The abdomen also appeared to be more tumid. Tlie processes on tlie head 
are almost precisely like those in the preceding species ; but the anterior ray is more robust, 
and the second appears multifiJat the tip. 

The geographical range of this species extends from Charleston, South-Carolina, to Boston, 
Massachusetts, where it has been observed by Dr. Storer. 



166 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

GENUS MALTH/EA. Cuvicr. 

Dorsal single. Body ivith a hard and tubercular skin, and furnished with fleshy Jilaments. 
Mouth small, prominent, protractile, and placed under the snout. From beneath the snout 
arises a process, supported by a bony ray, and terminating in several fleshy threads. 

THE SHORT-NOSED MALTHEA. 

Maltii.ea nasuta. 

PLATE XXVIII. FIG, 89. — (CABINET OF THE LYCEUM.) 

Lophius Todiatus ? MiTCiiiLL, Am. Month. Msgazine, Vol. 2, p. 326. 
yi. nasula. Cuv. Rdgne Animal. 

Lophius {Malthe) cubifTons. RiCHAEDSON, F. B. A. Fislies, p. 103, pi. 96. 
La Malthee a ncz court. Cuv. et VjL. Hist. Nat. des Poiss. Vol. 12, p. 452. 

Characteristics. Snout short. Scaly disks flat, with a conical point in the centre. Length 
or 7 inclics. 

Description. Body depressed in front, tapering and compressed from behind the pectorals. 
Head prominent, and apparently elevated above the jaws. Body largest across the pectoral 
fins. Surface covered with scaly disks, largest above, and elevated on the back into bonv 
tubercles. Summit of the head between the eyes excavated, and descends suddenly in front 
of the eyes, forming a deep cavity ; at the bottom of this cavity is a large duct, and near this 
a long process enlarged at the tip. Eyes lateral, large and circular. Nostrils anterior, and 
rather beneath the eyes. Mouth protractile, with minute card-like teeth on the jaws, vomer, 
tongue, palatines and upper pharyngeals. 

The dorsal fin small, triangular, posterior to the vent, and anterior to the commencement 
of the anal fin ; it is composed of simple rays. Pectorals composed of eleven subequal rays ; 
the branchial aperture at the base and upper part of the elongated carpus. Vcntrals anterior 
to the pectorals, and composed of five rays. Anal long and pointed, placed far back, and com- 
posed of four articulated rays. Caudal slightly rounded, nearly even, with nine branched 
rays. 

Color. I could not determine the color, as it was in spirits. It appeared of a dull brown, 
with deeper clouds of tlie same color. Pectorals and caudal fins with obscure rounded spots. 

Length, 7'5. 

Fin rays, D. 5 ; P. 11 ; V. .5 ; A. 4 ; C. 9. 

This is a rare species. It has a wide geographical range, from the Caribbean sea to the 
coast of Labrador. Little is known of its habits. It feeds on the smaller crustacea and 
univalve shells. 



FAMILY LOPHID.^ — MALTH.^A. 167 

THE DOTTED MALTHEA. 

Malthira notata. 
La Mallliie a sligmatcs. Cuv. and Val. Hist, des Poiss. Vol. 12, p. 453. 

Characteristics. Tlirce or four round black spots on each side of the spine, midway between 
the eye and branchial orifice. Length 3 J inches. 

Description. Snout in its proportions resembling the preceding. Margin of tlie preopercle 
enlarged as much as in M. vespertilio. Scaly disks neither so numerous nor so prominent. 
Length, 3 "5. 
This small species was sent from New- York to Cuvier. I have not met with it. 

THE BAT MALTHEA. 

Maltiitea vespertilio. 

Diablo. Parra, Descripcion de dif. piezas, &c. p. 5, pi 4. 

La Malthce vesperliiion. Cuv. et Val. Hist, des Poiss. Vol. 12, p. 440 

Characteristics . Snout elongated into a point. Skin like shagreen, with scattering long 
tubercles. Length 10- 18 inches. 

^ Descriptum. Body flattened. Snout pointed, and about the tenth of the total length. Width 
at the preopercles equal to its length, which is about half of that of the body. The whole 
upper surface covered with a hard rough skin ; beneath softer, but rough. The facial out- 
line descends vertically to the mouth, which is small, opening vertically. Upper jaw rather 
longest, protractile. Teeth like shorn velvet, in a band in the jaws, vomer and palatines ; 
asperities also on the base of the tongue. A triangular cavity in front, from which arises a 
fdanientous process, terminating in several fleshy filaments. Subopcrcle very large, ending 
in a point, which reaches nearly to the elbow of the pectoral. 

The dorsal fin is midway between the vent and anal fin, lower than the anal, and composed 
of four simple rays. Pectorals broad, with eleven rays. Ventrals short, with five rays difiicult 
to be distinguished. The vent in the middle of the total length. Anal fin three times higher 
than long, and with four rays. Caudal fin nearly even, quite rough, and willi nine rays. 
Numerous short filaments on the enlarged part of the body. The opaque portion of the cor- 
nea is rough, and furnished with very small tubercles on its borders. 

Color. Pale greyish brown above ; pale reddish beneath. 

Length, 8-0- 18-0. 

Fin rays, D. 4 ; P. 1 1 ; V. 5 ; A. 4 ; C. 9. 

I have not met with this fish on the coast of New- York ; but as it is common in the Carib- 
bean sea, and as M. Lapilaye has obtained it from the Banks of Newfoundland, we may well 



168 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

presume ihat it exists on our shores. Dr. Mitchill has described four species of this genus 
in the American Monthly Magazine, under the names of Lopldus radiattts, aculeaius, pro- 
stratus and calico. With the exception of the first, which is, however, doubtful, the descrip- 
tions are too vague to enable me either to point out their specific differences, or to refer them 
to the previously described species. They arc all from the Straits of Bahama. 



GENUS BATRACHUS. Schneider, Ciivier. 

Head depressed, broader than the body. Ventrals jugular, loilh three rays : the first elon- 
gated. First dorsal small ; second low and long. Base of the pectorals elongated. Bran- 
chial aperture small, with, six rays. Subopercle as large as the opercle, and both spinous. 
No suborbital. Teeth on the jaws, front of the vomer and palatines. 

Obs. The place of this genus is not yet completely settled. Some authors liavc arranged 
it with Uranoscopus, but, as Cuvier has demonstrated, upon insufficient grounds. 

THE COMMON TOAD-FISH. 

Batracuds tau. 

PLATE X.XVin. FIG. 80. 

Gadas tau. LiNN. Syst. Nat. Ed. 12, p. 439. 

Id. ScHCEPFF, Beobaclu. Vol. 8, p. HI. 

Toad-fish, Lophius bufo. Mitchill, Lit. and Phil. Soc. Vol. 1, p. 463. 

Batrachoides vcmuUas. Lesuetir, Mem. du Museum, Vol. 5, p. 157, pi. 17. 

B.variegatiis, var. a, b. Id. Ac. So. Vol. 3, p. 3D3 and 401. 

B. varicgatus, Toad-fish. Stobek, Massachusetts Report, p. 74. 

Xe Batrachdide tau. Cuv. ct Val. Hist, des Poiss. Vol. 12, p. 478. 

Characteristics. Dorsals connected ; the posterior with from twenty-five to twenty-eight 
spines. Length 6-12 inches. 

Description. Body thick and rounded before, attenuated and compressed behind. Head 
broad, depressed ; its width equalling its length. Skin without scales, and, in the recent 
state, covered with a thick coating of mucus. The openings of mucous pores visible beneath 
the eyes, and over the head and body. Lateral line obsolete. Facial outline sloping. The 
eyes large, lateral, but with an almost vertical aspect, and nearly covered with a fleshy mem- 
brane. Opercle with three concealed spines. Numerous cirri about the head and mouth, and 
a series of from five to seven cirri on each side of the lower jaw. Branchial rays six, and 
the aperture scarcely wider than the base of the pectorals. Gape of the mouth very large, 
with fleshy lips. Tongue pointed, not distinct. A series of blunt pointed teeth in the lower 
jaw, more numerous and crowded in front. Similar but more acute teeth in the upper jaw, 
and still larger ones on the anterior part of the vomer, and on the palatines. 



FAMILY LOPHID^ BATRACHUS. 169 

The tlorsal fin long and subequal, commencing above the spines of the opercle, and extend- 
ing nearly to the tail. Although described as a double dorsal, it is in fact single, with spinous 
and soft portions connected by a comparatively low membrane. The first portion consists of 
three stoutly spinous rays, of which the middle is longest ; the soft portion long and low, and 
subequal throughout. Pectorals wide and rounded, of eighteen rays. Venlrals arise anterior 
to the branchial aperture, and consist of one spinous and two simple rays, enveloped in a 
thick, long and pointed membrane. The anal fin commences under the seventh ray of the 
soft portion of the dorsal, and is coterminal with that fin ; its first two rays are short ; the 
remainder longer, and subequal throughout. Caudal much rounded. 

Color, of the head and body, olive-green mottled with darker green ; this color, soon after 
death, becomes of a bright brassy hue. Irides black, surrounded by a narrow golden ring. 
Pectorals, ventrals and caudal fins orange ; the latter with interrupted bars of brown ; ventrals 
uniform ; pectorals with two or more concentric bars of deep blackish brown, becoming obso- 
lete towards the base. Dorsal and anal fins olive-green, tinged with reddish along the upper 
margin ; each with from five to seven dark spots, occasionally tending towards stripes or bars. 
Beneath dull yellow or pale ; flesh-colored under the chin. 

Length, 6-0. Depth, 1-5. 

Fin rays, D. 3.26; P. 18; V. 3 ; A. 21; C. 15. 

The size here given is the usual average size. I have seen them a foot long. It is a matter 
of doubt with me whether this species is not identical with the following. They closely re- 
semble each other in color, cirri, etc., and appear to difl'er only in the following particulars : 
1. Dorsals separated, which, however, may have been produced by an accidental rupture of 
the membrane. 2. The number of rays. In the variegatus, according to Lesueur, the rays 
vary from twenty-one to twenty-eight ; an extent of variation scarcely compatible with the 
idea of a single species. According to Storer, it is twenty-five. Cuvier, although he admits 
the species variegatus, leaves us to infer that Lesueur's specimen with twenty-one rays may 
be aUied to B. gronovii. ; and that with twenty-eight rays, to the present species. He does not 
hesitate, however, to arrange Var. a and h of variegatus under B. tau. The Toad-fish of 
Storer, I also refer to die same species ; the only difference I can percieve, being in the less 
elevated posterior portion of the dorsal rays. The apparently odd specific name of tau, given 
by Linneus, is derived from the Greek name of the letter T, such a figure being produced 
on the head by two elevated lines in the dried specimens. 

This fish is frequently taken in our waters, but finds no favor with the fishermen, on account 
of its unsightly appearance ; its flesh, however, when properly cooked, is well flavored. It 
usually lies half buried in the mud, or among seaweed ; and with its capacious mouth widely 
extended, and aided by his sac-like opercles, either silently sucks in small marine animals, or 
suddenly seizes such small fish as may incautiously pass over his extended jaws. 

The common toad-fish has an extensive geographical range, having been observed from 
Maine to the Gulf of Mexico. 

Fauna — Part 4. 22 



170 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

THE TWO-SPINED TOAD-FISH. 

Batrachus celatcs. 
PLATE L. FIG. 161, and viewed feom above. —(STATE COLLECTION.) 

Characteristics. Opercle with two spines. Dorsal fins separate. Body mottled with dusky 
transverse bars. Length one inch. 

Description. Head large, broad, depressed. Body compressed immediately behind the oper- 
cles. Surface smooth, scaleless ; covered with a thick mucus. Head covered with numerous 
minute pores, forming irregular series. Lateral line distinct, and near the dorsal outline. 
Opercle with two acute obvious spines, placed above each other just before the posterior 
margin ; the superior somewhat longer. Gill apertures small, not descending below the base 
of the pectorals. Eyes moderately large, vertical. Nostrils small, circular, patent. Mouth 
large, wide, with numerous minute teeth in the jaws, vomer and palatines. Two or three 
irregular minute cuticular processes on the anterior part of the upper jaw. 

The first dorsal fin not as high as the second, with three short acute spines connected by a 
slender membrane, but separated by a short interval from the second, which is long, subequal, 
and composed of twenty-eight rays, of which the posterior are rather longer ; this fin is co- 
terminal with the anal. Pectoral fins elongate, lancet-shaped, with the middle longest, and 
containing eighteen rays. Ventral fins jugular, with three rays ; the middle longest, and all 
ending in flexible fihform tips. Anal fin subequal, and of eighteen rays. Caudal fin oblong, 
lanceolate, with fifteen rays. The rays of all the fins are exceedingly delicate, and difficult 
to be distinguished. 

Color. Head dark olive-browii. Body on the side greenish, pale-colored, with irregular 
dusky brown transverse bars, which are frequently extended through the vertical fins. 

Length, 1 ' 0. 

Fin rays, D. 3.28; P. 18; V. 3 ; A. 23; C. 15. 

This little fish, which I have never known to exceed the above dimensions, is usually found 
on muddy bottoms. It has frequently been brought to me, included between the two valves 
of an oyster. I should think it abundant in our waters, from the following circumstance : In 
the summer of 1824, a number of these fish were found in the streets of New- York, after a 
heavy shower ; and many idle speculations were hazarded in the papers of the day, as to their 
origin. An eminent ichthyologist of that period spoke of them " as unknown to our waters, 
" and not described in the books of Ichthyology." " The speculation is an exceedingly curious 
" one, how fishes could be elevated into the atmosphere, and by what means kept alive after 
" they are raised." Showers of fish are not uncommon, and are susceptible of an easy solution. 
They are raised by whirlwinds or water-spouts ; and the tenacity of life, in the species under 
consideration, accounts for their being found alive. 



FAMILY LOPHID^ — BATRACHUS. 171 

This species cannot be confounded witii any otlier now known. From the B. bispinis of 
Bloch and Schneider, it is readily distinguished, if indeed that species is rightly placed under 
the present genus. 

Its geographical limits are not known. 

(EXTRA-LIMITAL.) 

B. variegatus. (Lesueur, Ac. Sc. Vol. 3, p. 398.) Second dorsal distinct, and with twenty-one rays. 
Laciniated processes on the jaws, eyes and opercles. Length five and a half inches. New-Jersey. 
An sp. ver. ? 



X 



172 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 



FAMILY XVI. LABRID.^. 

Jaws covered by fleshy lips. Tongue and palate smooth and toothless. Three pharyngeals : 
two above, and one beneath; all furnished with teeth, either paved or flattened, or pointed. 
Body oblong, scaly. A single dorsal, ivith the anterior rays spinous. An air-bladder. 
No ccEcal appendages. 

Obs. This family, as established by Cuvier, comprises three hundred and fifty-one species, 
arranged under twenty-two genera. They appear to be most numerous in warm latitudes ; for 
on the coast of New-York we have only the representatives of two genera, comprising a very 
limited number of species. Other genera will doubtless be found on the coast bordering on 
the Gulf of Mexico. 

GENUS CTENOLABRUS. Valenciennes. 

Body elongated, scaly. Preopercle denticulated. A band of velvet-like teeth in front, behind 
the conical teeth in thejatus. Three spinous rays to the anal fin. 

Obs. This genus has been lately separated by M. Valenciennes from the genus Crenilabrus, 
with which it has many characters in common. 

THE COMMON BERGALL. 

Ctenolabrus ceruleus. 
plate xxix. fig. 93. 

Lairus, The Bnrgall at New-York. ScHCEPFF, Beobacht. Vol. 8, p. 155. 
Tauloga cerulea, Blue-fish or Bergall. MiTCHiLL, Report in part, p. 24. 
Lahns chogset. Id. Lit. and Pliil. Soc. N. Y. Vol 1, p. 403, pi. 3, fig. 2. 
Crenilabrus burgall Stoeer, Massachusetts Report, p. 78. 
he Clenolabre chogset. Gov. et Val. Hist, des Poiss. Vol. 13, p. 237. 

Characteristics. Bluish, passing occasionally into reddish or bronze ; often with obsolete dusky 
bars on its back. Length 6-12 inches. 

Description. Body elongated, compressed ; its depth equalling one-fourth of its length. 
Scales large, adherent, subquadrate, rounded on the exposed margin, with radiating impressed 
lines on the concealed surface ; they are found on the upper part of the preopercle and on the 
opercle. Forty-five or six scales occur in a line from the branchial aperture to the tail, and 
six above and seventeen below the lateral line. Lateral line near the back, concurrent with 
it, and of course not much curved ; descending rather suddenly opposite the termination of 
the dorsal fin. Head gradually sloping ; the facial line slightly convex before the dorsal fin. 
The opercle with a large and obtusely pointed membrane. Eyes moderate. Nostrils double ; 
the posterior open, . 2 distant from the eye ; the anterior with a valvular opening. Preopercle 



FAMILY LABRID.E CTENOLABRUS. 173 

finely denticulated on its posterior margin, and for a short distance along its rounded angle ; 
beneath smooth. Mouth protractile, with fleshy lips. 

Teeth. A series of sixteen to eighteen acute teeth in the upper, and from twenty to twenty- 
two in the lower jaw ; those in front somewhat recurved. Behind these, in both jaws, are 
bands of smaller velvet-like teeth. In the pharynx above, the teeth are distributed in two equal 
patches ; they are long and blunt, and contain about twenty in each group. Below these are 
about forty in number, of a similar size and shape, and arranged in one triangular group. 
Tongue free and small. A fold of membrane extends transversely across the roof of the mouth, 
and a similar one opposite in the lower jaw. 

The dorsal fin commences with a short spine, nearly above the gill openings ; the first 
eighteen are spinous, lower in front, and very gradually increasing in length ; (in fresh speci- 
mens, there is a short fleshy filament on each spine ;) the remaining ten rays branched, higher, 
with a rounded margin to that part of the fin, nearly coterminal with the anal fin. The pec- 
torals are placed under the second or third dorsal ray, broad, rounded, and composed of fifteen 
articulated and branched rays. Ventrals just behind the pectorals, and composed of one stout 
short spine, and five exceedingly ramose rays. The anal fin longer than high, of three stout 
spinous and nine branched rays, of which the sixth and seventh are longest. Caudal short 
and rounded, with its base covered with scales. 

Color. There is scarcely any fish whose colors are so variable as this species. In the 
smaller individuals, the general color is blue, more or less mixed with brown ; and faint 
dusky transverse bars may be frequently seen. In the larger specimens, as in the one now 
before me, which is twelve inches long, the colors are bright and showy, a light orange- 
colored lint pervading the whole body. In these, also, the head and opercles are of a beau- 
tiful chocolate mixed with bright blue ; the fins of a blue, more or less brflhant. 

Length, 6-0- 12-0. 

Fin rays, D. 18.10; P. 15; V. 1.5; A. 3.9; C. 15 |. 

The specific name hurgall, which has been applied to this species on the authority of 
SchrepS", is erroneous. Schcepif neither indicated nor suggested any specific name, simply 
stating that it was called Burgall at New-York. The prior and better name of cemleus, pro- 
posed by Mitchill in his first report, (and which appears to have escaped the notice of my 
learned friend M. Valenciennes,) must be adopted. 

The Bergall has various popular names : Nibbler, from its vexatious nibbling at the bait 
thrown out for other fishes ; Chogset, a name derived from the Mohegan dialect, but its pm-- 
port unknown ; Bergall, I suppose to be of Dutch origin, as its use seems to be confined to 
the neighborhood of New-York. It is also called Blue-fish, on account of its prevailing color. 
At Boston, it is often called Blue Perch ; and generally among the eastern fishermen, Gunner, 
or Conner. This last name is applied to a Crenilabrus on the coast of Sussex and Hamp- 
shire in England, from whence I presume it was derived. 

The bergall is very common on our coast. The larger fish are held in some repute, but the 
flesh is rather insipid and watery. Some consider the smaller ones, when skinned, as an 



174 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

excellent pan fish. It is found as far as the coast of Massachusetts, and northwardly to the 
banks of Newfoundland. I am not aware that it is found south of Delaware bay. 



THE SPOTTED BERGALL. 

Ctenolabrus uninotatds. 
PLATE XXIX. FIG. 90. 
ie Ctinolabre mojichi. Cuv. et Val. Hist, des Poiss. Vol. 12, p. 239. 

Characteristics. A black spot on the first two soft rays of the dorsal fiji, sometimes bordered 
with whitish. About six irregular dusky bands across the back. Length 
three to five inches. 

Description. Body elongated, compressed ; its height to its length as one to four. Teeth 
more equal, smaller, and more crowded, than in the preceding. Preopercle very finely den- 
ticulated on its posterior margin ; both this and the opercle covered with numerous scales. 
The soft portion of the dorsal fin elevated and rounded. Caudal fin more rounded than in the 
preceding. 

Color. About six unequal short transverse dark olive bands on the back ; these are very 
distinct at the base of the dorsal, but become eifaced on the sides. Series of rusty dots along 
the sides. Gill-covers obscurely rayed with greenish. Bright blue on the lower jaw, ventrals, 
vent, and base of the anal fin. An oblong oval brownish black or black spot on the base of 
the two first rays of the soft portion of the dorsal fin, or on the two last rays of the spinous 
portion ; this spot is sometimes bordered with white or light yellowish. 

Length, 3-0 - 5-0. 

Fin rays, D. 19.9; P. 15; V. 1.5; A. 3.10; C. 13 |. 

The Spotted Bergall is always found in company with the preceding, and has hitherto been 
considered as the young of that species. They both prefer rocky shores. I am unable to . 
state any thing in relation to its geographical distribution. 



FAMILY LABRID^. 175 

GENUS TAUTOGA. Mitchill, Valenciennes. 

Jaws with a double row of teeth. Opercle and preopercle without spines or denticulations, 
and with few or no scales. 

Obs. This genus was first named by Dr. Mitchill in his Report antecedent to his Memoir, 
and subsequently adopted and characterized by M. Valenciennes.* It comprises at present 
six species from the Indian ocean, the Red sea, the coast .of Norway, and the shores of the 
United States. But one species has yet been observed on the coast of New-York. 

THE NEW-YORK TAUTOG. 

TaUTOGA AMERICANA. 

PLATE XIV. FIG. 39. — (STATE COLLECTION.) 

Lahrus, Black-fish at Nno-York. Schcepff, Beob. Vol. 8, p. 156. 

L. armricanus. Bl. Schn. p. 261. 

Tautoga niger. Mitchill, Report in part, p. 23. 

Lahnts tautoga. Id. Lit. and Phil. Soc. N. York, Vol. 1, p. 399. 

Tlic Tautoga L. Ajnericamts. Stoker, Fishes of Massachusetts, p. 76. 

Le Taulogue noir. Cuv. et Val. Hist, des Poiss. Vol. 13, p. 293. 

Characteristics. Bluish black, with irregular darker blotches and bands. The soft rays of 
the dorsal fin elevated. Scales small. Length six to eighteen inches. 

Description. Body elongate, compressed, and highest just before the dorsal fin. Length 
of the head to the total length as one to four nearly. Frontal outline arched from the origin 
of the dorsal outline to the snout ; the dorsal outline rather straight along the fin to the soft 
rays. Scales small, thin, adherent ; very small on the summit of the head, and upper part 
of the opercle and preopercle ; others on the membrane of the dorsal, anal and caudal fins. 
The scales on the body are plaited behind, minutely striated ; exposed surface very small, 
minutely punctate with black. Lateral line slightly curved, and nearly concurrent with the 
line of the back, going oft" straight through the centre of the tail. Nostrils double; the pos- 
terior largest, oval, slightly in front of the orbit, and in a line with its upper plane ; the an- 
terior small and tubular. Eyes moderate, and about two diameters apart. Preopercle large, 
with a few scales ; its angle rounded. Opercle very large, emarginated above, and with a 
wide membrane. Branchial rays five. Lips thick and very fleshy ; the lower jaw slightly 
shortest. Teeth conic, robust, particularly in front ; a few forming an imperfect series 
behind. 

The dorsal fin commences nearly above the branchial aperture, and in advance of the base 
of the pectorals ; the spinous portion low, its height about one-fifth of the depth of the body, 

* " J'ai employe, a I'exemple de Mitchill, le nom qui se terminait, par une heureuse euphonic, en une dssinence latine, pour 
" faire connaitre un nouveau genre de la famille," etc. (Cnv. et Val. Hist. Nat. des Poissons, Vol. 13, p. 292.) 



176 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

containing seventeen subequal rays, the membrane passing beyond the tips ; the soft portion 
is about one-third of the length of the preceding part, higher and rounded, containing ten 
rays. The pectoral fins wide and rounded ; their length equal to half the height of the body, 
and containing seventeen rays. The ventral fins beneath the middle of the pectorals, mode- 
rate, and composed of one spinous and five branched rays. Anal short, commencing under 
the fifteenth spinous ray of the dorsal, and terminates opposite the seventh or eighth soft ray 
of the soft portion of that fin, and equalling that fin in height. It contains three spinous and 
eight branched rays. Caudal fin very short, nearly even, and slightly rounded. 

Color. This is remarkably varied, but the general hue is black ; occasionally deep black, 
or bluish black with metallic reflections. Very frequently pale bluish, with irregular bands 
of a deeper hue. Lips, lower jaw and abdomen lighter, sometimes of a pale color, sprinkled 
with black points, and occasionally of the same general hue with the rest of the body. Liver 
voluminous ; the left lobe divided into two parts each larger than the right lobe. Rectum dou- 
ble the size of the preceding intestine, witli a thick valve at its origin. Spleen oval, large. 
Air-bladder very large, enlarged and emarginate before, pointed behind. Kidneys empty al- 
most immediately into a large urinary bladder. 

Length, 6-0- 18-0. 

Fin rays, D. 17.10; P. 17 ; V. 1.5; A. 3.8; C. 14 |. Vertebrs, 34. 

The Common Black-fish, or Tautog, in the Mohegan dialect, which is also said to mean 
black, is a well known and savory fish, affording equal pleasure to the angler and the epicure. 
Its usual weight in the market is about two pounds. I have heard of one which weighed 
twenty pounds, but the largest I have seen did not exceed twelve pounds. This fish selects 
in preference rocky shores, feeding near the ground on small crabs and shells ; he is often, 
however, taken on sandy bottoms. He is a wary fish, but bites firmly, and is tenacious of life 
when taken from the water. It is supposed by the fishermen that he lies torpid in winter, 
and that at this period an adventitious membrane closes over the vent. He takes the hook 
freely from April until late in the autumn, when he retires into deeper water. 

The geographical range of the tautog is very limited, scarcely extending beyond the Capes 
of the Chesapeake and Massachusetts bay. According to Dr. Storer, a very few years only 
have passed since this species was introduced into Massachusetts bay, and it is now common 
along a large portion of that coast. In 1836, three smacks were constantly employed in 
Wellfleet harbor from April to November, in this fishery alone. 

Attempts have been made to introduce this fish farther south, but with very limited success. 
I am informed by my friend Dr. Holbrook, that General Thomas Pinckney imported from 
Rhode-Island a smack load of the Tautog, and set them adrift in the harbor of Charleston, 
South-Carolina, where they are to be found to this day. They are still occasionally caught 
weighing from one to two pounds, but never in such quantities as to be brought to market. 



FAMILY SILURID^. 177 

(EXTRALIMITAL.) 

Genus Xirichthys, Cuv. et Val. Head and body compressed, trenchant. Head longer than hio-h ■ 
truncated in front. A single long uniform dorsal. Teeth in a single row in the jaws • the ante- 
rior longest. Tongue and palate smooth ; pharyngeals paved. 
X. lineaius. (Cuv. et Val. Vol. 14, p. 50.) A milk-white spot on the sides, from which descend lines 
alternately pale and deep red. Cheeks with bluish lines. Fins red. Length 5 or 6 inches. South- 
Carolina. 



SOFT-RAYED FISHES. 

All the Jin rays soft and cartilaginous, with the exception sometimes of the first in the dorsal 
and the first in the pectoral fins. These rays of an articulated structure, and generally 
more or less branched at their extremities. 

ORDER II. ABDOMINAL. 

TTie ventrals behind the pectorals, and not attached to the humeral bone. 

FAMILY SILURIDyE. 

Skin naked, and covered with a mucous secretion. Head depressed, and generally enlarged, 
with several fleshy filaments. A second adipose dorsal often present. The intermaxilla- 
ries, suspended, under the ethmoid bone, form the edge of the upper jaw. First ray of 
the dorsal and pectoral fins usually a strong articulated spine, with a complicated move- 
ment. 

Obs. This family contains at present about three hundred species, arranged under thirty- 
three genera, almost all inhabiting muddy fresh-water streams and lakes. They are sluggish 
in their movements, and depend more upon stratagem than swiftness to seize their prey. Some 
of the characters assigned to the family must be received with certain modifications. In some 
genera, the skin is not entirely naked, for the lateral line is covered with bony plates ; and in 
others, these plates nearly cover the whole body. 

The fishes of this family are known in this country under the popular names of Catfish 
(or simply Cats), Bull-heads, Bull pouts. Horned pouts, etc. Their flesh is generally 
esteemed, but its greatest merit appears to be derived from the aids oflfered by the culinary 
art. To the ichthyologist on the sea-shore, it is meagre and tasteless. 

Fauna — Part 4. 23 



178 NEW- YORK FAUNA. 

GENUS GALEICHTHYS. Cuvier. 

Head rounded, smooth, unarmed. Dorsal and pectoral fins long ; the first ray of each 
roughened, and ending in filaments. An adipose dorsal. Teeth on the jaws and V07ner. 
Branchial rays six. Mouth with from four to six barbels. 

Obs. This small group, containing at present but five species, is closely allied to Bagrus. 
One is found at the Cape of Good Hope, and the others are from the coast of North and South 
America. They are all marine species. On the coast of New-York, I have to describe one 
species. 

THE OCEANIC CATFISH. 

<-j'^Xc(>i^^^,, GALEICHTHYS MARINES. 

PLATE XXXVn. FIG. US. — (STATE COLLECTION.) 

Bagre. Parra, Descripcion de diferentes piezas, etc. p. 68, pi. 31, fig. 1. 

The Salt-water Cat-fish, 8. Marinus. MiTCHiLL, Lit. and Phil. Soc. N. Y. Vol. 1, p. 433. 

Le Galeichthe de Pana. Cnv. et Val. Hist, des Poiss. Vol. 15, p. 33. 

Characteristics. Maxillary barbels not extending to the ventrals. Filament of the pectoral 
fin reaching to, and occasionally extending beyond, the ventrals. Caudal 
lunate, with pointed tips. Length one to two feet. 

Description. Body cylindrical, tapering behind ; its greatest depth at the origin of the first 
dorsal, where it is one-sixth of the total length. Skin smooth. Lateral line slightly descending 
from beneath the first dorsal, anterior to which it can scarcely be traced ; its course is indicated 
by a series of slight elevations. Back slightly carinated. Head broad, flattened above, smooth, 
with a few scattering patches of granulations. Jaws equal, broad and rounded. A band of 
velvet-like teeth on each jaw, and above there is a transverse band of teeth on the vomer. 
Two flattened cirri or barbels 1 ' 5 long, depend from the chin ; and two, similar in shape, 
from the angle of the mouth, are six inches long, and extend to the pectorals. Eyes oval, 
and are placed above the angle of the mouth. Nostrils double, without membrane or cirrus ; 
the anterior round, and near the lip ; the posterior, oval. 

The first dorsal fin high, triangular, with one bony and seven soft rays ; it is placed on the 
anterior third of the body, slightly behind the base of the pectorals. The first ray with rough 
granulations in front, three inches high, but continued six inches further by a soft flattened 
articulated filament ending in a fine point. The second ray four inches long, with a filament, 
but much shorter than the first ; the filament is often wanting : the following rays rapidly 
shorter. Second dorsal fin adipose, small, and above the anal. Pectoral fins placed low 
dowTi, and with thirteen rays ; the first bony, with strong dentations behind, and continues 
by a similar filament to that of the first dorsal fin, six inches. Ventral fins a little in advance 
of a point midway between the first and second dorsal fins ; it is composed of six rays. Anal 



FAMILY SILURID.E — ARIUS. 179 

under the adipose dorsal, and with twenty-three rays. Caudal deeply lunate ; its tips acute, 
and its lobes occasionally unequal. 

Color. Blue above, tinged with green ; sides silvery ; abdomen opaque white. 

Length, 19-0. 

Fin rays, D. 1.7; P. 1.12; V. 6 ; A. 23; C. 17. 

This marine Cat-fish has a wide geographical range, having been found in the Atlantic from 
23° south to 41° north latitude, along the shores of the two Americas. Its flesh has been 
represented to me by those who have eaten of it, as having an exquisite flavor. It is fre- 
quently abundant in Communipaw creek, on the Jersey side of the harbor of New-York. It 
swims frequently with its long dorsal above the surface, in the manner of sharks, and imitat- 
ing those animals in voracity. 

In accordance with the law of priority, I have restored the original name given by Dr. 
Mitchill, although unmeaning. It is not preoccupied in this genus. 

GENUS ARIUS. Cuvier. 

With the general form of the preceding, but the palatine teeth form two distinct and distant 
plates ; rarehj any on the vomer. Branchial rays five or six. 

Obs. This genus, recently separated from Bagrus, and forming a passage to the genus 
Pimelodus, now comprises about forty species, chiefly from Asia, Africa, and the southern 
parts of America. They may be subdivided into those which have acute card-like teeth, and 
those in which they are so closely approximated and rounded as to appear paved. To the first 
division belongs 



■{jaM^oi^-^^ /*^ 



MILBERT'S ARIUS. 

Arius milbebti. 
VArivs it Mtlbert. Cov. et V.iL. Hist, des Poiss. Vol. 15, p. 74. 

Characteristics. Casque granulated all over, and not in radiating strias. Length five to fifteen 
inches. 

Description. Head one-fifth of the total length. Snout round ; its casque granulated as far 
as between the eyes. A narrow slit ascends half way up the casque. The interparietal pro- 
cess is one-third the length of the remaining part of the head. Its base equals its length ; 
truncated at the end by the crescent of the buckler, which is itself truncated anteriorly. The 
granulations are equal, distinct but not large. Front and sides of the head smooth. The 
humerus with a smooth skin. The prominence of the upper jaw not very great. Palatme 
teeth on two oval plates, nearly touching in front by a small point. The maxillary cirri 
or barbels extend slightly beyond the end of the opercle ; the external submandibulary cirri 
a fourth less. The spines moderate, with feeble teeth towards the tips, both in front and 



180 NEW-YOKK FAUNA. 

behind. Ventrals less than the pectorals ; the adipose dorsal small ; the upper lobe of the 
caudal is one-fourth longer than the lower. Five branchial rays. 

Color. Brownish steel-blue, verging to blackish above ; silvery beneath. Adipose dorsal 
blackish ; the others grey or brownish. Liver yellow, of two lobes, subdivided into many 
smaller ones. Gall bladder small. Stomach elongated, cylindrical. Kidneys thick, and of 
moderate length. Air-bladder pointed behind, and supplied with thick muscles. 

Fin rays, D. 1 .7 ; P. 1 . 10 ; V. 6 ; A. 17 ; C. 15. 

I am acquainted with this species only through the work of Messrs. Cuvier and Valencien- 
nes, from which I have adopted the description. Numerous specimens were sent to Cuvier 
from New- York by Milbert, and from Charleston, S. C, by Dr. Holbrook. I am induced to 
conjecture, although it is not mentioned by Cuvier, that this species is found in salt water. 

GENUS PIMELODUS. Cuvier. 

Palate smooth, and without teeth. Barbels varying from six to eight. Casque occasionally 
present. 

Obs. This genus, now more circumscribed than in the last edition of the Rcgne Animal, 
comprises forty-three species. Of tliese, ten are described from North America ; but the 
actual number will probably be found much greater, when the species shall have been care- 
fully examined. All the North American species hitherto known, have the casque continuous 
with the buckler, and are furnished with eight barbels. 

THE GREAT LAKE CATFISH. 

PiMELODCS NIGRICANS. 

PLATE IA\. FIG. 170. — (STATE COLLECTION.) 

Le Pimelode noiTatre. Lesueur, Memoires du Museum, Vol.5, p. 153, pi. 16. 

The Black Pimclodr, P. mgrescens? Richardson, Northern Zoology, Fishes, Vol. 3, p. 134. 

Xe Pimelode noiritre. Cuv. et Val. Hist, des Poiss. Vol. 15, p. 133. 

Characteristics. Large. Deep olive brown. Caudal forked. Anal fin with twenty-five or 
twenty-six rays. Two to four feet. 

Description. Head broad and rounded. Skin smooth, glossy, scaleless, with very faint 
traces of a straight lateral line. In the larger specimens, a somewhat remarkable depression 
on the nape anterior to the dorsal. Eyes small. Orbits 0"7 in diameter, and 4"0 apart. 
Barbels eight ; two at the anterior margin of the posterior nostrils, on the upper part of the 
head, small, erectile, tapering to a fine point, and exceeding an inch in length. Posterior 
nostrils oblong slits, equidistant between the orbits and the central part of the snout, and rather 
more than that distance apart. The anterior nostrils smallest, placed in a cavity with a 



FAMILY SILURID^ PIMELODUS. 181 

tubular margin, and equidistant between the posterior nostrils and the margin of the upper jaw. 
Sides of the upper jaw terminate in a movable accessory bone an inch long, to which is at- 
tached a long flattened filament tapering to a fine point, and six inches long ; beneath this, at 
the angle of the jaw, is a deep cavity. On the under side of the lower jaw, at a distance of 
half an inch from the margin, are four cirri or barbels placed transversely : two on each side 
of the jaw ; the two composing the middle pair rather more distant from each other, than from 
the adjacent cirrus on each side. All these are somewhat compressed, but less so than those 
at the angle of the jaw. Exterior to the outer barbels, on each side, are two or three fora- 
mina in a regular series ; the two external communicating with the inside of the mouth, the 
others merely blind cavities. These are not always present on both sides, and sometimes 
they are almost obsolete. Mouth very capacious, with broad bands of small recurved equal 
teeth in both jaws, and in the throat. Palate smooth. Tongue large and rounded, not free. 

The first dorsal fin obtusely pointed, higher than wide, and composed of one bony and six 
branched rays. It commences eight and a half inches from the end of the snout, or a little 
forward of a point reached by the tips of the pectorals. The bony ray is serrated, and ter- 
minates in a soft flexible tip ; the third ray slightly longest. The adipose dorsal elongate, 
rounded ; its tip reaching a point above the termination of the anal. Pectorals placed low 
down, consisting of one stout articulated and serrated spine, and of nine branched rays ; the 
lowermost small and indistinct ; the length of its base to its height as three to one. Ventrals 
broad and rounded, consisting of one spinous and eight broad flat many-branched rays ; these 
fins arise nearly beneath a point reached by the tips of the prostrate dorsal. The extremities 
of the ventrals cover the vent and the posterior urinary meatus, which latter terminates in a 
fleshy tubercle. Anal fin long and subequal, composed of twenty-six rays : the lirst ray short ; 
the second and third successively longer ; the rest subequal as far as the twenty-second, when 
they again become shorter, making the posterior termination of this fin regularly rounded : 
its base to its height as three to one nearly. Caudal forked, with seventeen complete rays. 
The rays of all the fins are so much enveloped in the common thick teguments, as to be 
counted with difficulty. The spleen is dark red, flat and rounded, with a flat accessory lobe 
above. The liver large, transverse, with two lobes on the left, and a smaller one on the right ; 
the gall-bladder is long and large, and attached closely to the substance of the liver. Stomach 
exceedingly thick and muscular. Kidneys large, bifurcating backwards under the air blad- 
der, and terminating in a large urinary bladder. Air-bladder large, long, with remarkably 
thick coats ; anteriorly it ends in two pointed processes, with a laciniated border between 
them ; a longitudinal wall or septum, as stout as the external coat, divides it into two equal 
parts ; the anterior part is covered by a broad thin glandular substance, the uses of which 
are unknown. The most curious fact in relation to the air-bladder, is that it communicates 
with the alimentary canal, just under the diaphragm, by a duct two inches long, and suffi- 
ciently large to admit a crow quill. 

Color. General hue olive-brown ; the upper part of the head and cheeks bluish ; the sides 
of the body towards the tail, ash white, with occasionally large confluent black spots ; a few 
irregular distant round black spots on the upper part of the body. Upper lip maculated with 



182 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

black. All beneath bluish white, varied with darker. Base of the ventrals and pectorals 
whitish. Pupil black ; irides varied with blackisli and golden. 

Fin rays, D. 1.6.0; P. 1.9; V. 1.8; A. 26 ; C. 17 |. 

A specimen twenty-eight inches long, offered the following dimensions : 

Girth over the opercles, 14" Length of the two lower outer pair, 3' 5 

— behind the pectorals, . . 12*0 — of the pectorals, 3-0 

— around the tail, 4-0 — of the ventrals, 2-5 

Length of the upper cirri, .. 1'3 — of the dorsal, 3-0 

— of the buccal cirri, . . 6"0 — of the adipose fin, I'O 

Distance between the tips of the caudal fin, 6 " 

This Lake Cat-fish was taken at Buffalo, and weighed eight pounds. I have seen them 
weighing from twenty-five to thirty pounds, and have heard o( others which reached the weight 
of eighty pounds. It is held in very little estimation as an article of food, I should judge, 
from the prices asked for them in the towns along the lake. I have seen them weighing ten 
or twelve pounds, offered for six cents apiece. Like all its congeners, it prefers muddy bot- 
toms. It is usually captured by the spear. 

THE COMMON CATFISH, 

PiMELODUS CATDS. 

PLATE XXXVII. FIG. 119. — (STATE COLLECTION.) 

Silurus catus. LiNNECS, Syst. Nat. 

Common Fresh-water Cat-fish, S. catus. MiTCHiLL, Lit. and Phil. Soc. N. Y. Vol. 1, p. 433. 

Pimelodus nebidosxis. Lesueur, Mem. du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle. Vol. 5, p. 149. 

The Homed Pout. Stoker, Massachusetts Report, p. 102. 

Le Pimelode nibuleux, et Chat. Cnv. et Val. Hist, des Poiss. Vol. 15, p. 124 and 132. 

Characteristics. Dusky, becoming darker on the back and upper part of the head. Two 
concealed spines near the base of the pectoral. Caudal nearly even, 
rounded. Length six to ten inches. 

Description. Body elongate, depressed before the anterior dorsal, compressed behind. 
Head flattened, smooth, declivous. The anterior nostril near the edge of the upper lip ; the 
posterior nearly equidistant between the snout and the eye, with a short erect barbel on 
its anterior margin, and partially concealing it ; these barbels, when extended backwards, 
pass a short distance beyond the eyes. Depending from the upper jaw are two thick fleshy 
barbels, which reach to the middle of the pectorals. Four filaments are placed under the 
lower jaw ; the exterior, on each side, reach beyond the branchial aperture beneath ; the two 
interior shorter. Body smooth, scaleless. The lateral line nearly straight, occasionally ob- 
scure. Eyes small, a short distance behind the angle of the mouth. Branchial aperture 



FAMILY SILURID^ — PIMELODUS. 183 

wide, with eight branchial rays, the last almost rudimentary. Two blunt spines on the hu- 
meral bone. Upper jaw longest ; both with a band of numerous, small, crowded teeth. A 
roughened orbicular patch on each upper pharyngeal. 

The first dorsal fin commences at about one-third of the total length, higher than long, 
rounded above; the first ray stoutly spinous, the fourth longest. Second dorsal adipose, 
elongated, and placed above the termination of the anal. Pectorals small, with a serrated 
spine, and nine closely crowded articulated rays. This spine, like that of the dorsal, by an 
ingenious mechanism, becomes fixed and immovable at the will of the animal, and serves as 
an important arm of defence. The ventrals smaller than the pectorals, placed beneath the 
last ray of the dorsal, and with eight rays. Anal long and subequal ; its first rays short, and 
partially concealed. Caudal nearly even, slightly rounded. The intestines simple, and with- 
out cseca. Vent oblong. Kidneys very large, surround the base of the air-bladder, and ter- 
minate in a large urinary bladder. Air-bladder oval or heart-shaped, and apparently simple ; 
but when the external white fibrous coat is removed, it is found to be covered with a thin trans- 
parent membrane forming two distinct sacs, lying side by side ; and each sac is again stran- 
gulated towards its anterior extremity, thus forming four distinct cavities. 

Color. Dusky, with a deeper shade on the back and summit of the head. Sides of the 
head with a greenish tint ; cupreous on the sides. Abdomen pearl-grey. Fins dusky. After 
death, from infiltration, some of the fins become tinged with red. Irides white. 

Length, 7" 5. 

Fin rays, D. 1 .6 ; P. 1 .8 ; V. 8 ; A. 23 ; C. 19. 

This is one of our most common species, and makes its appearance in market in the first 
days of April. A peculiarity connected with this species, and perhaps with others of the same 
family, is, that it occasionally appears without any ventral fins. I have seen two thus de- 
prived of these fins, and this furnished a naturalist with an opportunity of forming a new genus 
Pimapterus. The specimens thus defective agreed in every respect to the minutest particular 
with the species above described, so that I am induced to conclude that it was entirely acci- 
dental. May not the genus Astroblepus of Humboldt {Obs. Zool. Vol. 1, p. 19, pi. 7), be 
founded on a similar mal-formation ? We notice that Cuvier passed over this genus in silence 
in the last edition of his Reg?ie Animal, although M. Valenciennes has reproduced it in his 
continuation of the Histoire Naturelle des Poissons. 

The Cormnon Catfish, Horn Pout, or Minister, has a wide geographic range. It occurs in 
the great lakes, and along the Atlantic States from New-Hampshire to Florida. 



184 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

THE BROWN CATFISH. 

PlMELOD0S PULLUS. 
PLATE XXXVII. FIG. 117. — (.STATE COLLECTION.) 

Characteristics. Pectorals pointed. Vcntrals subacute. Caudal fin emarginate. Length 
nine to twelve inches. 

Description. Head flattened, with a granular surface above ; its length compared to the 
total length, is as one to four and a half. The upper jaw slightly the longest. Lateral line 
slightly concave under the dorsal fin, and then straight. Breadth of the head slightly less 
than its length. Eyes small, two-tenths of an inch in diameter, and far apart. Nostrils 
double ; the posterior pair half an inch apart, patent, oval, with an erectile cirrus on their 
anterior margins ; the anterior pair subtubular, and near the edge of the jaws. A long cirrus, 
stout and fleshy at its base, at each angle of the jaws, and an inch and a half long. A pair 
of slender cirri 0'6 long, on the summit of the head ; four others under the lower jaw, 
arranged in a curved line an inch in extent ; the internal pair shortest, and all slender. 
Humeral bone with a blunt spine over the pectoral, and a short obtuse angular projection 
beneath. Mouth very ample and dilatable. A band of small recurved teeth in each jaw, 
broadest in the centre, and diminishing to a point on the sides. Vomer and palatines smooth. 
Two rounded patches of minute recurved teeth in the upper pharyngeals ; opposite to them, 
a few scattering minute teeth. 

The dorsal fin commences half an inch posterior to a point vertical to the origin of the pec- 
torals, subquadrate, and a little more than an inch high. Its first ray is a robust spine, 
slightly serrated on its posterior margin, and much shorter than the remaining rays. Adipose 
fin rounded, and opposite the termination of the anal fin. Pectorals placed low down, and in 
advance of the posterior angle of the opercle ; its spine stout and pointed, with its anterior 
and posterior margins serrated, and its upper and under surfaces corrugated : the spine is 
shorter than the four following rays. Ventrals somewhat pointed, and originate at a point 
three-tenths of an inch behind the end of the first dorsal. Anal fin with seventeen rays, an 
inch and a half long, and six-tenths of an inch high. Caudal fin slightly but distinctly emar- 
ginate ; the accessory rays indistinct. Vent with a double orifice. 

Color. A uniform dusky brown above, approaching to black ; beneath bluish white. Fins 
and cirri black ; the former tinged with red. 

Length, 9-0; of the head, 2-0. 

Fin rays, D. 1.5.0; P. 1.7; V. 8 ; A. 17; C. 19. f. 

This is very common in Lake Pleasant, Lake Janet, and many of the other lakes in the 
northern districts of the State. There are many varieties in its markings, and it occasionally 
exceeds a foot in length. Its principal use in those regions appears to be, to serve as bait for 
the lake trout. 



FAMILY SILURID.E PIMELODUS. 185 

THE BLACK CATFISH. 

PiMELODUS ATRARinS. 

PLATE XXXVI. FIG. 110. — (CABINET OF TIIE LYCEUM.) 

Characteristics. Black. Adipose dorsal long and slender ; the rays of the fins passing beyond 
the membrane. Caudal emarginate, round, with numerous accessory rays. 
Length four to eight inches. 

Description. Surface smooth and scaleless. Lateral line distinct, nearly straight, slightly 
convex under the dorsal fin. Head depressed, sloping. The barbels, in number and arrange- 
ment, resemble those of the preceding species. Lips fleshy, with minute punctures. Teeth 
in the jaws minute, long, conical and crowded. Tongue smooth. Humeral bone with a long 
concealed spine above the pectoral, and a short blunt rudimentary process directed downward 
at liie upper angle of the branchial aperture. 

The dorsal fin higher than long, arising midway between the pectorals and ventrals ; the 
first ray an acute triangular spine ; its anterior surfaces marked with oblique rugje or wrinkles ; 
its anterior edge smooth ; a small accessory bone at its anterior base ; six soft rays, the first 
and second longest. The adipose dorsal as far from the last rays of the first dorsal, as the 
anterior ray of that fin is from the end of the snout ; long and slender, rounded, and laci- 
niate at the tips. The pectoral fins nearly on the plane of the abdomen, and anterior to the 
upper angle of the branchial aperture, containing one spinous and seven branched rays : the 
spinous ray robust, triangular, slightly curved, with its anterior edge roughened, and its sides 
channelled as in the spine of the first dorsal ; a small filamentous ray is connected with it, its 
posterior edges with decurvcd spines ; the second, third and fourth rays somewhat longer 
than the spines. Ventrals small and feeble, pointed, their tips scarcely reaching the third 
anal ray ; the third and fourth rays longest. Anal fin long ; the first four successively longer, 
when they become subequal to the last four or five rays, when they gradually diminish in 
length. Caudal slightly emarginate, rounded at the tips. 

Color. Deep black, occasionally blackish brown above and on the sides ; ashen grey beneath. 

Length, 4 "5. 

Fin rays, D. 1.6.0; P. 1.7; V. 8 ; A. 20 ; C. 17f. 

This species occurs commonly in Wappinger's creek, a tributary of the Hudson, Dutchess 
county. They occasionally occur there of dimensions larger than those given above. 

In concluding the history of the Siluridfe observed in the State of New-York, I must call 
the attention of our ichthyologists to a species which has been rather indicated than described 
by Dr. Mitchill in the American Monthly Magazine for 1818. If there be no error in the 
description, it will form the type of a new genus in this family, already so rich in the variety 
of its forms. It approaches the Siluriis of Cuvier and Valenciennes, of which they observe. 

Fauna — Part 4. 24 



186 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

tliat they know of none in the rivers of the two Americas. On account of its dorsal spine, it 
cannot be admitted into that genus ; and the same spine being smooth, and not serrated, 
excludes it from Schilhe. Its natural position in a general arrangement of the Siluridas would 
seem to be between Schilbe and Cctopsis ; forming a passage, by its simply spinous anterior 
dorsal and pectoral ray, from one to the other. It may be thus characterized : " No adipose 
fin ; simple spines to the dorsal and pectoral ; anal long ; caudal pointed, not united to the 
anal." Important details respecting the teeth are wanting to complete the character. I sub- 
join the description : 

" Long-tailed Silurus. Silurus gi/rinus. Without an adipose fin ; without a second 
dorsal fin ; and with a lengthened tail, resembling that of the common tadpole. Brought by 
Dr. B. A. Akcrly from the Walkill, where the species is numerous, and an individual seldom 
equals the lenglli of four inches. His general figure is that of a broad head horizontally 
extended ; of a thin tail perpendicularly flattened, and of a belly giving him a roundish appear- 
ance towards the middle of the body. There are four cirri beneath the chin, two in the upper 
jaw, and two larger ones at the corners of the mouth. The gape is wide ; mouth large ; lips 
fortified with a row of small teeth ; tongue broad, distinct. There is but a single dorsal fin, 
and that consists of seven rays, of which the first is spinous. About an inch behind it, com- 
mences the caudal fin, which is continued quite round the tail, and almost to the anal fin. 
The form is lanceolate and pointed ; and the rays arc so flexible and delicate, that in the spe- 
cimen now before mc, the caudal fin puts me in mind of a brush. It may be compared to the 
tail of an eel ; the resemblance is nearer to that of a tadpole, when it approaches the period 
of conversion to a frog. The vent is nearly midway of the body. The anal fin, consisting 
of about sixteen rays, is situated between it and the caudal ; for though the caudal is con- 
tinued almost to it, there is no union. The pectoral fins have seven rays, of which the fore- 
most is spinous. The spines of the several fins, though sharp, are not serrated. I could not 
discover any barbed or jagged configuration whatever in cither of them. The abdominal fins 
are small, appro.ximated, and almost as far back as the vent. The lateral line, after passing 
the thoracic parts, passes along to the middle of the tail, having the appearance of a dark stripe. 
The tail exhibits other faint marks of lines or stripes, while the trunk and head have a sort of 
mottled or clouded appearance. The belly is whitish or cream-colored. 

" The want of scrrs to the spines, and of a second dorsal fin, might lead some to remove 
this fish from the Silure family ; but to avoid needless innovation, I retain him here." 

{EXTRA-LIMITAL.) 

P. cfBnosus. (Richardson, F. B. A. Vol. 3, p. 132.) Barbels at the angle of the mouth, not reach- 
ing the gills. Br. rays 9. The pectoral spine strongly serrated. Caudal rounded. D. 1.7.0; 
P. 1.8; V. 8; A. 24; C. 17 j%. Length ten inches. Lake Huron. 

P albidus. (Lesueur, Mem. Mus. Vol. 5, p. 148.) Whitish ash. D. l.G; P. 1. 10; V. 8; A. 22; 
C. 10; Length 12 to 15 inches. Delaioare. 



FAMILY SILUEIDiE — PIMELODUS. 187 

P. borealis. (Rich. F. B. A. Vol. 3, p. 135.) Pectoral and dorsal spines not serrated. Dorsal sub- 
quadrangular. Caudal slightly forked, with rounded lobes. A. 25. Lenrrth two to three feet. 
Northern Regions. 

P. kmniscatus. (Lesueur, Mem. Mus. Vol. 5, p. 155.) Caudal united above to the long and low- 
adipose fin, and nearly united to the anal beneath. Length 4-8 inches. Soulhcm States. 

P.furcatus. (Id. Cuv. et Val. Vol. 15, p. 136.) Elongate. Tail furcate. Adipose small and nar- 
row. Anal fin with 32 to 34 rays. Length one to four feet. Ohio, Louisiana. 

P. punctidatus. (Id. Cuv. et Val. lb. p. 134.) Branchial rays twelve. Caudal even. Brown, 
punctured with black. Anal fin with seventeen rays. Length 2-3 feet. Louisiana. 

P. emeus. (Id. Mem. Mus. Vol, 5, p. 150.) Lower jaw longest. Eleven anal rays; twenty-five to 
the even caudal. Allied to the preceding? Length 2-3 feet. Ohio. 

Dr. Kirtland, in his Report on the Geologj' of Ohio, has given a catalogue of six others, some of 
which are probably included above. 

P. cerulescens. The Blue Catfish of Ohio and the Lakes. 

P. cupreus. The Yellow Catfish. 

P. pallidus. The Channel Catfish. 

P. nebulosus. The Mud Catfish, recognized by the scarified and clouded appearance of its skin. 

P. xanthocephalus. The small Black Bullhead of the northern streams and lakes. 

P.flavus. Young Catfish, with the rudiments of an adipose fin.'' 

Genus Amblyopsis.* Body with scales. Vent anterior to the base of the pectorals. Eyes concealed 
under the skin. Ventrals minute ; a single dorsal. Teeth on the jaws and palatines. Head 
smooth, and without barbels. 

A. spelaus. Whitish. Head broad and flattened. Mouth large. Most of the fins with filamentous tips. 
Length 3i inches. Mammoth cave, Kentucky. 

* Note. To add to the usefulness of this work as a book of reference, I introduce here a species wliich appears not to 
have been described, and for which I am in a manner compelled to construct a new genus. It is probably identical with 
the one noticed in the proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences, as follows : " A small white fisli, eyeless, (pre- 
sumed to belong to a subgenus of Silurus.) taken from a small stream called the River Styx, in the Mammoth cave, Ken- 
tucky, about two and a half miles from the entrance." 

I have been much embarrassed to know where to place this species, and have delayed the pubhcation of these pages, in 
hopes that some naturalist, with recent and perfect specimens before liim, would ere this have favored the public with the 
result of his observations. The specimen from which I drew up the following notes was imperfect, and as it belonired to 
a public institution, could not with propriety be dissected. It has obviously the port and habit of the Siluridas, and the 
obscure character of its eyes naturally recals the genus Cclopsis of Agassiz; but its scaly body, and head without barbels, 
forbid its arrangement even in that family as at present characterized. In the singular position of its vent, it resembles 
Aphreilodcnis among the Percida;. I think it probable that it may form the type of a new family of the soft-rayed abdo- 
minal fishes. 

A. spelrms. Body cylindrical in front, largest at its junction with the head, tapering and becoming gradually compressed 
bcliind. Surface covered with minute sofl orbicular scales, becoming smaller on the back and towards the basal line 
of the head, and beneath the branchial membrane; they do not ascend upon the fins ; the course of the lateral is only 
obvious on the posterior part of the body and fail. Head smooth, broad, flat, and gradually sloping from tlic elevated 
nape ; its length to the total length as one to three and a half. Eyes large, vertical, not obvious, but their position 



188 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 



FAMILY CYPRINIDjE. 

Mouth slightly cleft ; weak jaws, mostjr€que7itly without teeth ; margin of the jaw formed 
by the intermaxillaries ; pharyngeals strongly toothed. Branchial rays few. Body scaly. 
One dorsal fin. Belly not compressed, never serrated. Intestinal canal short, without 
ccEcal appendages. The least carnivorous of all fishes. 

Obs. Two hundred and seventy species, arrayed under twenty genera, have been described 
Irom various quarters of the globe. 

GENUS CYPRINUS. Linneus, Cuvier. 

Body covered ivith large scales. A single elongated dorsal fin. Lips fleshy ; mouth small, 
terminal. Teeth in the pharyngeals, but none in the jaws. Branchial rays three. 

THE COMMON CARP. — (Introduced.) 
Cyprinus carpio. 
Cyprinus curpio. LiNN., Cuv. Rcgne Animal, Vol. 2, p. 271. 

Characteristics. Color golden olive. The first ray of the dorsal and anal fin strongly serrated 
behind. Two barbules at the angle of the mouth. Dorsal fin long, emargi- 
nate. Length, six to twelve inches. 

Description. Body covered with about twelve rows of large scales. A cirrus or barbel at 
the upper part of each corner of the jaw, with a second smaller one above it on each side. 

under the skin may be detected by removing the teguments. Nostrils near the margin of the jaw. Opercles smooth, 
and without spines or serratures. Brancliial aperture large ; the membrane with eight rays. No barbels nor cirri 
about the head, or depending from its jaws. Mouth wide ; lower jaw longest, not as broad nor as much rounded as 
the upper jaw ; it is armed with several rows of numerous minute, slender, long and pointed teeth directed backwards. 
In the upper jaw, similar but smaller teeth arranged in several rows, of wliich the outer are directed horizontally 
forward. Two rows of long hooked teeth on the palatines ; vomer smooth. Tongue smooth and free. 

The dorsal tin arises an inch and three quarters from the end of the snout, is higher than broad, composed of seven 
articulated feebly branched rays ; its base 0-3, its height 0-5; it appears to lie in a furrow, but this may have arisen 
from the shrinking of the animal in spirits. Pectorals 0-G long, with a narrow base of 0-15, with twelve articulated 
and branched rays; the middle rays arc long and filamentous, extending nearly to the origin of the dorsal fin. Ventrals 
very feeble, of five rays ; the filamentous tips reaching nearly to the origin of the anal. Anal fin quadrangular, arising 
under the fifth dorsal ray, and containing eight articulated rays. Caudal pointed ; its middle rays longest, 0*6 long, 
but appeared to have been mutilated. Vent a small circular orifice in advance of Ihe base of the pectorals, and only 
0-8 from the tip of the lower jaw. 

In alcohol, it appeared to have been of a unifonn dull yellowish white. Length, 3-5; of the head to the edge of the 
opercles, 1-0. Breadth of the head at the basal line, 0.6. D. 7 ; P. 12; V. 5; A. 8; C. 16 ^. {Cabiiut of the Ijtjcmm 
of Natural Hislon/.) 



FAMILY CYPRINID.E CYPRINUS. 189 

Eyes small. Nostrils large. Opercle willi stride radiating from the anterior edge. Nape and 
back rising suddenly. 

Dorsal fin long, with its first ray bony, the second bony and serrated on its posterior surface, 
the third flexible and longest. Dorsal and anal coterminal. Ventrals arise under the third ray 
of the dorsal ; the first ray of the anal fin robust, bony, serrated behind. Tail forked. Lateral 
line interrupted, straight. Vertebra; 36. 

Color. Golden olive brown ; head darkest. Irides golden. Belly yellowish white. 

Length, 6-0 -12-0. 

Fin rays, D. 22 ; P. 17; V. 9 ; A. 8 ; C. 19. 

The Carp is a native of the lakes and rivers of the southern parts of Europe. In Austria 
and Prussia, their growth is carefully cultivated, and the traflic in them so considerable, that 
in places which are favorable to their increase, the yearly rent of an acre of water is equal 
in value to that of an acre of land. They arc not found as far north as Russia, and were 
introduced into England about three hundred years ago. I am not aware that any attempt 
has been made to introduce the Carp into this country previous to the year 1831, which, it 
will be seen by the following letter from Henry Robinson, Esq. of Newburgh, Orange county, 
was attended with complete success. 

" I brought the Carp from France in the years 1831 and 32, some two or three dozen at a time, and 
" generally lost one-third on the passage. I probably put into my ponds six or seven dozen. They soon 
" increased to a surprising degree, and I have now more than sufficient for family use. I have not 
" paid much attention to their habits, but I have noticed that they spawn twice a year ; first about the 
" middle of May, and again in July. It is said in Franco that they spawn three times, but I have not 
" observed it. During the period of spawning, which lasts about ten days, it is very amusing to watch 
" their operations. They come up to the surface, and the females deposit their spawn along the sides of 
" the pond among the grass, where they are impregnated by the males as they are emitted. During this 
" process, they keep the sides of the pond in a foam with their gambols, and it is not difficult at that time 
" to take them with your hands. They grow quickly, reaching three or four inches the first year, but 
" after that time their growth is very slow. The largest I have taken yet have not exceeded ten or eleven 
" inches, my ponds being too small for them to equal the size of those you see in Europe. They are 
•' very shy of the hook ; I generally bait with small pieces of fresh bread, (of which they are very fond,) 
" made up into small pills with the fingers, and at the same time drop a small piece of bread into the 
■' water near the hook, when thry bite readily. My ponds arc supplied by springs of pure and clear 
" water, but they keep the water in such a state that they cannot be seen at the bottom. 

" For the last four years past, I have put from one to two dozen carp every spring in the Hudson river 
" near my residence. They have increased so much tliat our fishermen frequently take them in their 
" nets. They are larger than those in my ponds." 

This interesting note is important, as establishing the practicability of introducing- foreign 
fishes into our waters, and as recording an important fact in Ichthyology. We invite other 
patriotic individuals to make similar experiments with other species, which are now limited 
to the other side of the Atlantic. From recent experiments made in Europe with impregnated 



190 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

ova of fishes, we see no reason to doubt why the lurbot and sole, and other equally savory 
fishes of Europe, may not be successfully introduced upon our seacoast. 



THE GOLD CARP. — (Introduced.) 

' CVPniNUS AUEATUS. 

Cyprimis auratiis, LiNNEUS. 

Gold-fish. Smith, Fishes of Massacliusetts. 

The Golden Carp. Stoker, Zoology of Massachusetts, p. 82. 

Description. The varieties in color, shape, position of the fins, and even their number, has 
been so much influenced by domestication, that the application of any distinctive phrase is 
almost impossible. 

De Sauvigny, in his Histoire Naturelle des Dorades de la Chine, has figured eiglity-nine 
varieties of this species, and this list might be almost indefinitely extended. The following 
are the most usual appearances : Brilliant red or orange above ; silvery beneath. Occa- 
sionally black, or black and while, or wholly of a brilliant silvery color. The operclcs with 
radiating stris. Scales large, striated, and rough to the touch. The number of fin rays very 
variable, but the following is often observed : 

Fin rays, D. 16; P. 15; V. 9; A. 18; C. 17. 

The Golden Carp, or Gold-fish, as it is more generally called, was introduced from China 
into Europe in the early part of the seventeenth century, and probably shortly after found 
its way to this country. They breed freely in ponds in this and the adjoining States. 
They are of no use as an article of food, but are kept in glass vases as an ornament to the 
parlor and drawing-room. They are said to display an attachment to their owners, and a 
limited obedience to their commands. 



FAMILY CYPRINID^. 191 



GENUS ABRAMIS. Cuvier. 



No hony rays nor barbels. Body deep, compressed. Dorsal and abdominal line very con 
vex. The dorsal Jin short, placed behind the line of the ventrals. Anal long. 



THE VARIEGATED BREAM. 

Abramis versicolor. 
PL.A.TE XXXIl. FIG. 103. 



Characteristics. Silvery varied with green, blue and golden. Anal with fourteen rays. 
Length five to seven inches. 



■'&'- 



Descriptioji. Body compressed, with its dorsal and abdominal outlines very convex. Scales 
very large, orbicular, with e.xccntric stria;. Lateral line commences at the upper angle of the 
branchial aperture, descends gently a short distance, wiien it suddenly curves downwards 
with a broad curve below the middle of the body, following the abdominal outline to the tail ; 
the scales of this line contain short and somewhat irregular tubes. Head small, smooth, 
slightly depressed above, with a range of pores on its upper part. Three flat branchial rays. 
Mouth protractile, opening somewhat vertically. Upper pharyngeal paved ; lower pharyn- 
geals with tliree or four stout white teeth. 

The dorsal fin higher than long, subquadrate, placed behind the line of the ventrals ; tiie 
first ray short, simple, not spinous, and closely adpressed to the second, which is longest, 
and similar in structure to the first ; the remaining rays very ramose, successively shorter. 
The pectorals broad, placed very low down ; upper ray simple and longest ; the remainder 
slender, and difficult to be enumerated. Ventrals approximated. Anal longer than high, 
placed posterior to the termination of the dorsal, excavated on its margin, and composed of 
one simple and thirteen branched rays. Caudal forked ; the base covered to some distance 
up with scales. Air-bladder bipartite. 

Color. This is so varied as to render it difficult to convey an idea by description alone. 
General hue silvery, mixed with green and blue above, becoming golden on the sides and ab- 
domen. Irides yellow. Opercles and suborbitals brilliant, lustrous, white, with metallic 
reflections. Upper part of tlie head deep brownish black ; back dark green, passing into blue. 
Pectorals and anal dull yellow. Ventrals deep orange. Dorsal and caudal fin brownish black ; 
the former with a faint yellowish tinge on its membrane. 

Length, 5- 0-7-0. 

Fin rays, D. 9 ; P. 14 ; V. 9 ; A. 14 ; C. 19 |. 

This is a savory fluviatile species. It appears occasionally in the New-York market, from 
the Connecticut and Hudson river and the streams of Long Island. It is abundant near 
Peekskill, where it is called Dace, from its resemblance to the Dace of Europe, which, 



192 NEW- YORK FAUNA. 

however, belongs to another genus. It is also called ihe Yellow-hellied Perch, and Wind-fish ; 
which induced one of our most zealous and acute ichthyologists, Mr. I. Cozzens, to designate 
it many years since in a MSS. description as Cyprinus coins. The name of Wind-fish is de- 
rived from one of its habits. Whenever a light flaw of wind ruffles the water, thousands of 
these fish may be seen darting to the surface, and as suddenly disappearing. 

(EXTRA-LIMITAL) 

A. smithii. (Richardson, North. Zool. Vol. 3, p. 110, figure.) Tongue toothed. Dorsal with 1. 12, 
and anal with 1 . 27 rays. Length 9 - 1 inches. St. Lawrence river. An Abramis ? 

A. balteatus. (Id. lb. p. 302.) A broad scarlet stripe from the gills to the anal, beneath the lateral 
line. D. 1 1 ; A. 19 to 22. Length 5 or 6 inches. Columbia river. 



GENUS LABEO. Cuvier. 
Dmsal long. No spines nor barbels. Lips fleshy, and firequently crenatcd. 

THE NEW- YORK CHUBSUCKER. 

Labeo elegans. 
PLATE XXXI. FIG. 100. 

Characteristics. Bluish above ; head greenish. Dorsal subquadrate, rounded above, with 
twelve rays. Length eight inches. 

Description. Body compressed. Dorsal and abdominal outlines convex. Scales large, 
with from three to six radiating impressed lines, crossed by others waved and concentric ; 
they extend high up on the caudal rays. Head smooth, scaleless ; its outline suddenly 
depressed below the line of the back, and with several irregular protuberances between the 
nostrils and the tip of the snout. Lateral line obscure. Jaws toothless, the lower received 
within the upper. Branchial rays three, compressed. 

The dorsal fin nearly quadrate, higher than long, with its anterior rays longest ; its margin 
rounded. It arises somewhat anterior to the centre of the body, and over the ventral fin. Pec- 
torals placed low down, long and pointed in a state of repose ; but when displayed, rounded. 
The ventral fins originate nearly under the centre of the dorsal fin. The anal fin large, and, 
when closed, extending beyond the tail, and some distance along the caudal fin. This latter 
fin broadly emarginate, with its lower lobe frequently largest. 

Color. Above dark bluish ; beneath whitish, with pinkish suffusions along the abdomen. 
Head brilliant green, passing into yellowish and golden on the opercles. Dorsal and anal fin 
brown. Pectorals and ventrals faint orange. Caudal rosaceous. 



FAMILY CYPRINIDiE — LACEO. 193 

Length, S'O. 

Fin rays, D. 12 ; P. 15 ; V. 9 ; A. 8 ; C. 17. 

This fish occurs in the markets of New-York in October and November. It is held in httle 
estimation for food. It can scarcely be confounded with the Cyprinus ohlongus of Mitchill. 
to be presently described. 

THE BRILLIANT CHUBSUCKER. 

Laeeo oblongcs. 

PLATE XLn. FIG. 130. 

The New-York Chub, Cyprinus oblon^us. Mitchill, Report in part, etc. p. 23. 
Chub of Nfw-York, C. id. Mitchill, Lit. and Phil. Soc. N. Y. Vol. 1, p. 459. 

'Characteristics . Dorsal with thirteen rays. Back arched. Anal bilobate. Beautifully varied 
with green and yellow, and with obscure transverse green bands. Length 
six to twelve inches. 

Description. Body compressed ; dorsal outline arched ; the facial outline nearly continuous 
with the curve of the back, anterior to the dorsal fin. Head somewhat depressed. Scales 
large, with radiating and waved concentric stris ; they are rather crowded near the shoulder, 
and ascend on the caudal fin. Lateral line indistinct. Snout blunt, and, in the dried state, 
exhibits a tubercle above. jWouth inferior, corrugated, toothless, bilobate beneath. The dorsal 
fin commences at a point equidistant from the end of the snout, and a line vertical to the end 
of the anal. It is high, nearly equalling one-third of the greatest depth of the body ; the first 
ray shortest, and adhering closely to the second, which is also simple ; the remainder branched. 
The pectorals low down and rounded. Anal fin broad, bilobate, with very ramose rays ; its 
anterior ray simple. Caudal broadly emarginate, with 2-3 accessory rays; the lower lobe 
largest. Air-bladder single, cylindrical. 

Color, of the upper part of the head, dark slate. Back greenish, fading into brilliant 
lemon-yellow on the sides. Four to six vertical obsolete bands, resplendent bluish green on 
the back, and becoming effaced on the sides. Opercles yellow, with tints of green and pink. 
Dorsal, caudal and anterior portion of the anal brown. Pectorals brownish ; red at the base. 
Ventrals yellow. Second lobe of the anal dull red. 

Length, 6-0 - 12-0. 

Fin rays, D. 13 ; P. 13 ; V. 9 ; A. 8 ; C. 19 |. 

The specific name given to this species by Dr. Mitchill, appears singularly inappropriate. 
It is a fish of much beauty, but its brilliant hues soon disappear when taken from the water. 
The accompanying figure was made from a remarkably vigorous and active individual, but it 
scarcely does justice to its actual brilliancy. It is familiarly known under the name of Chuh, 
and Cliuhsucker. As much confusion arises from applying the same popular names to Ame- 

Fauna — Part 4. 25 



194 NEW-YORK FAUNA, 

rican and English species, I make use of the name chuhsucker as more distinctive. It is 
common in many of our fresh-water streams, and usually appears in the markets in the month 
of December. It appears closely allied with the gihhosus of Lesueur, and also with the suc- 
ceeding species. 

THE LONG-FINNED CHUBSUCKER. 

Labeo CyPRINUS. 
PLATE. 
Catostomns cyprinus. Lesueur, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sciences, Vol. 1, p. 91. 

Characteristics. Body high, compressed. Dorsal long, elongated in front, low and subequal 
behind. 

Description. Body elliptical, compressed. Scales semi-rhomboidal, very large, radiated ; 
a range of smaller ones along the base of the dorsal fin. Lateral line descending with a slight 
curve from the upper part of the branchial aperture, to beneath the anterior portion of the 
dorsal ; thence straight. Mouth crenated, bilobate beneath. Dorsal outline in front of the 
fin, convex ; facial outline sloping, nearly straight. Snout projecting over the jaw. The 
dorsal fin commences about midway between the pectorals and ventrals ; its third 1 ray very 
long ; thence rapidly diminishing to the eleventh ; the remainder subequal. Pectorals and 
ventrals small. Anal excavated on its margin. Caudal deeply forked, with pointed lobes. 

Color. Scales variegated with blue, yellow and green. All the fins grey blue. 

Length, 12-0 -20-0. 

Fm rays, D. 31 ; P. 18; V. 9 ; A. 10; C. 18 i. 

This fish, which is commonly called Carp, in consequence of its resemblance to the carp 
of Europe, is common in the Susqueliannah, and will probably be found in some of its sources 
within this State. I am indebted to M. Lesueur for the figure and very brief description. 

THE GIBBOUS CHUBSUCKER. 

Labeo giebosus^ 

PLATE XXXn. FIG. 101. 

Catostomus gibbosas. Lesueur, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phil. Vol. 1, p. &2. 
C. id., The Gibbous Sucker. Storer, Fishes of Massachusetts, p. 88. 

Chwracterislics. Dorsal with seventeen rays. Tail deeply emarginate. Body gibbous. 
Length seven to twelve inches. 

Description. Head nearly as high as long. Scales crowded transversely a short distance 
from the opercles, but more developed on the posterior part of the body. Lateral line scarcely 
perceptible. Snout short, rounded. Mouth terminal, with thick fleshy lips, toothless. The 



FAMILY CYPRINID^ LABEO. 195 

dorsal fin quadrate, rounded above. Pectorals placed low down, and rounded. Ventrals 
placed under the posterior part of the dorsal. Anal fin deeply emarginate, not reaching the 
base of the caudal fin. This latter fin semilunate when extended ; the lobes rounded, unequal. 
Color. Deep blue on the back, with golden reflections. Four or five faint transverse bands 
across the back. Pectorals, ventrals and anal fins reddish orange. Caudal tinged with car- 
mine and violet. Dorsal bluisli green. Abdominal scales red at their bases. 

Length, 11 • 0. 

Fin rays, D. 17 ; P. 16 ; V. 9 ; A. 9 ; C. 18. 

I have seen this species in the Mohawk, and have reason to believe it to be common in 
many other fresh-water streams in this State. 



THE ROUND-BACKED OHUBSUCKER. 

Labeo esopus. 
(Cabinet of the lyceum.) 

Characteristics. Back elevated. Dorsal fin with twelve rays. Scales oblong. Lateral line 
indistinct. Length ten and a half inches. 

Description. Body robust, compressed, gibbous anterior to the dorsal fin. Scales large, 
subquadrate, longer than high ; the triangular area on the free portion with four radiating 
lines ; the interstices between these lines with concentric wrinkles. Lateral line not obvious ; 
a few scattering tubes irregularly disposed, being the only indications of it. Facial outline 
sloping. Head flattened above ; no regular series of mucous pores observed on the head or 
the gill-covers. Eyes moderate ; the upper margin of the orbits somewhat raised above the 
plane of the head. Nostrils double, approximated, vertical ; the posterior very large ; the 
anterior with a small valvular membrane. Snout somewhat prominent, abruptly descending. 
Gill-covers large ; the posterior margins smooth and rounded, almost vertical. 

The dorsal fin arises midway between the snout and the base of the caudal fin ; it contains 
eleven articulated rays, and a short rudimentary ray in front ; it is oblong, subquadrate, longer 
than high. Pectorals with sixteen rays, obtusely pointed ; its longest ray equalling in length 
the longest rays of the ventral or anal fin. Ventrals broad and rounded, under the middle of 
the dorsal, with nine rays. Anal emarginate, with two simple subspinous rays in front, and 
seven articulated rays. In the anterior portion, the third branched ray is longest ; the last 
three rays shorter than the others ; the tips do not reach to the base of the caudal fin. Caudal 
emarginate, scaly at the base. 

Of the color I can say nothing, as the specimen was in spirits, but it appeared to have had 
neither spots nor bands. 

Length, 10-5; of the head, 2*4. Greatest depth, 3-0. 
Fin rays, D. 12 ; P. 16 ; V. 9 ; A. 7 ; C. 19 f . 



196' NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

The specimen purports that it came from the interior of the State. It approaches in its 
general form tlie gihhosus of Lesueur, but is sufficiently distinguished by the number of the 
dorsal rays. 

GENUS CATOSTOMUS. Lesueur, Cuvier. 

Both lips thick, Jlcshi/, and crenatcd or -plaited ; the lower lip pe?idant. Dorsal placed above 
the ventrals, and usually short. 

Obs. This genus, as far as hitherto known, contains exclusively Nortli American species. 

THE COMMON SUCKER, 

Catostomds communis. 
PLATE XXXUl. FIG. IOC. 
Catostomus communis. Lesueur, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc. Vol. 1, p. 90, plate. 

Characteristics. Body long, rounded and tapering. Caudal fin lunate, almost furcate. Length 
12-14 inches. 

Description. Body cylindrical, sub-compressed, broad and rounded above to the origin of 
the dorsal fin, and compressed towards the tail. Head smooth, scalelcss. Scales reticulate, 
small on the back and anterior part of the body, larger near the dorsal fin, and increasing in 
size to ihc tail. Lateral line not concurrent with the back, slightly concave, nearly straight. 
Three to five smooth tubercular elevations towards the extremity of the snout, scarcely ob- 
vious in the fresh, bat manifest in the dried specimen. A row of mucous ducts (sutures of 
Forster) extend from near the upper angle of the opercle, across the nape, to the same spot 
on the opposite side, and separating the smooth head, on what is sometimes called the basal 
line of the head, from the scaly body. From this transverse line proceed two others forward, 
about half an inch apart, in a sinuous course over the eves and nostrils, and are lost in the 
vicinity of the tubercles before mentioned. From near the extremity of the snout, proceed 
two other series of mucous ducts (one on each side) upwards beneath the orbits, thence be- 
hind the orbits, rising up in an irregular curve, and turning down at the upper angle of the 
branchial aperture, where it is lost in the lateral line. These various lines are not exhibited 
on the plate, but are manifest in the recent specimens. Eyes moderate. Nostrils oval, appa-. 
rently single, contiguous ; the posterior closed by a valve. Mouth protractile, with thick 
puckered lips ; the lower lip bilobate, as represented in the plate. 

The dorsal fin subquadrate, highest in front, with its margin shghtly concave, arising nearly 
equidistant from the snout to the base of the caudal fin. Pectorals inserted nearly on a hori- 
zontal plane, and very low down, long, pointed ; as long as the head. Ventrals broad, trun- 
cated, shorter than the pectorals, and placed under the middle of the dorsal. Anal fin long, 
pointed, higher than broad, its extremity reaching to the base of the caudal fin; the first ray 



FAMILY CYPRINID^ — CATOSTOMUS. 197 

short and simple ; the next, simple, articulated, and twice its length ; the succeeding ones 
branched ; the fourth and fifth subequal, longest ; thence gradually diminishing behind ; the 
last a mere rudimentary ray. Caudal with stout branched articulated rays, lunate, almost 
furcate. Air-bladder divided into two unequal parts, connected by a short tube ; the anterior 
subcordate ; the posterior longer, cylindrical, gradually diminishing behind. 

Color. Head dark green above, verging to black. Cheeks bronze and golden. Body above 
dark purplish, with pink and metallic tints on the sides, frequently of a resplendent golden 
hue extending over the abdomen; beneath white. Pectoral, ventral and anal orange-colored; 
dorsal light brown ; caudal deep brownish or blackish. Irides varied with brown and white. 

Length, 14-0. 

Fin rays, D. 13; P. 16; V. 10; A. 8; C. 17-18 |. 

So little attention has been paid to the careful discrimination of species in this genus, that 
I fear to add to the alrcad}? existing confusion by citing synonimes. After a careful compari- 
son of the descriptions of Forster and Peck, I find such slight and scarcely appreciable diffe- 
rences as to render it probable that they all refer to the same species. It is very evident from 
Forster's description of the tubercles and the sutures, and his silence respecting the color of 
the eyes, that he had a dried specimen before him.* The notice by Schcepff of another spe- 
cies, which is loose and indefinite, I insert below. t Although the figure of Peck is scarcely 
recognizable, owing to the low state of the arts at that period, yet his description agrees in 
the main with that of Forster. The description of the C. teres by Dr. Mitchill may apply 
to several species, but I know of no Catostomus common here, " with an almost even tail." 
I can sec but very slight and unimportant differences in the characters assigned by Lesueur 
to his C. hostoniensis, hudsonius and communis. A better defined character of the genus, 
and a careful description and comparison of the species, is still a desideratum. 

The Common Sucker is abundant in our markets in the autumn, when its flesh is consi- 
dered to be improved in quality. At the best it is, however, meagre and tasteless. 



*" Cypriims catostomus, var. Prinna anali radiis 7. Labeo imo canincula triloba papillosa. Cauda semilunata." (Forster.) 

t Sucker in Pennsylvania. " Head somewhat thicker than the body, front very flat ; towards the projecting snout, the head bp- 

comes smaller. Mouth beneath without teeth, and presents a subtriangular opening covered by a soft warty sucking lip. Br. 

membrane three-rayed. Body roundish above, sub-compressed, elongate, scaly and silvery. The lateral line bends itself at first 

.somewhat downward, and then goes off straight. Tail somewhat furcate. D. 13 ; P. 17 ; V. 9 ; A. 7 ; C. 18-20. 

"Those which I saw in Philadelphia, were ca\ight in the Delaware. They do not come to New York, although they are com- 
mon in the small streams of the Hudson. The individual described by Forster came from Hudson's bay, and is undoubtedly the 
same species, although the number of rays somewhat varies." (Peck.) 



198 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

THE ONEIDA SUCKER. 

CaTOSTOMUS ONEIDA. 

(C.4BINET OF THE LYCEUM.) 

Characteristics. Back gibbous, with two short subspinous rays to the dorsal fin. Head 
smooth, with numerous mucous pores. Length 12 inches. 

Description. Body much arched on the dorsal outline, declivous in front, with a small head. 
Scales very large, rounded, truncate and emarginate on the radical extremity ; the rounded 
portion with radiating plaits ; the free portion with 6-8 minute diverging elevated lines ; 
the margin with an elevated border. Seventeen scales in an oblique series from the dorsal 
fin. Lateral line commences in the same plane with the central portion of the eye, concurrent 
with the back, and rather above the middle of the height of the body, through a series of 
forty-five scales. Head smooth, with a scries of mucous pores across the nape, descending 
below the upper angle of the opercle. From above this angle, another series on each side 
advances towards the orbits, and dividing into two others, one of which passes over the orbits, 
and disappears near the nostrils ; the other passes behind the eye, where it throws off a 
branch, which proceeds directly under the orbits in a waved direction to near the tip of the 
snout; the other branch follows the margin of the preopercle. Eyes moderate, 0"4 in dia- 
meter. Nostrils contiguous ; the posterior largest. Mouth beneath, with plaited lips. 

The dorsal fin above the ventrals ; its first articulated ray equal to the length of its base ; 
the two first articulated rays longest ; the last slightly longer than its antecedent. Two very 
short subspinous rays before the first. Pectoral low down, two inches long, and with fifteen 
rays. Ventrals robust, broad, with multifid rays. Anal placed in a sheath, with seven com- 
plete and one accessory ray ; this fin is remarkably stout and pointed ; its longest ray the 
third, which is equal to the length of the head. Caudal furcate, with rounded lobes, each of 
*hich is equal in length to the anal. 

Color. Dark bluish brown above ; lighter on the sides ; whitish beneath. 

Length, 12-0. Head, 2-5. Greatest depth, 2*0. 
Fin rays, D. 2.13; P. 15; V. 9; A. 8; C. 18 |. 

Common in Lake Oneida, where it is called Mullet, and Sucker. 



FAMILY CYPRINID.E — CATOSTOMUS. 199 

THE HORNED SUCKER. 

CaTOSTOMUS TCEERCCL4TDS. 

PLATE XXXI. FIG. 07. 

Catostomiu tiiherculahts. Lesueur, Jour. Aead. Nat. Sc. Vol. 1, p. 93. 

C. luberculatus, The Horned Sucher. Storer, Massachusetts Report, p. 85. 

Characteristics. Body short and thick. Caudal lunate. Tliree to five tubercles on each side 
of the snout. Length seven to nine inches. 

Description. Body robust, cylindrical. Dorsal outline gibbous, terminating abruptly on 
the nape. Upper part of the head declivous, nearly straight. Scales large, radiated, with 
deep concentric undulations interrupted by the striae. Lateral line very indistinct. Head 
smooth. Between the eyes and the snout, on each side, from three to five tubercles. In the 
specimen before me, there are but three, subequal : one immediately anterior to the eye ; 
another 0"2 distant, nearly on the same plane, and towards the margin of the upper lip ; the 
third near the angle of tiie mouth. Tliesc tubercles are smooth, 0"2 high, terminating in a 
blunt point, somewhat recurved, with a broad dilated base. Eyes small. Nostrils double, 
with a small filamentous strip. Snout blunt. Mouth small, lunate. Lower lip carunculate. 
Air-bladder single. 

The dorsal fin subquadrangular, rather longer than high, arising rather nearer the snout 
than the base of the caudal fin ; the first ray simple, subspinous. Pectorals placed very low, 
and rounded. Ventrals under the middle of the dorsal. Anal robust, emarginate ; the 
third, fourth and fifth much longer than the others. Caudal lunate ; the lobes unequal. 

Color. Head dark olive-green. Back and sides of tiie body green, with purple and golden 
reflections. Sides tinged with yellow. Abdomen yellowish, with a faint flesh-color. Anal 
fin dark blackish-brown ; the caudal rather lighter ; the remaining fins light olivaceous. Base 
of the pectorals flesh-colored. 

Length, 9-0. Depth, 2-9. 

Fin rays, D. 15 ; P. 16 ; V. 8 ; A. 10 ; C. 19 |. 

The Horned Sucker is common in most of the fresh-water streams of this State, and is 
also found in New-Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New-Jersey and Pennsylvania. 
I am not acquainted with its westerly or southerly distribution. It is known under the various 
popular names of Barbel, Dace, and Horned Dace. It is considered by many as well tasted. 
It IS readily taken with the hook, and begins to bite in this State about the middle of April. 
It was first described by Lesueur, from a specimen five inches long, which is rather less than 
the average size. Dr. Storer has described a specimen fourteen inches long, which is unusu- 
ally large. The uses of the tubercles are not very apparent. Lesueur is inclined to the 
opinion that they may be a sexual distinction, but this has not been confirmed by my obser- 
vations. 



200 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

THE PALE SUCKER. 

CaTOSTOMUS PALLIDU3. 
PLATE XXXIIl. FIG. 101. 

Characteristics. Sides pale. The two portions of the air-bladder united by a wide aperture. 
Caudal fin furcate. Length 9-10 inches. 

Description. Body rounded, subquadrate, being quite depressed on the back anterior to the 
dorsal fin, and the sides are nearly vertical. Scales with concentric and radiating impressions, 
round, and festooned on the exposed margins ; small on the back and shoulders, becoming 
gradually larger to the tail. Lateral line nearly medial, very slightly curved. Eyes large, 
somewhat nearer the edge of the branchial aperture than to the end of the snout. A series 
of mucous pores running over each eye, and terminating above the nostril ; another from near 
the extremity of the snout, proceeds under the eye, then rising closely behind it, runs back- 
ward near the upper angle of the gill opening, thence to the nape, which it crosses to meet a 
similar series on the other side. Upper surface of the head and snout smooth, with the slight 
inequalities common to the genus, and which are scarcely obvious in the living specimens. 

The dorsal fin scarcely longer than high, slightly excavated above ; its first ray short and 
simple ; the first articulated ray longest : this fin commences equidistant between the snout 
and the base of the caudal fin. Pectorals pointed, equal in length to the anal. Ventrals 
short, and placed under the posterior part of the dorsal. Anal fin long, subacute, reaching 
to the base of the caudal fin. Caudal furcate. Air-bladder divided into two separate portions ; 
the posterior longest, elliptical, with its posterior extremity attenuated behind ; anterior long 
and subcordate, less in diameter than the posterior portion. 

Color, of the head dark greenish, with metallic reflections on the cheeks. Irides golden. 
Back light bluish, becoming mixed with yellow and paler on the sides. Abdomen white. 
Dorsal and caudal dark brown mixed with yellow. Anal with a faint tinge of yellow. Pec- 
torals and ventrals orange. 

Length, 9-0. Depth, 1-8. 

Fm rays, D. 13 ; P. 16 ; V. 9 ; A. 8 ; C. 18 |. 

' The Pale Sucker is a common species, and is taken about the beginning of April. It is 
abundant near Peekskill. I was at first disposed to arrange it with the preceding, with which 
it agrees in many particulars. Its uniformly pale appearance, forked tail, and the form of its 
air-bladder, have induced me to treat it as distinct, although closely allied- to that species. 



FAMILY CYPRINID.E — CATOSTOMUS. 201 

THE MULLET SUCKER. 

Catostomos aureolus. 

PLATE XLII. FIG. 133.— (STATE COLLECTION.) 

Catostomus aureolus. Lesuedr, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sciences, Vol. 1, p. 95. 
C. id., Gilt Sucking Carp. Richardson, Faun. Boreal. Am. Vol. 3, p. Il9. 

Characteristics. With four or five dusky longitudinal stripes. Anal extending beyond the 
base of the caudal fin, which is furcate. Length twelve to eighteen inches. 

Description. Body subcylindrical, compressed towards the tail. Scales very large, adhe- 
rent, subquadrate, longer than high, subequal ; the surface covered with minute concentric 
strife ; the attached portion with 10-12 irregular radiating raised lines ; the posterior portion 
with about four distinct radiating raised lines, and numerous radiating striae ; the free margin 
irregularly rounded ; the anterior margin prolonged in its medial portion. Twenty-four scales 
were counted in the course of the lateral line, and twelve in an oblique course from the origin 
of the dorsal to the base of the ventral fins. The lateral line arises from about the upper 
third of the opercular margin, and is nearly straight. Head smooth, flattened above. Snout 
ending in a blunt point. Eyes rather oblong, ■ 5 in their greatest diameter, and about three 
diameters apart. Nostrils double, contiguous, 0'3 in advance of the eyes, with a semilunar 
valve on the anterior margin of the posterior pair. Mouth plaited, protractile. 

The dorsal fin arises nearly equidistant between the tip of the snout, and a point vertical 
to the posterior ray of the anal fin : it is composed of fifteen rays ; the first short, the second 
longest, both simple, the remainder branched ; the edge of this fin slightly emarginate. 
Pectorals large, pointed, with eighteen rays ; the first simple, rigid for nearly half its length. 
The ventrals broad, truncated, with nine rays. The vent covered by a sort of membranous 
pouch. Anal long and pointed, with robust rays ; the first, slender, short ; the fifth very 
long, its tip reaching beyond the base of the caudal fin, which is forked, and often with 
unequal lobes. 

Color. Greenish above, with metallic greenish reflections when viewed in certain lights. 
Sides lighter, with the same metalhc reflections ; beneath- white. About five dusky obsolete 
longitudinal lines on each side, above ; the. superior pair arising from the origin of the dorsal 
ilri, divsorging and then uniting behind the neck. Gill-covers with metallic brassy reflections. 
Upper part of the head and snout bluish brown. Pectorals, ventrals and anal tinged with 
reddish. Dorsal and caudal bluish brown. Irides golden, varied with white. 

Length, 18-0. Depth, 3-5. 

Fm rays, D. 15 ; P. 18 ; V. 9 ; A. 8 ; C. 18 |. 

The specimen described above, was one of the largest dimensions. It is very indifferent 
food. It is very common in Lake Erie, and at Buffalo passes under the various names of 
Mullet, Golden Mullet, and Red Horse. In August and September, I observed them to 

Fauna — Part 4. 26 



202 ' NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

be full of worms. The dusky longitudinal lines, which are distinctly visible in the newly 
captured fish, disappear almost immediately after death. It is a very beautiful and distinct 
species. 

THE BLACK SUCKER. 

Catostomhs nigricans. 

Catostomus nigricans. Lesuecb, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sc. Vol. 1, p. 102. 
C. nigricans, The Black Sucker. Stokee, Massachusetts Report, p. 86. 

Characteristics. General hue approaching to black. Head large, quadrangular. Anal fin 
straight; its extremity reaching the base of the caudal fin. Length 13 
inches. 

Description. Body subquadrangular near the head. Tail straight, short. Eyes oblong. 
Scales moderate, roundish. The lateral line runs in a straight course from the branchial 
aperture, below the range of the eye, to the tail. Dorsal fin quadrangular and small. Anal 
fin with its third and fourth rays longest, reaching on to the caudal fin. Caudal fin forked, 
with pointed lobes. 

Color, of the back, blackish ; sides and abdomen reddish yellow, with dusky blotches ; 
beneath white. Pectoral, abdominal and anal fins reddish ; caudal and dorsal fins dashed with 
black. 

Length, 13-0 -20'0. 

Fin rays, D. 13 ; P. 18 ; V. 9 ; A. 8 ; C. 18. 

This species is common in Lake Erie, where it is frequently called by the whimsical name 
of SJioemaker, probably in allusion to its being something of the color of shoemaker's pitch. 
Dr. Storer has observed it at Walpole (Mass.) 

THE LARGE-SCALED SUCKER. 

Catostomus macrolepidotus. 

PLATE. 77 ^^, 2 4^% , 
C. macrolepidotus. LESOEnR, Joum. Acad. Nat. Sc. Vol. 1, p. 94. 

Characteristics. Bluish above ; sides whitish. Dorsal fin short ; the anterior lobe elevated 
and pointed ; the posterior lobe rounded. Scales large. 

Description. Body compressed and fusiform, elevated on its anterior part, rounded near the 
nape. Head somewhat declivous, longer than deep. Scales large, and disposed in a lozenge 
form. The lateral line rises at the nape of the neck, descends along the gill-cover, and thence 
to the tail in a line with the centre of the eye. Dorsal fin short. Pectorals and ventrals small. 



FAMILY CYPRINID.E CATOSTOMUS. 203 

Anal fin straight, long, and passing the base of the caudal fin. Caudal forked, with pointed 
lobes. 

Color. Back dark blue ; base of the scales brown ; sides whitish, with yellow reflections. 
Opercles yellowish. Head reddish brown. Dorsal, anal and ventral tinged with blue and 
yellow ; caudal greyish. 

Fin rays, D. 16 ; P. 18 ; V. 9 ; A. 9 ; C. 18 |. 

Mr. Lesueur has not given the dimensions of this very distinct species, which is found in 
the River Delaware, and doubtless exists in this State. I have given a copy from Lesueur's 
figure. He notices, in another place, that the figure of the dorsal fin is not always as much 
excavated. In the males, according to Lesueur, the fin is obhquely truncated, and not hol- 
lowed out. It appears to be a common species. 

(EXTRALIMITAL) 

C. lotigirostris. (Lesueur, Ac. Sc. Vol. 1, p. 102.) Head flat, with a long snout. Scales small 

and rounded. Anal fin not touching the base of the caudal. D. 12 ; A. 7. Length five inches. 

Vermont. 
C. maculosus. (Id. lb. p. 103.) Head large, quadrangular. Eyes small. Color reddish, with ir- 
regular blotches of black. Lateral line straight, running in a line with the eye. Pharyngeal teeth 

hooked. A. 9. Length 8 inches. Maryland. An Var. nigricans ? 
C. elongatus. The Missouri Sucker, Black Horse and Black Buffalo. (Id. lb. p. 103.) Body very 

long. Dorsal as long as one-third of the body, with 32 rays. Length two feet. Ohio. 
C. vittatus. (Id.) A black stripe passes from the snout, through the eyes, to the caudal fins. Scales 

very small, rounded. Length 2 inches. Philadelphia. 
C. duquesnii, The White Sucker. (Id.) Scales large, trilobate. Head one-fifth of the total length. 

Caudal deeply forked Mouth wide. D. 14. Length 19 inches. Pittsburgh. 
C. sucelta. (Lacepede.) Head compressed, flat. Lower hp veiy thick, crenated. Scales semi- 

rhomboidal. Sides silvery. D. 12; A. 9. Length one to two feet. South-Carolina. 
C mazilingua. The Little Sucker. (Lesueur, Ac. Sc. Vol. 1, p. 85.) Sides blue, with a brownish 

band. A black spot on the base of the caudal fin. Dorsal high. Caudal forked. D. 9 ; A. 9. 

Length four inches. Delaware. An juv. ? 
C. sueuri. (Richardson, F. B. A.) Brilliant metalhc colors. Scales very large. Air-bladder divided 

into three portions. D. 14; A. 9. Length 19 inches. Northern Regions. 
C. forsterianus. Red Sucker. (Id. lb.) Scales broadly oblong, radiated. Dorsal higher than long, 

with 12 to 14 rays. Anal 8 or 9, not reaching to the base of the caudal. Length 22 inches. 

Northern Regions. 



204 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

GENUS STILBE. 

Body compressed. Dorsal and abdominal outlines convex. Head small, with no teeth nor 
barbels. A short spine before the dorsal fin, lohich is short. Anal fin long. With the 
other characters of Cyprinus. 

THE NEW-YORK SHINER. 

StILBE CHEYSOr.EUCAS. 

PLATE XXIX. FIG. 91. 

Cyprinus erysoleucas, Hhiner. MiTCHiLL, Report in part, &c. p. 23. 

The New-York Shiner, C. erysoleucas. Id. Tr. Lit. and Phil. Soc. N. Y. Vol. 1, p. 4.19. 

Lcuctscits chrysoleitcas, New-York Shiner. Storer, Fishes of Massachusetts, p. 88, 

Characteristics. Greenish above ; sides silvery. Dorsal and abdominal outlines convex. 
Head very small. Length three to six inches. 

Description. Body much compressed, deep ; one-third of the total length, measured in a 
line with the ventrals. Scales deciduous ; on the sides, large, orbicular, with concentric and 
radiating striae, festooned on the edges. Lateral line deeply concave, following nearly the 
abdominal outline. Head very small, scaleless ; upper jaw longest ; mouth opening upwards, 
toothless. Eyes large. Nostrils double ; the posterior largest. Three flat branchial rays. 
Abdominal outline very convex, thin, cultrate. 

The dorsal fin subquadrate, higher than long, highest in front ; the first is a short spine, 
nearly hidden under the skin, about three lines in length ; the second and third successively 
longer, and simple ; the fourth longest, and with the remainder branched, and gradually dimi- 
nishing to the last. This fin is placed over the space between the ventral and anal, its last 
ray being nearly over the first of the anal fin. Pectorals pointed, feeble, and with fifteen 
rays. Ventrals long, pointed, and nearly equidistant between the snout and the end of the 
body. Anal longer than high ; its margin excavated ; the first rays longest, the last higher 
than the penultimate ray ; the first two rays simple. Caudal forked, with pointed lobes. 

Color. Back, dorsal and caudal fins greenish. Upper part of the head dark brown, with 
metallic green behind the orbits. Irides pale yellowish ; beneath the orbits, pearly. Oper- 
cles brilliant yellow, which disappears shortly after being taken from the water. Pectorals 
and ventrals with faint orange tints. Sides of a brilliant lustrous white, which has suggested 
the popular name. 

Length, 5-0. Depth, r3. 

Fin rays, D. 10 ; P. 15 ; V. 10 ; A. 14 ; C. 19 |. 

This beautiful little fish, which is usually much smaller than the one whose dimensions are 
given above, is common in all the fresh-water streams of this and the adjoining States. Tts 



FAMILY CYPRINID^ LEUCISCUS. 205 

geographical limits are not ascertained. Richardson (Vol. 3, p. 122) describes one from Lake 
Huron, under the same name, which must be a different species. 

I have ventured to construct a new genus for the reception of this species. The deep body, 
small head, cultrate abdomen and dorsal spine, clearly show that it can be arranged with 
no previously described genus of this family. The name alludes to its silvery lustrous 
appearance. 

GENUS LEUCISCUS. Klein. 

The dorsal and anal fins short, without stro?ig rays at their commencement. No cirri, nor 
barbels on the head. The dorsal either above the ventrals, or between these and the anal. 

THE BLACK-NOSED DACE. 

LeUCISCUS ATRONiSnS. 

PLATE XXIII. FIG. 69. 

The Brook Minnow, Cyprinus atronasus. MiTCHiLL, Lit. and Phil. Soc. Vol. 1, p. 460. 
Jjeuciscus atrojiasus, The Brook Minnow. Storer, Massachusetts Report, p. 92. 

Characteristics. Small, with a broad black longitudinal band. Tail forked. Length one to 
three inches. 

Description. Body oblong, cylindrical, tapering. Head small, flattened. Scales moderate, 
orbicular, and, under the lens, exhibiting concentric and radiating striae ; towards the tail they 
become oblong. Lateral line straight, composed of a double series of tubes, and running 
along the lower margin of the dark longitudinal band. Eyes rather large, with black pupils 
and golden irides, the lower portion being darkest. Nostrils large, oval. Mouth small ; the 
under jaw shortest. A few sharp incurved teeth in the pharynx. 

The dorsal fin higher than long, subquadrate, slight, emarginate above ; the rays succes- 
sively shorter to the last. It arises nearly equidistant between the extremity of the caudal 
fin, and the tip of the snout ; its first ray is slightly in advance of the ventrals. The pectorals 
are placed very low, fan-shaped, and with very minute rays. Ventrals feeble, and very 
closely approximated to the anal, which latter equals in length some of the longest rays of the 
dorsal fin ; the third and fourth rays longest. This fin is quite remote from the caudal, which 
is deeply forked, and with numerous accessory rays. 

Color. Body above greenish ; summit of the head blackish brown. A broad dark brown 
or blackish band passes from the nose, including the lower half of the eyes, and proceeds in 
a straight line to the tail ; bordering this above, is a light yellow line, which, however, com- 
mences only from the gill-covers : this is occasionally inconspicuous. Under the lens, the 
scales appear minutely punctate with brown. Abdomen silvery, with a few brownish and 
metallic blotches. Pectorals orange. Dorsal and caudal dark brown. 



206 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

Length, 3-0. Depth, 0-5. 

Fin rays. D. 8 ; P. 15 ; V. 8 ; A. 8 ; C. 19 f . 

The dimensions given above, are from one of the largest size. It inhabits clear fresh-water 
streams and rivulets, and is found abundantly in this and the adjoining States. 

THE SPAWN-EATER. 

LeHCISCUS HUDSONinS. 
PLATE XXXIV. FIG. 109. — (STATE COLLECTION. CAB. LYCEUM.) 
Chij>ea hudscmia. Clinton, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y. Vol. I, p. 49, pi. 2, fig. 2. 

Characteristics. A broad longitudinal silvery band along the sides, and a black spot on the 
base of the caudal fin. Length three to six inches. 

Description. Body subcompressed, cylindrical ; dorsal outline somewhat arched near the 
dorsal fin. Abdomen convex. Scales very deciduous, vertically oblong ; margins entire. 
Lateral line straight. Head small, flattened above. From above the nostrils, the facial line 
descends rather abruptly, producing a blunted nose. Eyes large ; the upper margin of the 
orbits near the facial outline; orbits 0'3 in diameter. Nostrils double, contiguous; the pos- 
terior largest, sublunate ; and both vertical, in a line with the upper margin of the orbits. 
Opercles obtusely rounded, with a narrovi' membrane on its margin ; near the upper angle, a 
flat curved and pointed scale. Length of the head to that of the body and tail, as one to six 
nearly. Branchial aperture large. Jaws toothless ; the lower shortest. Branchial arches 
with short pectinations. 

The dorsal fin trapezoidal, placed immediately above the ventrals, composed of one long 
simple and seven successively shorter branched rays. Pectorals long and pointed, containing 
fifteen rays. Ventrals with one simple and seven branched rays ; their tips nearly reaching 
the anal. Anal higher than long. Caudal forked ; the lobes equal. 

Color. Opercles silvery. A lustrous silvery band O'l broad, extends from the upper 
angle of the opercle to the base of the tail, where there is a deep roundish black spot. Pupils 
black ; irides silvery. 

Length, 4" 5; of the head, 0"8. 

Fin rays, D. 8 ; P. 15 ; V. 8 ; C. 19 |. 

This species was originally noticed by Mr. L Cozzens, in a catalogue which we drew up 
togetlier many years ago. In that list, he called it Stolephorus hudsonius, but the descrip- 
tion remained in manuscript. The first published description of this beautiful fish was by a 
former Governor of this State, De Witt Clinton, in the Annals of the Lyceum above re- 
ferred to. It is called Spawn-eater, from an idea entertained by fishermen that it lives 
exclusively on the spawn of other fishes. It is not uncommon in the Hudson river and its 
tributaries. 



FAMILY CYPRINID^ — LEUCISCUS. 207 

THE RED-FIN. 

LeDCISCUS C0KNDTU3. 
PLATE XXIX. PIG. 92. 
Cyprinus comutus, The Red-Jin or Roji^h-heafl, MiTCHiLL, Am. Month. Mag. Vol. 1, p. 324. 

Characteristics. Opercles, and the margins of all the fins, bright crimson. Numerous tuber- 
cles on the head. Length three to six inches. 

Description. Body symmetrical, cylindrical, tapering ; greatest depth anterior to the dorsal 
fin, where the back is slightly arched. Scales large, oblong vertically, with concentric and 
radiating strife and entire margins. Lateral line gently concave from its origin until it reaches 
a point below the termination of the dorsal, and then proceeds straight throughout ; it is com- 
posed of a series of single tubes. Summit of the head covered with numerous minute pointed 
tubercles, (in some individuals, extending as far back as the dorsal fin.) These are also to be 
seen on the sides of the snout, and form a regular series along the sides of the lower jaw. 
They have a rounded, extended, and somewhat depressed base. Eyes moderate. Lower 
jaw rather shortest. Nostrils double, contiguous ; the posterior largest. Air-bladder double ; 
the anterior short and cylindrical ; the posterior longest, and pointed behind. 

The dorsal fin quadrate, higher than long, originating above the commencement of the 
ventrals, composed of eight rays, of which the anterior is longest, and thence gradually 
diminishing to the last. Pectorals placed low down, broad, and obtusely pointed ; their tips 
reach to within three-tenths of the ventrals. Ventrals rounded, and beneath the dorsal. 
Anal broader at base than high ; its anterior rays longest, and its margin broadly excavated. 
It commences beneath a point reached by the tip of the dorsal when recumbent. Caudal 
forked, with many accessory rays. 

Color. Above blackish brown, with metallic reflections ; sides brilliant cupreous. Opercles 
sometimes brassy, occasionally deep bronze. Dorsal and caudal darkish brown ; the former 
sometimes mottled with darker clouds. Ventrals and pectorals light-colored; the first rays 
of the pectoral fin deep brown, which occasionally tinges the central portion of the rays. 
All the fins broadly margined with deep crimson ; the lower part of the opercles and base of 
the pectorals tinged with the same color. Humeral bone deep blackish brown. Abdominal 
cavity lined with a silvery pigment. 

Length, 5*2. Head, fO. 

Fin rays, D. 8 ; P. 15 ; V. 8 ; A. 9 ; C. 19 f 

This very beautiful little fish was first noticed by me in Indian lake, Hamilton county ; 
subsequently in Lake Janet, and in most of the streams in the northern parts of the State. 
Dr. Mitchill describes it from Westchester county. It is exceedingly Hvely and active in its 
movements ; is usually found in clear limpid streams, associated with the Brook Trout. It 



208 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

has the various popular names of Red-fin, Red Dace, and Rough-head. It appears to be 
allied to the L. pulchellus of Storer. 

THE ROACH DACE. 

Leuciscus pdlchellus. 
Leucums pukhellus, The Beautiful Leucisais. Stoker, Massachusetts Report, p. 91. 

Characteristics. Brown above ; lighter on the sides. Dorsal nearly as high again as long. 
Length fourteen inches. 

Description. Back slightly arched ; the arch on the top of the head very slight. Scales 
large, small on the back and smaller on the throat ; transparent, rounded at the summit, trun- 
cated at their base, exhibiting numerous strife. At the base of each scale, a fleshy dark 
colored membrane, which, projecting as far as the apex of the preceding scales, gives the 
appearance of indistinct oblique bands across the fish. The lateral line commences at the 
upper angle of the branchial aperture, curves downward nine scales, and goes off' straight ; it 
is composed of fifty-nine scales. Nine above the lateral line, in an oblique line from the origin 
of the dorsal fin, and six below. Head naked ; distance between the eyes equal to one-third 
the length of the head. Nostrils placed higher than the eyes, and in front of them ; the posterior 
largest, the anterior tubular. Jaws without teeth. Upper jaw juts slightly over the lower. 

The dorsal fin arises on the anterior half of the body ; the first ray one-fourth the height of 
the second. Pectorals rounded. Ventrals beneath the dorsal, shorter than the pectorals. Anal 
arises 0"75 behind the dorsal, and is higher than long ; the first ray one-fourth the height of 
the second. Caudal large, three inches wide when expanded. 

Color. Back dark brown ; sides and abdomen flesh-colored, with metallic reflections. Head 
bluish above ; gill-covers silvery, with metallic tints and a brown membranous prolongation. 
Dorsal brovm with reddish. Pectorals brownish above ; lighter beneath. Ventrals and anal 
light-colored. 

Length, 14-0. 

Fin rays, D. 10 ; P. 17 ; V. 8 ; A. 10 ; C. 22. 

According to Dr. Storer, this species is found in the Eastern States, where it is called Roach 
and Cofusin Trout. 



FAMILY CYPRINIDiE U;UCI.SCUS. 209 

THE SHINING DACE. 

C. 

LeUCISCUS NITIDUS. 

PLATE XXXIII. FIG. 105 — (ST.\TE COLLECTION.) 

Characteristics. Body silvery white. Head with mucous pores. Tail deeply emarginate, not 
furcate. Length two to ten inches. 

Description. Body rather deep, compressed, elongate. Scales large, caducous, orbicular ; 
the free margins festooned with elevated radiate striate lines, the intervals being concentrically 
striate ; the scales ascend some distance up the caudal fin. There are seven scales in an 
oblique line from the first dorsal ray to the lateral line, and five below. Forty-six were counted 
along the lateral line, which is curved downward, and concurrent with the abdomen. Head 
small, smooth and scalcless ; flattened above, with a curved series of mucous pores on each 
side above the eyes, extending to the nostrils, and are apparently continuations of the lateral 
line. Eyes moderate, 0".3 in diameter and 0'65 apart. Length of the head I -6. Nostrils 
contiguous; the posterior largest, with a valvular membrane. Snout blunt; under jaw shortest, 
both edentate. Sharp teeth in the pharyngeals. Tongue conspicuous, attached, with trans- 
verse ruga;. The same rugae, with slightly pectinated margins, in the roof of the mouth. 
Stomach capacious. Air-bladder double ; the posterior portion longest. 

The dorsal fin quadrate, higher than long, and commencing rather nearer the end of the 
snout than to the base of the caudal ; the anterior ray longest. Pectorals small, slender and 
pointed, placed below the angle of the opercle. Ventrals beneath the dorsal ; the second and 
third rays longest. The anal commences half an inch behind the lips of the ventrals, emargi- 
nate, with its second and third rays longest. Caudal fin deeply emarginate, not forked. 

Color. Upper part of the head and body olive brown ; the former darker. Sides silvery. 
Pupil black, with a silvery ring. Gill-covers lustrous silvery. Pectoral fins tinged with light 
yellow, reddish on its inner base. Dorsal and caudal fins brownish. On the small specimens 
only did we notice a bright greenish stripe above the lateral line, which appeared only in 
certain lights. 



'&" 



Length, 2-0- 10-0. 

Fin rays, D. 8 ; P. 16 ; V. 10 ; A. 9 ; C. 19 f. 

This species was taken in July, in Lake Champlain, where it appeared to be common. It 
was called there. White Dace and Shiner. 



Fauna — Part 4. 27 



210 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

THE BLACK-HEADED DACE. 

LeUCISCVS ATROMArnLATCS. 
PLATE XXXII. FIG. 1(12 — (STATE COLLECTION.) 
The Mud-Ush, Cyfrmns alromaculatus. ftllTCHlLL, Am. Month. Magazine, Vol. 2, p. S^-l. 

Characteristics. Back anterior to tlie dorsal, with a depression in tlie vertebral line. Lips 
fleshy. A dusky longitudinal band. Length six to twelve inches. 

Description. Body cylindrical, tapering, subcomprcsscd. Scales large, suborbicular, witli 
radiating and concentric striff . Lateral line distinct, arising from the upper angle of the opercle, 
curving downward to the twelfth row of scales, then slightly rising under the middle of the 
dorsal fin, and going off straight. The anterior portion of the back flattened, with a depression 
in the centre, extending nearly to the dorsal fin. Head sloping, smooth and scaleless. A 
series of mucous pores over each eye, extending to the nape ; this is only apparent in the 
larger individuals. Nostrils in a cavity ; the posterior large and patent ; the anterior nearly 
closed by a valvular margin. Mouth terminal, very large. Lips somewhat fleshy, with a 
very slight roughness on the jaws. 

The dorsal fin arises nearly in the centre of the body, quadrate, higher than long ; the 
second, third and fourth longest. The pectorals are placed low down, and may be described 
as low and pointed. Ventrals half an inch anterior to a line vertical from the origin of the 
dorsal. Anal higher than long, arising two-tenths of an inch behind a line vertical from the 
end of the dorsal. In this specimen, this fin was 0"8 long. Caudal fin lunate. 

Color. Body above dark olive-green, with a broad darker longitudinal band extending from 
the gill-covers to the tail. In the larger individuals, this color extends, as in atronasus, 
through the eyes, and to the ti^) of the snout. Flanks of golden yeUow. Beneath silvery 
white. Head deep brownish black. Gfll-covers cupreous, with metallic reflections. The 
black color of the head descends down along the margin of the gill-cover, to the base of the 
pectoral. Eyes black, surrounded by a golden ring. Dorsal fin with a dark spot at the ante- 
rior portion of its base. Pectorals, ventrals and anal with a light orange tint. 

Length, lO'O; of the head, 1-5. Depth, r2. 
Fin rays, D. 9 ; P. 15 ; V. 8 ; A. 9 ; C. 18 f . 

This species is very common in the lakes in the northern counties of tlie State, and varies 
much in size. They are popularly termed Lake Chub and Lake Dace. I refer this, notwith- 
standing the discrepancies in the enumeration of the fin rays, to the Mud-fish of Dr. Mitchill. 
which he describes from the Walkfll. His specimens were six inches long. 



FAMILY CYPRINID.t — LEUCISCUS. 211 

THE BAY SHINER. 

Leuciscus chrysopterus. 
PLATE XXX. FIG. 95. — (STATE COLLECTION.) 

Characteristics. \ entrals with an accessory scale. Dorsal emarginate. Lenrfiii lour to six 
inches. 

Description. Body elongate, tapering, subcompressed. Scales large, subequal. Number 
ot scales in a transverse series to the ventrals, seven above and six below the lateral line. 
There arc about forty-five in a longitudinal series. They are rounded, the free margins entire ; 
exposed surface with six or seven elevated radiating striaB, with minute intermediate concen- 
tric striffi ; middle of the base of each scale produced, with eight or nine radiating plaits. 
Lateral line curved downward below the middle of the body opposite the ventrals, thence 
rising and going off straight, but somewhat below the medial line. Head scaleless, pointed, 
smooth, flattened above. The opercular bones smooth, lustrous silvery. Humeral bone 
broad, triangular, shining. Eyes large, 0"3 in diameter, and rather more than their diameters 
apart. The anterior nostril circular, with an elevated margin nearly covering the posterior 
aperture. Snout blunt. Mouth small, toothless. 

The dorsal fin arises nearly half an inch farther from the snout than from the base of the 
caudal ; it is half an inch long, and slightly exceeding this in height ; quadrate, slightly emar- 
ginate above ; the first ray shortest, the two first simple ; of nine rays, the last bifid. Pecto- 
ral acuminate, placed low down, slightly behind the gill opening, its tip reaching to Avithin 
half an inch of the base of the ventrals ; its own base obhque, the lower rays very minute. 
Ventrals broad, rather contiguous, composed of one simple and eight branched rays ; they 
arise a tenth of an inch in advance of the first dorsal ray, with a pointed accessory scale at 
the base ; they reach to within 0*2 of the vent, which is placed just before the anal fin. This 
latter fin of two simple and eight branched rays, broadly emarginate above. Caudal deeply 
lunate ; the membrane of the middle rays translucent. 

Color. A general silvery color, with a darker hue above. Fins yellowish. I have not 
given a colored figure of this species, as I had not a sufficiently fresh specimen from which 
to make the drawing. 

Length, 6-0. Depth, r2. 

Fm rays, D. 9 ; P. 19 ; V. 9 ; A. 10 ; C. 19 f . 

This beautiful species is caught in the harbor of New- York, and is popularly called Bay 
Shiner, or simply Shiner. It is allied to L. nitidus, a fresh-water species already described. 
It appears to have some relations with the family of the Clupidaj. 



212 NEW- YORK FAUNA. 

THE SILVERY DACE. 

Leuciscus argentecs. 
Lcuciscus argcHlnis, The Siloenj Leucisais. Storer, Massachvisetts Report, p. 90. 

Characteristics . 

Description. Body elongate, but very slightly arched over the neck and at the dorsal fin. 
Head without scales. On the body, nine moderate sized scales in an oblique line from the 
origin of the dorsal to the lateral line, and four beneath. The lateral line commences on the 
sides of the snout, and passing back under the eyes, and up over the posterior angles of the 
gill-covers, curved downward until opposite the middle of the pectorals, and thence straight. 
Head flattened above ; distance between the eyes 0*5 ; their diameters 0' 25. The posterior 
nostril obhque and largest. Jaws toothless ; upper jaw longest. The dorsal fin arises on the 
anterior half of the body, higher than long; the first half as high as the second. Pectorals 
elongated, as high as the dorsal. Ventrals directly beneath the dorsal. Anal 0' 25 behind 
the ventrals ; its length to its licight as two to three. Caudal deeply forked. 

Color. General color silvery ; rather darker on the back, head above bluish. Opercle 
cupreous ; exterior to the opercle, a narrow dark band encircles the head from the base of the 
pectorals, and separating the head from the body. Preoperclc inchuing to flesh color. Dorsal 
fin dark colored ; the others lighter. 

Length, 6'0. 

Fin rays, D. U ; P. 16 ; V. 8 ; A. 9 ; C. 20. 

I am indebted to Dr. Storer for the description of this Dace, from the adjoining State of 
Massachusetts. 

THE BANDED DACE. 

Leuciscus vittatus. 
PLATE XXXIV. FIG. lOS. — (STATE COLLECTION.) 

Characteristics. Olive-green, with a golden dorsal stripe ; silvery beneath, tinged with flesh- 
color. Length two to four inches. 

Description. Body subcylindrical, tapering, subcompressed. Scales moderate, with mem- 
branous margins. Lateral line descends with a curve, and rises under the posterior part of 
the dorsal fin to the middle of the body. Head rather depressed, scaleless, with several 
series of mucous pores. Eyes large. Mouth small, terminal, toothless ; a few teeth in the 
pharynx. Three branchial rays. Air-bladder double; the anterior short, cylindrical; the 
posterior longer, pointed behind. Dorsal fin quadrate, higher than long ; its first ray simple, 
the second longest ; its articulated ray quadrifid. Pectorals pointed, subfalcate, placed very 



FAMILY CYPRINID^ LEUCISCUS. 213 

low down. Ventrals broad and ronndcd, beneath the dorsal. Anal similar in shape to the 
dorsal, but not so high; its upper edge slightly emarginate. Caudal deeply forked. 

Color. Body above light-olive green, with a golden dorsal stripe extending to the tail. A 
faint broad yellowish stripe along the sides, which in certain lights assumes a darker hue. 
Abdomen silvery, tinged with salmon-color. Pupils black ; irides light brown. Summit of 
the head olive-brown. The fins yellowish, translucent. 

Length, 4-0. Depth, O'S. 

Fin rays, D. 9 ; P. 15 ; V. 8 ; A. 8 ; C. 19 |. 

This small species is very common in the Chittenonda and other tributaries of the Mohawk. 
In the latter stream, they are abundant in the "pot-holes," or circular cavities made in its 
limestone bed. 

THE CORPORAALEN. 

Leucisccs'! corporalis. 
Corporal, Ci/prmus corporalis. MiTCHiLL, Am. Month. Mag. Vol. 2, p. 324. 

Description. Head smooth, roundish, thick, and without scales. Body thickly covered 
with scales : On the back, more especially between the head and dorsal fin, the hue is dusky ; 
on the belly, it is uniformly white ; and on the sides, the fore part of each scale is covered 
with a blackish film or pigment. Mouth toothless, and of a moderate gape. Tongue distinct, 
not free. Gill-covers smooth. Tail forked ; the lateral line bends downwards and ends in 
the middle of the tail. Branchial rays three. Dorsal fin near the middle of the back, and 
consists of seven rays ; caudal of nineteen, or thereabouts ; the anal seven ; the ventral seven; 
pectorals thirteen ; the dorsal and caudal fins tipped with blackish. Length of a middle sized 
individual about thirteen inches, though he frequently grows larger. Inhabits the Hudson in 
the neighborhood of Albany, the Walkill through its whole extent, and the western streams 
and lakes from Wood creek to the Oneida lake, and so on. Takes the hook, if baited with 
dough, when let down through holes in the ice, at mid-winter, in the Hudson at Albany. 
Flesh eatable, but rather soft and coarse. 

I have copied this brief account of a fish which, according to Dr. Mitchill, is common in 
almost every part of the State, but which it has not yet been my good fortune to meet with. 
I solicit the attention of ichthyologists to this species, which, if it should prove to be a Leu- 
cisa/s, is one of the largest of the genus. 



214 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

THE PIC4MY DACE 

Leuciscus pycMXDs. 
PLATE XLII. FIG. 13J. — (STATE COLLECTION.) 

Characteristics. Very small. One or more black ccellate spots on the base of the oblong- 
pointed tail. Length one inch. 

Description. Body oblong, cylindrical; abdomen somewhat prominent. Lateral line con- 
current with the back. Scales soft, large in proportion to the size of the body, extending 
over the checks, and to a line with the anterior margin of the orbits. Head flattened, the 
facial line descending to the snout. Eyes large, and rather more than their diameters apart; 
orbits prominent. Nostrils inconspicuous. Mouth small, edentate ; lower jaw somewhat 
longest. The dorsal fin long, emarginate, and over the ventrals and anal. Pectorals low 
down, pointed, with excessively minute rays. Ventrals with six rays, ending in filiform points. 
Anal coterminal with the dorsal. Caudal long, lanceolate. 

Color. Head and back uniform dark brown or black above, and lighter towards the abdo- 
men ; reticulations of the scales darkish. Pupil black ; iridcs light-colored. On each side 
of the tail a black spot, margined with white ; occasionally two of these spots on each side, 
suiToiinded by a common ring. Rays of the vertical fins annulate with brown. 

Length, 1 • 0. 

Fin rays, I). 14; P. 16; V. (i ; A. 13. C. IT. 

The scaly head, long dorsal and filiform ventrals, evidently indicate a new form, distinct 
from Leuciscus. In a general systema, it must be the type of a new genus. It is the smallest 
of the American Cyprinida;, the above being of the largest size. It occurs in brooks near 
Tappan, Rockland county, from whence it was obtained by Mr. John G. Bell. They are 
very active, ascend high up the sources of the smallest streams, and are frequently left in 
shallow ]30ols dried up bv the sun. 

(EXTRA-LIMITAL. ) 

L. elongatus. (Kirtland. Best. Jour. Vol. 3, p. 339, pi. 4, fig. 1.) Sky blue. Back edged below 
with a golden band, which is margined beneath by an interrupted black stripe ; beneath this a 
carmine stripe, ending opposite the ventrals. Length three inches. Tributaries of Lake Erie. 

L. dissimilis. (Id. lb. fig. 2.) Head flat between the eyes ; nose prominent. Back brownish or olivo; 
A golden stripe along the lateral line, with about twelve bluish dots. With preceding. 

L. biguttatus. (Id. lb. pi. 5, fig. 1.) A large vermilion dot behind each eye. A black spot at the 
base of the caudal. Allied to cornutus. Length six inches. Ohio. 

L. cephalus. Chub Big-head. (Id. lb. pi 5, fig. 2.) Head often with spines. Silvery; back brownish. 
Dorsal with a large black spot at the anterior base. D. 9 ; A. 9. Length six to eight inches. 
Ohio. 



FAMILY CYPRINID/E — lEBIAS. 215 

L. caurinus. (Richardson, F. B. A. p. 304.) Moderately compressed. Scales orbicular ; seventy- 
five on the lateral line, twenty-four in a vertical line. Caudal deeply forked. D. 10- A. 9. Lencrth 
121 inches. Columbia River. 

L. orcgonensis. (Id. lb. p. 305.) Brownish grey; belly silvery white. More elongated than the 
preceding ; head longer. Length thirteen inches. Columbia River. 

Gnms PcEciLiA, Schneider. Body little elongated. Jaws flattened, protractile, and but slightly cleft, 

with a single row of very small teeth. Opercles large, five-rayed. Dorsal above the anal. 
P. muUilincala. (Lesueur, Ac. Sc. Vol. 2, pi. 1.) Compressed. Several longitudinal series of black 

spots. Dorsal small, longer than high. Caudal straight. D. 1 4 ; A. 9 ; C. 2G. Length one and 

a half inches. Florida. 



GENUS LEBIAS. Cuvier. 
With many of the characters of the jvcccJmg. Teeth denticulated. Branchial rays five. 

THE SHEEPSHEAD LEBIAS. 

Leeias ovinus. 

PLATE XXVII. FIG. 84. 

The Sheepskead Killifisli, Esox oviims. MiTCHiLL, Lit. and Phil. Soc. Vol. 1, p. 441, pi. 4, fig. 7. 
Cyprinodon minus. Valenciennes, apud Humboldt, Obs. Zool. Vol. 2. 

Characteristics. Elliptical, compressed, with transverse stripes or spots occasionally obsolete. 
Extremity of the tail pellucid. 

Description. Body much compressed : its greatest depth equalling one-half of the length of 
the body and tail. Scales large, subquadrate, longest in their vertical diameter, rounded and 
entire on their free edges ; at their radical edge, straight, with parallel horizontal strire ; on the 
summit of the head, a central scale, with its entire margin free. The scales extend over the 
cheeks, form an imperfect sheath for the dorsal, and extend far up the caudal fin, giving that 
pellucid appearance noted in the specific phrase. A large plate or bony scale above the base 
of the pectoral fin. Lateral line scarcely obvious. The head slopes rapidly down from before 
the dorsal fin, and is much flattened between the eyes, which are distant. Nostrils contiguous 
to the orbit. A number of mucous pores about the head and beneath the jaws. Opercular 
margin entire, rounded. Branchial rays five. Jaws protractile, with froin sixteen to eighteen 
tricuspid teeth in each jaw. 

The dorsal fin high and rounded, with eleven nearly subequal branched rays, and termi- 
nating over the commencement of the anal rays. Pectorals pointed, placed low on the body, 
with its middle rays longest, and extending to the seventh dorsal ray. Ventrals very feeble, 
of seven very closely applied rays, with their tips extending to the anal. Anal fin higher than 
long. Caudal fin broad and short, nearly even ; its margin slightly excavated. 



216 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

Color. Back dark green, becoming lighter towards the sides, with numerous spots disposed 
in vertical series, often becoming confluent in interrupted bars. Irides yellow. Fins light 
brown. 

Length, 2-2. Depth, O'S. 

Fm rays, D. 11 ; P. 15 ; V. 7 ; A. 10 ; C. 15 f . 

Dr. Mitchill first described this small species as an Esox. M. Valenciennes, in his elabo- 
rate Memoir on the Fishes of Equinoxial America, arranged it under the genus Cyprinodon. 
The Lehias rhomhoidalis of that author also appears strikingly allied to our species. 

These minute inhabitats of the salt and brackish streams in the neighborhood of New-York, 
possess slight economical value. They are, with other small fishes, used as bait. 

{EXTRA-LIMITAL.) 

L. ellipsoidcs. (Lesueur, Ac. Sc. Vol. 1, p. 6.) With a series of large scales on the back and upper 
part of the head. Caudal fin obliquely truncated. Teeth ending in 3-4 points. Length two 
inches. Florida. 

GENUS FUNDULUS. Lacepede, Valenciennes. 

Bodij oUong, tapering, with large scales. Head depressed, scaly. Teeth in both jaws, 
numerous ; the first row acute and largest. Stout conical teeth in the pharynx. Four 
branchial rays. 

THE STRIPED KILLIFISH. 

FUNDCLCS FASCIATUS. 

PLATE XXXI. FIG. 98. — (STATE COLLECTION.) 

May-fish. ScHCEPFF, Beobachlungen der Naturfors. Vol. 8, p. 173. 

Pcpalia fasciata. Schneider, fide Valenciennes. 

Hydrargyre swampine. Lacepede, 

Esox flavulus, New-York G^idgeon. Mitchill, Lit. and Phil. Soc, p, 439, pi, 4, fig. 8. 

Characteristics. Sides brassy yellow tinged with green, with 12 - 18 blackish bars often 
obscure, and 2-5 irregular longitudinal stripes ; the bars on the tail 
persistent. 

Description. Body oblong, subcompressed. Head depressed ; its facial line horizontal. 
Scales large, subquadrate, rounded on the free portion, concentrically striate ; radical portion 
truncate, with deep plaits in the central portion, its angles produced. Mouth opening obliquely 
upward ; lower jaw jutting and longest. Orbits large ; their upper margins in the plane of the 
facial line. Crowded and pointed teeth in the jaws ; similar teeth in close rows on the pha- 
rynx. The dorsal fin high, and slightly rounded above ; placed on the posterior part of the 



FAMILY CYPRINIDiE — FUNDULUS. 217 

body. Pectorals broad and pointed. Ventrals small ; their tips reaching nearly to the vent. 
Anal long, placed under the posterior part of the dorsal. Caudal oblong, rounded. 

Color. Dusky greenish on the back ; darker on the head above. Sides brassy yellow tinged 
with green, becoming lighter beneath. Along the sides are faint indications of dusky bars, 
which, on the tail, become distinctly marked black bars, or lines of interrupted black dots. 
There are also from two to five irregular longitudinal dusky stripes of various lengths ; more 
usuall}^ two short interrupted stripes, and two longer continuous stripes, which usually stop 
short near the distinct caudal bars. Dorsal and anal with numerous white dots. 

Length, 1-0 - 3-0. 

Fin rays, D. 14; P. 15; V. 6; A. 11 : C. 23. 

This little fish presents much variety in its markings : the transverse bars on the sides of 
the body are frequently obsolete ; the stripes are irregular and often obsolete, their places 
being indicated by dots or abbreviated lines. In all the specimens which I have seen, the 
black bars across the tail were always persistent, and this is perhaps its most striking charac- 
teristic. 

This species abounds in all our salt-water creeks and bays. Its popular name is derived 
from its abundance in creeks and estuaries, which our Dutch ancestors termed "kills." It is 
used merely as bait for other fishes. From the similarity of name, I should almost be inclined 
to suspect this to be the Cohitis maialis of Schneider, which is cited by Valenciennes as a 
synonime of his Cyprinodon fiavulits . 

THE BIG KILLIFISH. 

I'UNDULUS VIRIDESCENS. 
PLATE XXXI. FIG. 99. 
Killftsh. ScHCEPFF, Beoliachtuogen der Naturforsch. i5cc. Vol. 8, \i. \l'l. 

Characteristics. Greenish above ; pale beneath, without stripes or bars. Caudal nearly even, 
rounded. Length 3-5 inches. 

Description. Body elongate, cylindrical, flattened above, and much compressed on the sides 
of the tail. Scales large, orbicular, with strongly impressed concentric stria; ; very large on 
the head, extending to the end of the snout, and covering the opercles. A central one on the 
summit of the head, with its entire margin free. Lateral line obscure. Head very small, 
flattened above. Eyes large, distant. Nostrils form an oblong slit just anterior to the orbits, 
and in a line with their upper margin. Several mucous pores about the head and along the 
base of the preopercle. Mouth small, protractile, with a somewhat vertical aspect. A single 
row of long slender crowded subequal and slightly recurved teeth in front on the lower jaw, 
and several series of minute teeth behind ; a similar disposition in the upper jaw. Two round 
patches of blunt teeth in the pharynx. 

Fauna — Part 4. 28 



218 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

The dorsal fin placed far back, quadrate, longer than its base, of eleven subequal rays, 
and placed over the anal. Pectorals obtusely pointed, 0'6 long, and containing seventeen 
very slender rays. Ventrals feeble, distant, and nearly in the centre of the body. Anal 0"5 
long, composed of eleven rays, of which the middle are longest. Caudal fin broad and short, 
slightly rounded, and with its numerous accessories comprising twenty-nine rays. 

Color. Olive-green above ; lighter on the sides, and becoming whitish, tinged with yellow- 
ish, on the abdomen. Opercles, pectorals and vculrals light greenish yellow. Irides yellow. 

Length, 3-0 - 5-0. Depth, 0-4 - 1 "0. 
Fin rays, D. 11 ; P. 17; V. 6 ; A. 11 ; C. 29. 

I cite but one synonime, allhough I am inclined to suspect that this may be the fish intended 
by Dr. Mitchill as Esox pisciculus ; but his description is not sufficiently precise to enable 
me to pronounce it to be the same with any certainty. M. Valenciennes, apud Humboldt, 
supposes this pisciculus to be the adult of his Fundulus fascialus. 

This fish is known under the names of Minny (minnow), and more generally of Big Killie. 
It abounds in the salt-water creeks and brackish streams in the neighborhood of New- York. 

THE BARRED KILLIFISH. 

Fundulus zebra. 
(CABINET OF THE LYCEUM.) 

Characteristics. Fifteen to twenty narrow vertical lines over the body. Dorsal and anal 
punctate with white. Length 2-4 inches. 

Description. Body oblong, compressed ; dorsal outline, anterior to the fin, forms a slight 
curve, gently sloping to the snout. Scales rounded, and sparsely ciliate on the free margins ; 
radical margin straight, with parallel strice ; scales large on the head and opercles, extending 
far up on the base of the caudal fin. Lateral line not obvious. Summit of liie head broad 
and flat. A short series of mucous pores anterior to the eyes. Mouth with a somewhat ver- 
tical aspect. Jaws protractile, furnished with a series of distant recurved tectli ; and behind 
this, others smaller and crowded. Pharyn.Y with stout teeth. 

Tiic dorsal fin quadrate, over the anal, with its posterior ray longest. Pectorals small, 
scarcely pointed, with the middle rays longest. Ventrals feeble. Anal fin very high, the pe- 
nultimate rays extending nearly to the accessory rays of the caudal. This latter fin rounded, 
almost pointed. 

Color. Body brownish green, witli numerous narrow wiiite lines or spots (forming inter- 
rupted lines), dividing the dark colored sides of the body into many dark colored bars. With 
these are numerous silvery white and steel-blue dots, giving a singularly beautiful and striped 
appearance to the fish ; these dots e.xtend over the dorsal and anal fins. 



FAMILY CYPRINID^ — HYDRARGIRA. 219 

Length, 4-0. Depth, 0-3. 

Fin rays, D. 10 ; P. 17 ; V. 6 ; A. 10 ; C. 19 f . 

To this, and various other alUed species, is applied the indian name of Mummachog. Lii<e 
its congeners, it is found in the salt-water creeks about New-York. Dr. Holbrook informs 
me that it is common in the brackish streams of Carolina. 



GENUS HYDRARGIRA. Lacepede, Lesueur. 

Head flat, shielded above by large scales ; the central scale largest. Teeth in the jaws and 
throat ; those in the jaws conic. Scales on the opercles. Branchial rays four to five. 

Obs. M. Lesueur has attempted to renovate a defective genus proposed by Lacepede, but 
it does not appear to be well elaborated, and has not been adopted by modern ichthyologists. 
When better studied, it may serve to embrace numerous small fresh-water Cyprinidas, which 
are not yet well established in the systems. 

THE TRANSPARENT MINNOW. 

HYDRARGIRA DIAPIIAN*. 

Hydrargira diaphana. Lesueur, Journ. Ac. Sc. Vol. 1, p. 130. 

Characteristics. Body diaphanous, with si.xteen transverse brown bands, confluent above. 
Dorsal fin double the size of the anal. Length 3-5 inches. 

Description. Body subcylindric, fusiform; head cuneiform; snout elongated; lower jaw 
straight ; back nearly straight. Eyes large, sub-oblong. Dorsal, anal and pectorals roundish ; 
ventrals very small, roundish, situated midway between the anal and pectoral fins ; caudal 
truncate. 

Color. Back and upper part of the head brown olive ; lower parts white. Sides with deli- 
cate blue tints. Opercles with brilliant yellow and blue reflections. 

Length, 5-0. Depth, 0-6. 

Fin rays, D. 13 ; P. 18 ; V. 6 ; A. 12 ; C. 18 f . 

This is described by Lesueur from Saratoga lake, where it is used as a bait for other 
fishes. 



220 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

THE BARRED MINNOW. 

Hydraruira multipasciata. 
Hydrargira muUifasciata. Lesueur, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc. Vol. 1, p. 131. 

Character isiics. Filly transverse bands on the sides, alternately olive brown and blue. Dor- 
sal and anal nearly equal. Length three inches. 

Description. Body more elevated in the middle than in the preceding, and less transparent. 
Snout shorter, and venlrals larger. Dorsal and anal fins almost equal, the latter pointed. 
Pectorals with their tips passing beyond the base of the ventrals. Eyes rounded. 

Length,'' 3-0. 

Fin rays, D. 14 ; P. 18 ; V. 6 ; A. 12 ; C. 1(3 i. 

This species, according to M. Lesueur, is also found in Saratoga lake. It may prove to be 
the young of the preceding. 

THE CHAMPLAIN MINNOW. 

HyDRAROIRA ATRICADi. 

Characteristics. (31ive-brown, with a broad black stripe across the tad. Length two to three 
and a half inches. 

Dcscriptio7i. Shape that oi the F. viridesccns, represented on Plate 31, fig. 99. Back 
nearly straight, flat and slightly depressed in front of the dorsal fin. Head flattened above, 
slightly descending to the pointed snout. Scales large, orbicular, with impressed concentric 
strife, rounded on the head above, distributed over the opercles, aud elongated where they 
cover the base of the caudal fin. Thirty-six were enumerated along the lateral line. Nume- 
rous mucous pores about the head and on the opercles. Two contiguous and near the poste- 
rior margin of the orbits ; and behind these, two others in an obliquely descending line. Three 
pair between the orbits, and others before the eyes, on the cheeks, and the branches of the 
lower jaw. Nostrils double ; the posterior largest. Eyes large, near the snout, with the 
upper margin of the orbits in the facial line. Opercle large and rounded. Five branchial rays, 
of which the three upper are broad and flattened. Mouth small ; tongue long, thin, and en- 
larged at the end. Teeth in the lower jaw, numerous, minute, acute, and much recurved ; 
in a single series on the sides, and double in front. In front of the upper jaw, a small patch 
of minute teeth. Asperities in the pharyn.v. Air-bladder large. 

The dorsal fin of fifteen rays, higher than long, placed far back, and commencing nearly 
above the origin of the ventrals. The first short, O'l long; the second much longer; the 
third longest, and subequal with the remainder ; it is coterminal with the anal. Pectoral 
obtusely pointed ; the middle rays longest, the axillary cavity deep, with slender rays, their 



FAMILY CYPRINID.E HYDRARGIRA. 221 

lips rcacliing lialfway to the base of the ventrals. Ventrals long, narrow and pointed, of six 
rays ; their tips reaching to a little beyond the first anal ray. Anal narrow, higher than the 
dorsal, of ten rays; the first two short and simple, the remainder articulated and branched- 
Caudal long and rounded. 

Color. This appears to have been olive-brown, with numerous transverse bars across the 
body and tail. A distinct black line in the course of the lateral line. Across the tail, on each 
side, about one-tenth of an inch from the base of the caudal fin, is a broad black bar, whicli 
appears to have been bordered with lighter in the recent specimen. Fins light olive-brown. 

Length, 2-5. Depth, O'l. 

Fin rays, D. 15 ; P. 15 ; V. 6 ; A. 10 ; C. 12 f . 

I have seen larger specimens, measuring 3" 5 in length, with a depth of 0'6. For an op- 
portunity of describing this species, I am indebted to Mr. Z. Thomson, of Burlington, Ver- 
mont, who has kindly favored me with other species. 

(EXTRA-LIMITAL.) 

H. ornata. (Lesueur, Ac. Sc. Vol, 1, p. 131.) Lower jaw short and curved. Back elevated. Dorsal 
clear blue, with yellow spots, and a larger deep blue spot. Sides blue, with si.xteen transverse sil- 
very stripes. D. 11; A. 12. Length 3 inches. Delaware river. 

H. nigrofasciata. (Id. lb. p. 133.) Dorsal and anal long and narrow. Fifteen black transverse 
bands; reddish yellow above. Caudal slightly rounded. Length 2-3 inches. Salt marshes, 
Newport, R. I. 

Genus Molinesia, Lesueur. Anal between the ventralSj and under the dorsal. Teeth as in Fundulns- 
Branchial rays four or five. 

M. latipinna. (Les. Ac. Sc. Vol. 2, pi. 3, fig. 1.) Reddish. Dorsal large and long, prolonged be- 
hind, in height equalling the depth of the body. Length 2i inches. Ponds, Louisiana. 



222 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

FAMILY ESOCIDyE. 

Body elongated. One dorsal, and generally opposite to the anal. Edge of the tipper jaw 
either formed by the intermaxillaries, or if the inaxillaries enter at all into its composition, 
they are destitute of teeth. Intestinal canal short, and generally without caca. Branchial 
rays vary from three to eighteen. Month large, and loilh sharp teeth. 

Obs. In tliis State, and along its shores, we describe the representatives of four genera. 
There are about ninety species, tolerably well known, in various parts of the world. 

GENUS ESOX. Cuvier. 

Head depressed, large, oblong, blunt. Intermaxillaries small, with small teeth at the middle 
of the upper jaiv, of which they form tivo-lhirds. The maxillaries forming the sides, have 
no teeth. Vo7ner, palatines, pharyngeals and branchial arches, bristling with card-like 
teeth. Sides of the lower jaw with a row of long pointed teeth. 

THE MUSKELLUNGE. 

EsOX ESTOR. 

Pitce, Pickcret or Mashallovge, E. estor. Lesueur, Journ. Acad. Sc. Vol. 1, p. 413.''' 
E. Masijuinongy. Mitchell, Mirror 1824, p, 297 ; Kirtland Zool. Ohio, p. 194. 
E. esior. Cuvier, R. A. Ed. angl. Vol. 10, p. 389. 
Maskinonge. RirnARrso.N, F. B. A. Vol. 3, p. 127. 

Characteristics. Sides of the body with numerous rounded, distinct, occasionally confluent, 
lighter spots. Length one to tlirec feet. 

Description. Body cylindrical, elongate, somewhat quadrate. Scales thin, small, orbicu- 
lar, ascending on the checks ; the upper part of the head smooth ; a series of about 160 
along the lateral line, and 45 in a vertical row before the ventrals. Snout broad, rounded and 
depressed. Head covered ■^th numerous pores on the summit and sides ; its length to the 
total length, as one to four nearly. An oblong cavity between the orbits. Mouth very large. 
A single row of sinall recurved teeth in the anterior part of the upper and lower jaw ; sides 
of the lower jaw with long acute distant teeth ; bands of small teeth on the vomer and pala- 
tines ; a series of minute teeth on the branchial arches. Tongue truncate, with asperities on 
its base. Branchial rays eighteen. The dorsal fin with twenty rays, of which the first five 
arc applied closely to the base of the sixth. Anal similar in shape, with its first four ray's 
similarly applied to the fifth. Pectorals small. Ventrals on the middle of the body, and 
small. Caudal large, lunulated with rounded lobes. 

Color. Deep greenish brown; darker on the back; pale on the sides, with numerous 
roimded, distinct, pale yellowish or greyish spots on the sides. These spots vary in size 



FAMILY ESOCID^ — ESOX. 223 

from two to three-tenths of an inch in diameter ; they become occasionally confluent. Each 
scale has a bright quadrate spot, which reflects brilliant metallic tints of various colors. 

Length, 12- 0-48-0. 

Fin rays, D. 21 ; P. 12 ; V. 11 ; A. 21 ; C. 19 f 

xVccording to Mitchill, who describes a specimen 47 '0 long and weighing 30 pounds, the 
■fin rays arc as follows : 

D. 21 ; P. 14; V. 11; A. 17; C. 26. 

The Muskellunge, or Maskinonge, for its orthography is not settled, occurs abundantly m 
Lake Erie, and is found also in the streams in the western district. My friend Dr. Pickering 
informs me that lie saw them offered for sale at Montezuma (Cayuga county), where they 
were kept in a reservoir. They occur as far north as Lake Huron, where, however, they 
are rare. They are often caught by the seine. Dr. Kirtland speaks of them as being one of 
the best fisli for eating, produced by the western waters. A specimen, he states, was taken 
in the canal near Massillon, which had found its way from Lake Erie. According to Lesueur, 
the name of this fish in the Wyandot dialect is Thuhahresah han. 

The description of E. estor by the last named author, with the exception of a part of the 
specific phrase, applies, according to Richardson, exactly to E. lucius, and not at all to the 
true Muskellunge. 

THE COMMON PICKEREL. 

EsOX RETICULATU5. 

PLATE XXXIV. FIG. 107. 

The common Pike of North America. ScHCEPFF, Naturfors( hen, Vol.2, p. 2G. 
The Pickerel, E. Indus, var. Mitchill, Lit. and Phil. Soc. N. Y. Vol. 1, p. 'HO. 
£sox rctiadalus. Lesuedr, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sc. Vol. 1, p. 414. E. niger. Id. var. 
The common Pickerel, E. reticulaUis. Storee, Massachusetts Report, p. 97. 
Esox reticulalus, Pike. Kirtland, Zoology of Ohio, No. 41, p. 191. 

Characteristics. Yellowish, with reticulated dark marks on the sides. Abdomen white, tinged 
with pink. Caudal deeply emarginate. Length one to three feet. 

Description. Body subcylindrical, elongate. Scales small, emarginated. Snout blunt ; 
the upper jaw smooth, broad, depressed, shorter than the lower jaw. Branchial rays seven- 
teen. A few very small teeth on the intermaxillaries, in front of the upper jaw ; sides tooth- 
less. On the lower jaw, in front, short small recurved teeth ; but on the sides they are longer, 
distant, and slightly compressed. Palatines bristling with teeth, directed backward and 
inward ; those on the interior edges of the palatines, much longer. Base of the tongue, 
branchial arches and pharyngeals with card-like teeth directed inward. Mouth large ; nostrils 
in a groove. A few orifices of mucous ducts scattered over the summit of the heaa. The 
dorsal fin subquadrate, slightly rounded above the last ray, much the shortest. Pectorals 



224 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

small, short and rounded. Ventrals rather nearer the pectorals than to the anal. Anal fin 
under the dorsal. Caudal deeply emarginate, almost forked ; the lobes obtusely pointed. 

Color, varies in intensity and tint. In some it is deep green, varying to blackish on the 
back and head, or bluish grey ; in others, it is of a golden, or olive-yellow on the sides, the 
free margins of the scales bordered with black. Numerous irregular abbreviated longitudinal 
dusky streaks on the sides of the body, united with similar oblique streaks, and producing an 
imperfectly reticulated appearance. Iridcs yellowish varied with blue. The fins greenish : 
those below tinged with reddish. 

Length, 12-0- 3G-0. 

Fin rays, D. 18 ; P. 16 ; V. 10 ; A. 14 ; C. 19 f 

The Common Pickerel is found in most of the ponds and streams throughout the State. 
They are caught during the whole year, but appear to be most prized in winter. In the dis- 
tricts bordering on the lakes, they are considered inferior to the preceding species. 

This species appears to be common through all the Eastern and Middle States, and is 
found in the waters of the Ohio. It does not extend to the countries north of the great lakes. 

I am induced to believe the Black Pike of Saratoga lake, described by Lesueur as E. 
niger, to be the young of this species. 

THE VARIED PICKEREL. 

EsOX FASCIATUS. 
PLATE XXXIV. FIG. 110. — (STATE COLLECTION.) 

Characteristics. Greenish yellow, with dusky vertical bars along the sides. Tail slightly 
emarginate. Length 6 to 10 inches. 

Description. Body cylindrical, with its dorsal surface much flattened. Upper part of the 
head with a deep longitudinal groove. The orifices of mucous ducts disposed irregularly 
over the head. Teeth smaller than, but similar to, those in the preceding, on the inter- 
maxillaries, lower jaw, vomer, palatines, pharyngeals, base of the tongue, and branchial 
arches. Dorsal fin higher than long, its margin much rounded. Anal with subequal rays. 
Pectorals much nearer the end of the snout than the ventrals, which produces a correspond- 
ing change in the position of these last mentioned fins. 

Color. Dark brownish black above, descending in irregular dark clouds a short distance on 
the sides. Sides greenish yellow, with irregular vertical brown stripes descending on the 
belly. Dorsal and caudal fins dark brown. The pectorals, ventral and anal lighter colored ; 
often, by infiltration, reddish. A short dark band from the eye to the angle of the jaw. 

Length, 6-0- 10- 0. 

Fin rays, D. 15 ; P. 15 ; V. 9 ; A. 14 ; C. 19 |. 



FAMILY ESOCIDiE ESOX. 225 

Tliis beautiful little pickerel is abundant in many of the streams and ponds on Long Island, 
and is said never to exceed the size given above. Independent of the markings, it appears to 
be quite distinct from the preceding species. It is not improbable that this may be the species 
noticed by Dr. Mitchill in his Supplementary Memoir on the Fishes of New-York, under the 
name of Esox scomherius, which is thus alluded to : 

" The Mackerel Pike, cj-c. Esox scomherius. An inhabitant of the fresh streams of New- 
" York. A figure of this fish was forwarded to me by John Bradbury, Esq. It was exe- 
" cutcd from the creature, as taken from Murderer's creek. Beside other strong features of 
" the Pike, it was distinguished for a large and projecting lower jaw ; for the length of the 
" head and gill-covers ; for the dark green of the back, gradually disappearing in the white 
" of the belly, and the two hues connected by cloudy patches almost resembling bands, slant- 
" ing forward and downward from the back, by a ruddy tinge of the roundish pectoral, abdo- 
" minal and ventral fins ; and by a broad concave or lunated tail. Mr. B. states the rays of 
" the pectoral fins to be thirteen, of the ventrals nine, of the dorsal fourteen, of the anal thir- 
" teen, and of the caudal twenty." 

THE FEDERATION PIK^E. 

Esox TREDECEM-RADIATUS. 

The Federation Pike, E. tredecem-lineatus. Mitchill, Mirror, 1825, p. 361. 

Characteristics. Opercles, pectoral, dorsal, and anal fins each with thirteen rays. Length 
12 to 23 inches. 

Description. I am unacquainted witli this species, except through the description of Dr. 
Mitchill, which is annexed : 

" The figure of the head and mouth bears a considerable resemblance to the Pike or Mas- 
" canongy, particularly the broad or duck snout, the projecting lower jaw ; and this, together 
" with the tongue and palate armed witli teeth, and the general shape, are characteristic 
" enough. The intermaxillary bone, the situation of the ventral fin far behind on the belly, 
" and the opposition of the dorsal fin to the ventral, are additional indications of tiie same 
" family connection. The four individuals now before mc were obtained by Mr. William 
" Sykes from the Oneida lake, on the 26th January, 1825. The largest is twenty-three 
" inches long, and more than nine in its greatest girth. Eyes yellow ; tail forked ; skin 
" covered with small scales. Color of the back, and upper part of the head, brown, almost 
" running into black ; of the contiguous parts, brown running into yellowish or orange, and 
" the yellow ending in a snowy or silvery white on the belly. The broad side, that is, the 
" space between the back and belly, beautifully and curiously variegated with irregular black 
" lines, which inosculate with each other all the way from the eyes to the tail, and surround 
" spaces of various sizes and figures, all of which are fantastic and odd. Toward the belly 
" and tail, these black lines lose themselves, or end abruptly. Sometimes there are oblong 

Fauna — Part 4. 29 



226 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

" and roundish spots. The modifications of these colors give the fish a very striking, and 
" indeed elegant appearance ; quite equal to the Spanish mackerel, or indeed superior to it. 
" Branchiostegous membrane, thirteen rays ; pectoral fin, thirteen ; ventral, nine ; anal, thir- 
" teen ; dorsal, thirteen ; caudal, about twenty-one. The fins are reddish, and their color 
" contrasts admirably writh the others to increase the beauty of the fish. I know of no fish 
" of the fresh, or even of the salt water, in the market and region of New-York, that equals 
" it. The flesh is savory and fine. There is something quite peculiar as to the number of 
" rays in the fins of this fish, which has led me to the adoption of its specific name. For the 
" branchiostegous pectoral and dorsal each contain thirteen rays, or with inconsiderable va- 
" riations in the several individuals, was the most constant number. So it seems to afford 
" ground for a term indicative of the original States in the Union, by the characteristic num- 
" ber XIII." 

If there be no inaccuracy in the above description, which exhibits the characteristic quaint- 
ness of the writer, this must be a distinct species. I have received several pike or pickerel 
from this lake, which I referred without hesitation to E. reticulatus. The " inconsiderable 
variations" may possibly include the above described species, which, however, demands a far- 
ther examination. 

[EXTRA-LIMITAL) 

E. Lucius? (Richardson, F. B. A.) Tip of each scale with a bright speck like the letter V. Scales 
with four lobes. D. 20; P. 16; A. 18. Length two feet. Norfhern Regions. 

E. phaleratus. (Sav, Ac. So. Vol. 1, p. 416.) A dorsal; reddish brown band, and three or four bands 
of the same color on the sides. Not described. East-Florida. 



FAMILY ESOCID^, 227 

GENUS BELONE. Cuvier. 

Head and body greatly elongated ; the latter covered with minute scales. Both jaws very 
much produced, straight, narrow and pointed ; armed with numerous small teeth. Pharynx 
paved. Scales not apparent, except a carinate row near the edge of the abdomen. 

THE BANDED GAR-FISH. 

Belone truncata. 

PLATE XXXV. FIG. 112— (STATE COLLECTION.) 

Esox, Sea Pikr, Sea Snipe at New-York. Schoepff, Beobacht. Vol. 8, p. 108. 
The Bill-fish, Esox belone. MlTCHiLL, Lit. and Philos. Soc. N. Y. Vol. 1, p. 443. 
Esox longirostris, Long-jawed Fresh-water Pike. MiTCHiLL, Am. Month. Mag. Vol. 2, p. 322. 
BeloTta Iruncata. LEsiiEnR, Joum. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phil. Vol, 2, p. 126, plate. 
The Gar-fish, Belone truncata. Stoeee, Massachusetts Report, p. 98. 

Characteristics. Green above ; silvery beneath. A dark green longitudinal band. Lower 
mandible longest. Length one to two feet. 

Description. Body much elongated ; covered with small transparent orbicular scales. Over 
and behind the end of the anal, on each side of the tail, is a row of carinated scales. The 
lateral line arises from the lower angle of the opercles ; ascends gradually beneath the pecto- 
rals, maintaining a direction near the abdomen ; passes over the base of the ventrals, and behind 
the anal, rises up and follows the course of the carinated scales. The vertebral line marked 
above by a slight depression from the dorsal fin to the nape. On each side of this line, at the 
distance of 0-2, is a faint darker line concurrent with it. Head and opercles trigonal, flat 
above. Eyes longitudinally oval, 0-6 in their greatest diameter, and with the upper margin 
of the orbits in the plane of the head ; their distance apart equal to the same diameter. A 
triangular fossa in front of the eyes, extending forward into an acutely pointed furrow for the 
nostrils. Branchial aperture very ample, extending forward beneath the orbits. Upper man- 
dible flattened at its base, rounded forward, and terminating in an acute tip, its upper margin 
with a medial and two lateral impressed lines : it is 0-3 shorter than the lower jaw, which is 
elastic, and flexible at its tip. Both mandibles furnished with long conic acute distant teeth, 
with intermediate smaller ones, externally in confused series ; towards the angle of the jaws, 
the smaller ones are exserted. The interior of the upper jaw with a longitudinal furrow, of 
the lower, transversely rugous. Length of the mandibles to the whole length as one to five 
nearly. 

The dorsal fin arises far back, commencing over the fourth ray of the anal ; it is elevated, 
triangular in front, low and subequal behind, the second and third rays longest. This fin is 
composed of one simple and fifteen branched rays. The pectorals on a line with the posterior 
angle of the opercles, and 0-4 behind it ; composed of one flat, simple and scarcely articulated 
ray, and eleven branched rays. Ventrals feeble ; their distance from the origin of the anal, 



228 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

equal to the distance between the origin of the dorsal and the base of the caudal fin : they 
contain six rays. The anal similar in shape to the dorsal, and coterminal with it ; the first 
ray short, triangular, subspinous ; the second and third longest ; after the seventh, the rays 
are nearly equal : there are nineteen rays. The vent forms a sort of enlarged pouch, with a 
large oblong aperture. Caudal cmarginate ; the lower lobe very slightly longest. 

Color, from a living specimen captured in September. Upper part of the body a beautiful 
transparent sea-green, which becomes darker above the opercles and over the nostrils. Oper- 
cles and- sides of the body bright silvery. Abdomen beneath opaque white. A narrow dark 
green band arises from the upper part of the angle of the opercle, and running towards the 
tail, separates the color of the back from that of the sides. Margin of the preopercles deep 
green. Pupils black ; irides silvery. 

Length, 22.0; of the head and jaws to the opercular margin, 7.0. 
Fin rays, D. 16; P. 12; V. 6 ; A. 19; C. 19 f. 

I have adopted the name proposed by Lesueur, as I have very little doubt but that he had 
ilie same species in view, although his notice is very imperfect, and his trivial name unmeaning. 
I have examined many specimens, and have found in none the tail so unequal as his figure 
would seem to indicate ; it was probably a deformed or mutilated specimen. 

I am disposed to believe the E. longirostris of Mitcliill to have been intended also for this 
species, but his description is too imperfect to render this certain. He observes, " It is said 
to grow to the length of three or four feet, and is always an inhabitant of fresh water." 

The Gar-fish occurs on our coast chiefly in the latter part of summer and in the autumn, 
from which I infer that it is a southern fish. I do not find it, however, among Dr. Holbrook's 
drawings, nor among Parra's figures. Its farthest northern range hitherto observed has been 
on the coast of Massachusetts, south of Cape Cod. It is highly prized by epicures. 



FAMILY ESOCIDiE. 229 



GENUS SCOMBERESOX. Cuvier. 

Snout greatly attenuated and elongated as in the preceding. Teeth in hath jaws ; more on 
the palatines and tongue. Dorsal and anal fins divided behind into mimerous finlets. 

THE BILL-FISH. 

SCOMEERESOX STORERI. 

PLATE XXXV. FIG. 111. 

ScoTTiberesox equirostnim ct scufdhtnm. Lesueur, Joum. Acad. Nat. Sc. Vol. 2, p. 132. 
jS. id., The Bill-fish. Stoker, Massachusetts Report, p. 100. 

Characteristics. Dark green above. Lower jaw longest. Body with a broad silvery band. 
Length ten to twelve inches. 

Description. Angailliform ; nearly of equal depth and width to the origin of the dorsal fin. 
Scales small. Lateral line straight, indented, concurrent with, and near to the dorsal outline. 
On each side of the abdomen is a longitudinal furrow, which begins at the underside of the 
opercles, and extends to the base of the caudal fin ; dilated near the ventrals. Head deep, 
long and narrow compared with the body. Eyes small, 0"2in diameter. Jaws elongated, 
and furnished at the base with very minute teeth ; the upper jaw an incli and a half long ; the 
lower jaw about a quarter of an inch longer. Opercles large, smooth and silvery. The dorsal 
fin longer than high, and composed of ten nearly subequal rays. Behind it are five pinnulae 
or finlets. Pectorals pointed, of fourteen rays, with the first ray longer and broader than the 
others. Ventral fins just in advance of the anal. Caudal broadly excavated. 

Color. Body above dark green. Head above deep green. Beneath the green of the back, 
abroad silvery band extends through the whole length of the body, and divided in the centre 
by a narrow green line. Gill-covers and abdomen silvery. Dorsal and its finlets greenish 
tinged with yellow. Pectorals dark at the base ; the rays silvery. Ventrals and anal white ; 
the finlets of the latter yellowish. 

Length, 10-0 ; of head and jaws, 3"0. 

Fin rays, D. 10. v.; P. 14; V. 6 ; A. 12. v.; C. 20. 

The original notice of this species by Lesueur, was made from an imperfect and dried 
cabinet specimen ; and his name, of very dubious latinity, and drawn from a false character, 
must be rejected. The name which I have attached to it, is due to the distinguished Ichthy- 
ologist who pointed out distinctly the impropriety of the appellation, and was its first accurate 
describer. 

A specimen of this fish, to which Lesueur has attached another name, was obtained from 
the banks of Newfoundland. On the coast of Massachusetts, they appear in immense num- 



230 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

bers in October, where they are considered as a very nutritious and grateful food. A few- 
stragglers are occasionally taken on the coast of New- York, which is presumed to be the 
extreme limits of its southern range. 

GENUS EXOCETUS. Linneus, Cuvier. 

Pectorals nearly as long or longer than the body, and sufficiently developed to enable them 
to suspend themselves in the air. Head and body scaly. Jaws with pointed, and pharyn- 
geals with paved teeth. In some species a row of carinate scales on each side of the abdo- 
men. Air-bladder very large. 

THE NEW-YORK FLYING-FISH. 

ExOCETnS NOVEBORACENCIS. 

PLATE XXXVI. FIG. 114. 

The New-York Flying-fish, E. noveboracertsis. Lit. and Phil. Soc. pi. 5, fig. 3 ; Am. Month. iVIag. Vol. 2, p. 333. 

Characteristics. Dark green above. Abdomen carinate on the sides. Teeth very minute. 
No filaments to the lower jaw. Length 12 inches. 

Description. Head smooth, trigonal. Scales thick and deciduous. A row of carinated 
scales on each side of the abdomen, from the lower edge of the gill-covers to the tail. Eyes 
large, with a moderate depression between them, and three small pores on each side, and 
small channelled lines along the back. Dorsal fin with its commencement over the ventrals, 
and containing fourteen rays. Pectorals five and a half inches long, with fifteen branched 
rays. Ventrals three inches long, and with six rays. Anal longer than high, with eight short 
subequal rays. Caudal deeply lunate, with its lower lobe much longer. Branchial rays ten. 

Color. Above, dark greenish ; beneath white. Irides silvery yellow. 

Length, 12-0. Depth, TS. 

Fin rays, D. 14 ; P. 15 ; V. 6 ; A. 8. 

The number of rays in the dorsal and anal fins of this fish must separate it from exiliens, 
to which it has been referred. The specimen which furnished Dr. Mitchill with the above 
description, was taken in a seine near New-York. Although natives of the tropical seas, 
they have been known to ascend along the European shores of the Atlantic as high as 50° 
north latitude. 



FAMILY ESOCIDiE EXOCETUS. 231 

THE SINGLE-BEARDED FLYING-FISH. 

EXOCETHS COMATUS. 

PLATE XXXVI. FIG. 115. 

B. cmuttus, The Single-bearded Flying-fish. Mitchill, Lit. and Phil. Soc. N. Y. Vol. 1, p. 449, pi. 5, fig. 1. 
E. appendiculntus. Wood, Journal Acad. Nat. Sciences, Vol. 4, p. 283, pi. 17, fig. 2. 

Characteristics. A long black cirrus depending from the chin, with occasionally a shorter one 
on each side. Length five to six inclies. 

Description. Head trihedral, depressed above, declivous. Body covered with robust deci- 
duous, scales. Snout sonaewhat obtuse ; lateral line straight ; mouth small ; a blackish cirrus 
2" 5 long, depending from the chin. Dorsal with its anterior portion slightly elevated ; tips of 
the pectorals extend to the end of the dorsal fin. Ventrals under the dorsal, and extend 
towards the end of the anal. Caudal furcate ; upper lobe shortest. 

Color. Above brown ; beneath white. 

Length, 5'0. 

Fin rays, D. 11 or 12; P. 13; V. 6 ; A. 7 ; C. 19. 

On the authority of Cuvier, I have united the species above cited. 
THE DOUBLE-BEARDED FLYING-FISH. 

ExOCETUS FURCATUS. 

Double-bearded Flying-fish, E.furcalus. Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. Vol. ], p. 449, pi. 5, fig. 2. 
E.nuUallii? Lesuedr, Ac. Sciences, Vol. 2, p. 10, pi. 4, fig. 1 (young). 

Characteristics. Abdomen with a series of carinated scales. Two cirri, or laciniated appen- 
dages, to the lower jaw. Length three inches. 

Description. Eyes large. Ventral fins very long, and placed about two-thirds of the dis- 
tance between the pectorals and the vent. Dorsal and anal large and truncated. Scales 
small, adherent. 

Color. Bluish above ; silvery on the sides. Pectorals and ventrals with brown bands. 



Length, 3-0. 



iiength, 3-U. . 

Fin rays, D. 15 ; V. 10 ; A. 8 ; C. 17. ( 



The descriptions of both the above cited authors are very incomplete, but I believe there 
can be little doubt of the identity of the species. The mesogaster, cited by Mitchill, is very 
doubtful, and certainly has not been found on our northern coast as far as I am acquainted. 
The fascia tus of Lesueur {Ac. Sc. Vol. 4, p. 9), observed near the Gulf of Mexico, I am 
disposed to refer to the exiliens of Bloch. The bearded flying-fish have been very properly 
united into a distinct group, under the name of Cyprilurus, by some recent writers. 



232 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 



FAMILY FISTULARID^. 

Mouth elongated into a tube, formed by the extension of the ethmoid, vomer, preopercleSf 
interopercles, pterygoidal and tympanal bones. At the extremity is the mouth, composed 
as usual of the intermaxillaries, palatines and mandibulary bones. Ribs short or wanting. 
Some of the genera are long and cylindrical ; others short and compressed. 

Obs. By some writers this has been made a sub-family of the Scomheridce., and it does not 
appear among the Spine-rayed fishes in the great work of Messrs. Ciivier and Valenciennes. 
Its true place is probably near or among the SyngnathidcE. I am acquainted with but two 
representatives of this family on our coast. • 

GENUS FISTULARIA. Lacepede, Cuvier. 

Body elongated, cylindrical. Dorsal above the anal. Intermaxillaries and lower jaw armed 
with small teeth. A long filament arises from between the two lobes of the tail. Tube of 
the mouth depressed. Air-bladder very small. Scales invisible. 

THE AMERICAN PIPE-FISH. 

FlSTCLiRIA SERRATA. 

PLATE XXXV. FIG. 113. 
The Tobacco-pipe Fish, F. serrata. Storer, Fishes of Massachusetts, p. 80. (Adult.) 

Characteristics. Reddish brown above, with a narrow bluish band along the sides. Tube 
strongly serrated on its sides. Length exclusive of the caudal filament, 
nineteen inches. 

Description. Body cylindrical, elongate, with numerous asperities visible under the lens, 
and slightly rough to the touch. The lateral line commences just above the posterior por- 
tion of the opercle, runs obliquely backwards about an inch, then rises and approaches within 
0' 2 of the line on the other side, continuing in this direction in a straight line for about 1 '5 ; 
it then passes down suddenly to the middle of the body, and runs a straight course through 
the middle of the lateral band. Near its origin, it is rather indistinct ; but on the posterior 
half of the body, it becomes covered with a series of elevated carinated plates. Entire length 
of the head, from the end of the snout to the margin of the opercle, 6*8. Tube wider than 
deep, of a hard horny consistence, strongly serrated along each side with short spines directed 
forwards, and extending to the anterior portion of the orbits. This tube, just in front of the 
eyes, is 0"75 wide ; and at the angle of the jaws, 0'5. Vertical gape of the mouth, 0"5. 
Nostrils single, oval, and 0' 3 m advance of the orbits. Lower jaw longest, with a protube- 



FAMILY FISTDLARID^ FISTULARIA. 233 

ranee at the chin. Both jaws armed with numerous small acute and recurved teeth. Gill- 
covers radiated, with a flat trifid spinous elevation on the upper and anterior part of their sur- 
face. Over the opercle, a strong bony serrated or rather spinous ridge, 0"7 in extent. Orbits 
elliptical, 0' 5 long, and 0' 35 apart. There are prominent angular serrated processes on the 
anterior and posterior portions of the upper margin of the orbits. Head above with longitu- 
dinal furrovFS on its surface. 

The dorsal fin small, pointed, triangular, and placed on the posterior third of the body. 
Pectorals broad, subtruncate, and placed 0*25 posterior to the opercle; their length to their 
width as one to three. Ventrals 2" 5 behind the pectorals ; very small, distant, and 0"4 long. 
Anal similar in shape and size to the dorsal, against which it is placed. Caudal deeply forked 
from between its lobes arises, as if a continuation of the lateral line, a strong filament, elastic 
as baleen. This filament is nine inches long, jointed at the base, and delicate towards the tip ; 
at its base arises a short filament, and at the distance of 6*0 from the base, another very short 
bifid filament. 

Color. Upper part of the body reddish brown. A narrow bluish longitudinal band along 
the sides, through the centre of which passes the lateral line. Abdomen light-colored. Dor- 
sal and ventrals white. 

Length, 19'0; of the caudal filament, 9"0. 

Fin rays, D. 14 ; P. 16 ; V. 6 ; A. 14 ; C. 16 f . 

The species of this genus are still involved in great obscurity. Cuvier, in his Regne Animal, 
cites three species. Cloquet, in the Dictionnaire des Sciences Naturelles, asserts that only 
one is knowoi. We are to await the publication of the work of Cuvier and Valenciennes 
before this point will be definitively settled. There certainly appears to be two species on 
our coast; the one just described, and another very briefly indicated by Dr. Mitchill. I have 
to return my thanks to Dr. Storer, for his kindness in favoring me with an opportunity of 
examining and figuring the specimen which furnished him with his description. 

THE SPOTTED PIPE-FISH. 

FiSTCLARIA TiBACARIA. 

The New-York Tnimpel-fish, F. ruo-cboracetisis. Mitchell, Lit. and Phil. Soc. Vol. 1, p. 437, pi. 3, fig. 8. 

Characteristics. A row of pale spots on the sides. Orbits of the eyes with angular processes 
or spines. 

Description. Body rounded, slender ; its depth less than its thickness. Tube 2 " 5 long 
grooved or fluted on the sides. The lower jaw projecting beyond the upper. Gill-opening 
ample ; opercle radiated. Orbits large, contiguous, and beset with angular processes (in the 
figure representing spines). Lateral hne as in the preceding. Surface smooth and scaleless. 
Ventrals small, and far apart. Dorsal and anal opposite. Caudal filament 4*0 long. 

Fauna — Part 4. 30 



234 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

Color. Brown on the back, with a row of pale spots. Belly white in the middle, and semi- 
diaphanous on the right and left. Eyes orange-colored. 

Length, 14 '0. 

This is a very indistinct notice by Dr. Mitchill, but there are sufficient indications that it is 
a distinct species. Some years since, I obtained in the harbor of Pernambuco (Brazil), a 
Fistularia, which I suppose to be identical with that above indicated. I annex the notes 
which I made at the time : 

" Fistularia tabacaria ? Color brownish, with round whitish spots more conspicuous in 
front. Throat white. 

" Dimensions. Tube, from the mouth to the margin of the opercle, four inches. Body, 
from the gills to the fork of the caudal, seven inches and a half. Caudal thread tliree inches. 
Diameter of orbits half an inch ; depth of head the same. Distance of the dorsals from 
above the pectorals, four and a half inches. Total length fifteen inches. 

" Tube serrated on the lateral ridges of each side. The ridges on the vertical surface 
smooth ; tliose beneath minutely serrated. Lower jaw longest ; both with minute distant 
recurved teeth: a strong protuberance on the symphysis. Nostrils three-tenths before the eyes. 
Eyes longitudinally oval, silvery ; the antero-superior margins raised, with a furrow between ; 
the superior posterior margin serrated ; and from this margin proceeds posteriorly a strong 
serrated ridge over the opercle, which is oblong, smooth, slightly radiate on its posterior mar- 
gin. Pectorals two-tenths behind the opercle, truncated at tips. Dorsal triangular, resem- 
bling the anal, and beneath it. Lateral line rises apparently from immediately behind the 
orbits, where it forms a simple ridge, and nearly unites with that of the opposite side ; then 
descends just anterior to the ventrals, forming a row of interrupted tubes, and, towards the tail, 
a raised line. Ventrals small, distant one and a half inches behind the base of the pectorals. 
Caudal fin (if it be not a second dorsal and anal ?) forked, with a slender appendage like 
whalebone, and terminating in a fine thread. D. 16 ; P. 16 ; V. 6 ; A. 16 ; C. 16 f. 

"May 18, 1827." 

I am induced to believe that this is the true tabacaria of authors, characterized by rounded 
white spots on the sides and spinous orbits ; and of course, Mitchill's specimen, which appears 
to have been quite fresh, must be refen-ed to this species. Its geographic range is therefore 
from Brazil to the coast of New- York, and probably even still farther north ; for Smith, in 
his History of Massachusetts, speaks of having seen two specimens of this fish from the 
coast of Martha's Vineyard, in 41° 30' north latitude. The specimens were eighteen inches 
long, exclusive of the caudal filament, which was one foot long. 



F.VMILY SALMONID-^:. 235 

FAMILY SALMON IDyE. 

Body more or less scaly. Two dorsals ; the first with articulated rays, the second adipose. 
Numerous cacal appendages, and an air-bladder. Excessively'voracious. Great varia- 
tion in the arviature of the jaius. Inhabiting fresh and salt ivater. 

GENUS SALMO. 
Branchial membrane tvith more than eight rays. Anal fin with less than thirteen rays. 

THE BROOK TROUT. 

Salmo fontinalis. 
plate xxxviii. fig. 120. 

S./ontinalis, New-York Trml. MiTCHiLL, Report in part, &c. p. 52. 

S. id., Common Trout. Id. Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. Vol. 1, p. 345. 

Red Spotted Trout. Dooghty, Cabinet Nat. Hist. Vol. 1, p. 145, pi. 13. 

New-York Char. Richardson, F. B. A. Vol. 3, p. 175, pi. 83, fig. 1, and pi. 87, fig. 3. 

S. foiUitialis. Stoeer, Report on the Fishes of Massachusetts, p. 106. 

Characte7-istics. With vermilion dots, and larger yellow spots in the vicinity of the lateral 
line. Gill-covers with no deiined spots. Length 6-20 inches. 

Description. Body oblong, compressed ; back broad and rounded. Head sloping nearly 
symmetrically from above and beneath ; equal to one-fifth of the total length, or equal to the 
interval between the ventrals and anal. Scales minute, oblong, imbedded in the skin. Late- 
ral line slightly curved downward. Nostrils equidistant between the eyes and snout, with a 
double opening ; the posterior closed by a valve. Branchial rays twelve. Labial armed with 
numerous acute incurved teelh, nearly to the extremities ; somewhat shorter on the interma- 
xillaries. Tongue with from four to six teeth on each side. About twelve recurved teeth on 
each side of the palatines, and from six to eight on the vomer. 

The first dorsal fin equidistant between the pectoral and the adipose fin ; quadrate, with its 
base equal in length to the fourth or fifth ray ; the first ray very short, and the two following 
gradually longer ; from the fifth, the rays gradually diminish in length to the last ; the first 
three rays simple. Adipose dorsal somewhat pointed behind, and nearly equal in length to 
the diameter of the eye ; it is placed above the last four rays of the anal. Caudal deeply 
emarginate. The intestines scarcely exceed the body in length. Stomach stout and mus- 
cular, filled with remains of earth-worms, water beetles, etc. ; caeca numerous. Air-bladder 
occupying the whole length of the abdomen, simple, cylindrical, slightly tapering behind. 

Color. Body above with irregular dark markings on a horn-colored ground, which, in freshly 
taken specimens, gives bluish metallic reflections. Sides bluish, mixed with silvery white ; 
the whole underside silvery. Upper part of the head dark greenish brown, with obscure 



236 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

mottlings. First dorsal pale yellowish, with horizontal interrupted bars of dark green. Pec- 
torals pointed ; the first ray light yellow ; the second blackish, and the remainder orange. 
Ventrals and anal with their first rays entirely white, as are the tips of the second and third 
rays. The bodies of the. second and third, and the tip of the fourth, black, which causes 
them to appear blackish on their edges, and broadly bordered with white ; the remaining rays 
reddish. Caudal reddish, witli obscure parallel dark bands, which are more distinct towards 
the tips of the lobes. Irides white. 

Length, 8-0. Depth, 1-3. 

Fin rays, D. 13.0; P. 12; V. 8 ; A. 10; C. 19 |. 

The specimen from which the above description was taken, was a female. It is about the 
average size of the smaller kind of brook trout. I have never seen any exceeding fourteen 
inches in length, but I am credibly informed of one taken on Long island, which measured 
twenty inches in length, and weighed four and a half pounds. Those from running streams 
are better flavored than the pond trout ; and those taken from streams to which tlic salt water 
has access, are preferred to either. The latter liave brigjitcr colors externally, and their flesh 
has more of the salmon color. 

The Brook Trout is a northern species, being found in almost all the clear running streams 
and ponds throughout this and the northern States. I am unable to state with precision its 
southerly range. It occurs in the head waters of the Delaware, Susquehannah and Allegany 
rivers, but never descends into the Ohio. According to Dr. Kirtland, it is found only in two 
small streams in the State of Ohio, viz. a small creek in Ashtabula county, and a branch of 
Chagrin river, Geauga county, bordering upon Lake Erie. I have no information of its being 
found north of the forty-seventli or south of the fortieth parallel of latitude. 

THE RED-BELLIED TROUT. 

PLATE XXXIX. FIG. 136. 

Salmo erytiirogaster. 
Creek Trout r DouGHTY, Cabinet of Nat. Hist. Vol. 1, p. 134, pi. 13, fig. 2. 

Characteristics. Above, mottled with dark olive-green and light horn-color. Sides of the 
abdomen reddish orange, separated by a distinct line from the pearl color 
beneath. Tail broadly margined with bright red. Length 15 to 20 inches. 

Description. Body symmetrical, tapering. Scales very small and rounded. Lateral line 
concave anterior to the dorsal ; the remaining part straight. Tongue with five incurved teeth 
on each side ; the snout with a deep notch, to receive the prominent conical knob on the lower 
jaw. Five curved subequal teeth on the intermaxillaries ; labials with fifteen ; lower jaw 
with sixteen on each side, and about eight on the vomer. The dorsal quadrate, slightly higher 
than long, its origin being an inch nearer the snout than to the tip of the caudal fin. It is 



FAMILY SALMONID.E — SALMO. 237 

1 -T^high, and is composed of ten rays ; the adipose slightly falcate, rounded, 0-7 high. Pec- 
torals two inches long, and arise anterior to the opercular margin. Ventrals broad and pointed, 
arising under the fourth ray of the dorsal fin, and composed of eight rays. Anal higher than 
long, its longest ray being 1 '8 in length ; base of the fin 1 • 1, slightly emarginate. Caudal 
concave, composed of seventeen complete and with numerous accessory rays ; its diameter 
across the tip 2 "5. 

Color. Above, dark olive-green, with confluent blotches of a lighter color on each side of 
the back, resembling those on the common mackerel. Head above, uniform olive-green. 
Sides bronze-brown, with numerous rounded rich salmon-colored spots, becoming larger 
toward the tail ; these are intermixed with smaller crimson dots. The belly of a brilliant 
reddish orange, separated by a distinct line from the pearl color beneath. Membrane of the 
gill-rays, and interior of the mouth, with a black pigment. The first rays of all the fins, 
except the dorsal and caudal, opaque white, edged with black ; the other rays of a brilliant 
flesh-red; inside of the pectorals black. Dorsal varied widi dark green and opaque or horn 
color. Ventral with its black margin extending over two or three of the adjacent rays. 
Caudal broadly margined with bright red. Flesh incarnate red. 

Length, 15*5 ; of the head 3' 3. Depth, 3*0. Weight one and a half pounds. 
Fin rays, D. 10.0; P. 14; V. 8 ; A. 10; C. 17 f. 

This beautiful species, which has probably been confounded with the preceding, I first 
noticed at Indian lake, Hamilton county ; then at the outlet of Lake Janet, one of the Eck- 
ford chain, emptying into Lake Raquet ; and subsequently in most of the streams in Hamil- 
ton, St. Lawrence, Franklin and Essex counties. There is a beautiful variety of this species 
in Silver lake, Pennsylvania, with head and opercles unusually dark. They sometimes attain 
the weight of four and even five pounds. Independent of other considerations, as will be 
apparent from the description, the regularity and brilhancy of their colors seem to render it 
proper to designate them by a distinct specific name. 

Between this species and the Lake Salmon, next to be described, there is a continued war- 
fare ; and hence it is never found except at the outlets of lakes, and in streams. It chiefly 
affects the rapids above waterfalls, and the deep podls below them. It rises to the fly, but 
will readily take the common earth-worm. One of the best baits I found to be the ventral 
fins of this fish, which, as it moves rapidly through the water, resembles a gaudy butterfly. 
In taking this species, the trained sportsman will often find his snoods snapped, his jointed 
rod broken in pieces, and his reel rendered useless ; while a simple native by his side, with a 
coarse line five or six feet long, tied to a short stick, will jerk them out as rapidly as his 
clumsy hook (fabricated at the nearest blacksmith's shop) touches the water. 

Various causes have been assigned for the great variety in the color of the flesh of this and 
other congeneric species. One cause is said to be the difierence of food : such as live upon 
fresh-water shrimps and other small Crustacea, being brightest ; those which feed upon com- 
mon aquatic insects, being next ; and those living upon aquatic vegetables, being dull and 
darkest of all. It is very doubtful, however, whether any trout feeds on vegetables, the 



238 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

armature of their mouth very clearly pointing out the nature of their food. All that we know 
positively on the subject, is that in our brook trout, those which inhabit ponds are dark colored 
externally ; tiiose in clear streams running over sandy bottoms, are bright ; and those which 
arc found in salt or brackish streams, are not only very bright externally, but their flesh has 
more of tlie salmon color. In the present species, which is only found in fresh-water streams, 
not only the colors externally are extremely vivid, but the flesh is of a bright red approachmg 
carmine. 

They are above the average size of the preceding. Out of many taken at different times, I 
should be disposed to say that the average weight was about a pound and a half. I do not 
remember to have seen one weighing four pounds, although I have heard of their weighing more. 

THE LAIvE TROUT. 

SaLMO CONFINIS. 
■ PLATE XXXVni. FIG. 123. 
The Lake Trout. DooGHTY, Cabinet of Natural History, Vol. 1, p. 145, pi. 13, fig. 1. 

Characteristics. Blackish, with numerous grey spots. Body robust ; comparatively short in 
proportion to its depth. Caudal fin with a sinuous margin. Length two 
to four feet. 

Description. Body stout, thicker and shorter tiian the common salmon. Length of the 
head to the total length, as one to four and a half nearly. Dorsal outline curved. Scales 
small, orbicular and minutely striate. The lateral line distinctly marked by a series of tubu- 
lar plates, arising at the upper angle of the opercular opening, slightly concave until it passes 
over the base of the pectoral fin, when it proceeds straight to the tail. Head flattened between 
the eyes. Snout produced, and, in aged individuals, with a tubercular enlargement on its 
extremity. Eyes large ; the antero-posterior diameter of the orbits 1 " 5, and their distance 
apart 2 "5. Nostrils contiguous, patent; the anterior vertically oval, the posterior smaller 
and rounded. Under jaw shortest, and received into a cavity in the upper. The transverse 
membrane over the roof of the mouth exceedingly tough and thick ; the numerous curved 
teeth in the jaws partly concealed by a loose fleshy membrane. Tongue long, narrow and 
thick, with series of large teeth along the central furrow. Many series of acute teeth on the 
vomer and palatines. 

The first dorsal fin with its upper margin rounded, subtriangular, arising somewhat nearer 
the snout than to the extremity of the caudal rays, higher than long ; measuring 4 • 5 in heiglit, 
and 4"0 along the base. It is composed of fourteen rays ; the first two short, and imbedded 
in the flesh ; the fourth and fifth rays longest. The adipose fin 1 • long, rounded at the end, 
scarcely narrowed at the base, an inch long, and placed over the end of the anal fin. Pectoral 
fins broad and pointed, five inches long, and arising slightly behind a line drawn from the 
upper posterior angle of the opercle ; it is composed of fourteen rays. The ventral fins placed 
nearly under the centre of the dorsal fin, composed of nine rays, and furnished with a thick 



FAMILY SALMONIDiE SALMO. 239 

pointed axillary plate. Anal fin quadrate ; its extreme height 4*4, and its base 3'0 ; com- 
posed of twelve robust rays. Caudal fin nine inches in extent from tip to tip, furcate, with a 
sinuous mai'gin. 

Color, from a living specimen. All the upper portion of the iicad and body bluish black. 
Sides of the head and body, base of the first dorsal, of the caudal and anal fins, with nume- 
rous rounded crowded irregular light grey spots. On the base of the dorsal and caudal, the 
spots are oblong, light greenish. Chin brownish bronze. Pupils black ; irides salmon-colored. 
Tips of the lower fins slightly tinged with red. 

Length, 31 "3; of the head, 7 "3. Weight 15 pounds. 
Fin rays, D. 14.0; P. 14; V. 9; A. 12; C. 21 f. 

This is the well known Lake Salmon, Lake Trout or Salmon Trout of the State of New- 
York. Among the thirteen species or varieties of Lake Trout or Lake Salmon, so beautifully 
illustrated by Richardson, I cannot find this species described. It appears most nearly allied 
by the figure to S. hoodii (PI. 82, 83 and 87), but differs in very important particulars from 
that species. It occurs in most of the northern lakes of this State, and I have noticed it in 
Silver lake, Pennsylvania, adjacent to Broome county, which, as far as I know, is its south- 
ernmost limits. I have to acknowledge my obligations to Miss Ann -Rose (now Mrs. Main), 
for a beautiful drawing of the Lake Salmon from this locality. The figure illustrating this 
species was from a specimen taken at Lake Louis, Hamilton county, and was selected for 
liis unusual size and vigor. The average weight is from eight to ten pounds, but I have heard 
fishermen speak of some weighing thirty pounds and even more. There is, however, such a 
strong propensity to exaggeration in every thing pertaining to aquatic animals, that I refrain 
from citing cases derived from such sources. 

The Lake Trout furnishes an important, and often necessary article of food, to the frontier 
settler. They frequent the deepest part of the lake, and unlike most of their congeners, 
never rise to the fly. In order to take them, particular deep spots arc selected and marked 
by buoys. Large quantities of small fish are then cut up and thrown in at the buoys for 
several days in succession. After having been thus baited, and accustomed to resorl to the 
spot, they are then readily taken by the hook. Some idea of their abundance may be formed 
from the fact that a single fisherman has been known to capture, on Paskungameh or Long 
lake, five hundred weight in the course of a week. Its price, when salted down, is ten cents 
per pound ; but in winter when it can be preserved fresh, it sells from twelve to fourteen cents 
the pound. It has become, in these regions, an important article of commerce ; and if the 
settlers would confine themselves to bait fishing, the species would be long preserved. Un- 
fortunately, however, they are speared in great numbers in October, when they are said to 
come out in the shoal water to spawn. Any legislative enactment for their preservation, how- 
ever, would be useless in these thinly peopled districts ; and, of course, we may look for the 
gradual but certain extirpation of this species. 

The flesh is of course esteemed in these districts, where no oceanic fish is ever tasted ; 
but to me, it appears to possess all the coarseness of the halibut, without its flavor. 



240 NEW- YORK FAUNA. 

THE MACKINAW SALMON. 

SaLMO iMETBYSTUS. 

PLATE LXXVI. FIG. 241. 

The Namaycush Sabnm. Pennant, Arctic Zoology. Supplement, p. 139. 
The Great Trout of the Lakes, Salmo amethyslus. MiTCHILL, Jour. Acad. Sc. Vol. 1, p. 410. 
The Namayctish, S. namayaish. RicuAKDSON, Faun. Boreal. Am. Vol. 3, p. 179, pi. 79 and 85. 
The Mackinaw Trout, S. namayaish. KiKTLAND, Report on the Zoology of Ohio, p. 195. 

Characteristics. Dark grey, with numerous light grey spots on tlie back and sides. Teeth 
and gums tinged witii purisle. More elongated than the preceding. Length 
two to five feet. 

Description. Body robust. Scales small, oval and adherent. Lateral line nearly straight, 
arising from a short distance below the upper angle of the branchial aperture. Dorsal outline 
moderately arched. Head one-fourth of the total length, somewhat plane above, and without 
scales. Eyes moderate. Nostrils double, contiguous ; the anterior with a shghtly elevated 
margin. Mouth large. Jaws very strong and massy ; in the male, the upper is longest, and 
the lower has a conical knob at its tip. Teeth on the edges of the intermaxillaries, in a 
single series : along the labials, in two series, of which the outer is smaller and more nume- 
rous. On the vomer and palatines, a double row ; the lower jaw and tongue with a single 
row on each side. All these teeth are strong, sharp and recurved, deeply imbedded in the 
jaws in the gums, and of a beautiful purplish color at their bases, resembling that of ame- 
thystine quartz ; their tips arc translucent. Branchial rays twelve ; subopercle large and 
grooved. Air-bladder communicates with the oesophagus by a large tube. 

The dorsal fin nearly in the centre of the fish, its height slightly longer than its base, qua- 
drate ; the first two rays short, the fourth longest. Adipose short and small, over the last 
ray of the anal. Pectorals placed low down, pointed, and of fifteen rays. Ventrals with 
nine rays ; the first ray stout, and with a pointed accessory scale. Anal with thirteen rays, 
of which the first is much shorter than the second. Caudal forked. 

Color. Dark or dusky grey above ; chin, throat and belly, light ash-grey or cream-color ; 
the back and sides sprinkled with numerous irregular lighter grey or brown, or soiled white 
spots, which do not, however, as in the preceding species, rise upon the fins. Ventrals, anal 
and pectorals slightly yellowish. Irides yellow. The teeth, gums and roof of the mouth 
with a bright purple tinge already described. 

Length, 24-0- 60-0. 

Fin rays, D. 14.0 ; P. 15 ; V. 9 ; A. 11 ; C. 19 |. 

It was doubtless through inadvertence that Richardson selected the Indian name applied 
to it by Pennant, in preference to the first trivial name proposed for this species by Dr. 
Mitchill. 



FAMILY SALMONID^ — SALMO. 241 

Tliis magnificent Trout, wliich is the largest hitherto known of the Salmonidai, exists in all 
the great lakes lying between the United States and the Arctic ocean, is exceedingly voracious, 
feeding upon every fish within its reach ; and according to Dr. Mitchill, is sometimes of the 
weight of one hundred and twenty pounds. It is a favorite article of food with the Canadian 
voyageurs, who frequently eat it raw. Its flesh is reddish. Like the preceding species, it 
resorts habitually lo the deepest parts of the lake, and only comes near the shores in October 
to spawn, when the natives spear it by torch light. Lake Huron appears to be its most 
southerly range in any considerable numbers, although a few are taken occasionally in Lake 
Erie, along the shores of Ohio, Pennsylvania and New- York. 

It has been observed as far north as the sixty-eighth parallel. 

THE COMMON SEA SALMON. 

Salmo salar. 

PLATE XXXViri. FIG. 122. 

Salmo salar. LiNNEtis, 12 ed. p. 509; Mitchill, Lit. and Phil. Sot-. Vol. 1, p. 435. 

S. id. De Witt Clinton, Lit. and Pliil. See. N. Y. Vol. I, n. 147. 

S. ill. The Salmon. Stoeer, Mass. Report, p. 104; Richardson, F. B. A. Vol. 3, p. 145. 

Characteristics. Elongated. Bluish black above; paler grey beneath. Pectorals, dorsal 
and caudal blackish. Length 2 to 3 feet. 

Description. Body elongate oval ; the greatest depth in front of the dorsal fin. Head one- 
fifth of the total length. Scales on the body moderate, thin, oval, rather easily detached ; 
with about one hundred and twenty along the lateral line, and about forty-five in an oblique 
series. Lateral line straight and nearly central. Head naked, declivous. Nostrils conti- 
guous, vertical, and much nearer the eyes than the extremity of the snout. Teeth numerous, 
robust, sharp and incurved, in a single row on the under jaw; one or two on the anterior part 
of the vomer ; three to five on the tongue. Dorsal fin emarginatc above, and half way 
between the point of the upper jaw and the base of the caudal fin ; the adipose fin long and 
rounded. Pectorals pointed, equaling in length the base of the first dorsal. Ventral with 
its first ray simple, and a pointed accessory plate. Anal quadrate, higher than long. Cau- 
dal lunated, with a sinuous margin. Branchial rays twelve. 

Color. Above to the lateral line, bluish black tinged with grey ; beneath this, silvery white. 
Head darker than the upper part of the body. Ventrals and anals light-colored ; the former 
dark on the membrane connecting the first three rays. Abdomen pearly white, intermixed 
with bluish tints. Opercle with one or more dark spots, which are occasionally found distri- 
buted over the body. 

Length, 24-0- 36-0. 

Fin rays, D. 1 .30 ; P. 15 ; V. 9 ; A. 9 ; C. 19 f . 

Fauna — Part 4. 31 



V. 



242 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

The Sea Salmon rarely now appears on our coast, except as a straggling visiter. Such an 
occurrence took place in August, 1840, when a salmon, weighing eight pounds, entered the 
Hudson river, and ascended it more than one hundred and fifty miles, when it was taken near 
Troy. Previous to the setting of so many nets along the whole course of this river, it is 
probable tiiat salmon were more numerous. In the Journal of Hendrick Hudson, when he 
first describes the noble river which now bears his name, he states, " Many salmon, mullets 
and rays very great ;" and when he passed the Highlands, he says, " Great stores of salmon 
in the river." It now is only seen on our northern borders, ascending the St. Lawrence from 
the sea, and appearing in Lake Ontario in April, and leaving it again in October or Novem- 
ber. They were formerly very abundant in the lakes in the interior of the State, which 
communicated with Lake Ontario ; but the artificial impediments thrown in their way have 
greatly decreased their numbers, and in many cases caused their total destruction. I have 
seen some from Oneida lake weighing ten and fifteen pounds, and one of them exhibited the 
following radial formula : 

Fin rays, D. 12.0; P. 14 ; V. 9; A. 9 ; C. 19 |. 

They are occasionally found in Lake Ontario during the whole year ; but as the same 
instinct which compels them to ascend rivers, also leads them again to the sea, and as there 
is no barrier opposed to their return, we may presume that lliese are sickly or possibly barren 
individuals. 

The geographical range of the Sea Salmon, along the Atlantic coast of America, extends 
from New-York to Labrador. 

{EXTRA LIMITAL) 

S. scouleri. (Richardson, Vol. 3, p. 158, pi. 93.) Back anterior to the dorsal fin, gibbous. Jaws 

elono-ated ; the upper jaw much incurved and arclied. Length two feet. N. W. Coast. 
S. rossii. (Id. p. 163, pi. 80.) Long cylindrical. Red beneath; brownish above, with a few crimson 

dots along the course of the lateral line. Length 2-3 feet. Arctic Seas. 
S. hearnii. (Id. p. 167.) Olive green above. Belly bluish; several rows of large red spots on the 

sides. Length 12 inches. Coppermme River. 
S. alipes. (Id. p. 169, pi. 81.) Slender. Greyish, with lighter spots. Scales small Teeth only on 

anterior part of the vomer. Fins remarkably long. Length two feet. Arctic Regions. 
S. nitidus. (Id. p. 171, pi. 82.) Deep green above ; orange red beneath, with small red spots in two or 

three series along the course of the lateral line. Length 20 inches. Arctic Regions. 
S. lioodii. (Id. p. 173, pi. 83.) Olive green above, and covered with numerous yellowish grey spots. 

Form slender cylindrical. Length two feet. Northern Regions. 
S. mackenzii. (Id. p. 183, pi. 84.) Head long, compressed, flattened above. Greyish, tinged with blue 

on the sides and beneath. Length 20 inches. Arctic Sea. 
S. quinnat. (Id. p. 219.) Bluish grey; dark spots along the lateral fine; belly white, unspotted. 

Branchial rays seventeen. Length 2-3 feet. Columbia River. 



FAMILY SALMONID^ OSMERUS. 243 

S. gairdneri. (Id. p.221.) Dorsal line nearly straight, unspotted. Ash grey on the sides ; belly white. 

Length 2-3 feet. Columbia River. 
)S canadensis. (Grif. Cuv. Vol. 10, p. 474, pi. 41.) White circular spots along the sides, with a red 

central dot. Pectoral, anal and caudal barred with black. Length ten inches. Si. Lawrence. 

GENUS OSMERUS. Cuvier. 

Branchial membrane with only eight rays. Teeth on the jaws and tongue, very long and 
sharp ; two distinct rows on each palatine bone. Anal Jin with more than fourteen rows. 

THE AMERICAN SMELT. 

O.SMEROS VIRIDE9CENS. 

PLATE XXXIX. FIG. 124. 

Smeltf Salmo eperlanus. MlTCHILL, Report in part, p. \2. 
Salmo id.. Smelt. Id. Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. N. Y. Vol. 1, p. 1.35. 
Osmems viridescens. Leshedb, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sc. Vol. 1, p. 230. 
The Smelt, 0. viridescens. Storer, Mass. Report, p. 108. 

Characteristics. Greenish above ; silvery beneath, with a longitudinal band. Slomacli witli 
a few short ca?ca. Length 6-12 inches. 

Description. Body elongated, cylindrical, tapering gradually towards the head and tail. 
Scales large, oval, concentrically striate. Lateral line straight, not concurrent with the line 
of the back. Head rather more than one-fifth of the total length, sloping, smooth. Nostrils 
large, double, contiguous, nearly equidistant between the eyes and end of the snout. Dis- 
tance from the tip of the snout to the posterior margin of the opercle 2.5. Eyes large. 
Lower jaw longer than the upper, armed with strong, acute, recurved teeth ; labial finely 
serrated. Tongue with two or three long teeth on each side, with a larger one in front near 
the tip ; palatines with a row of smaller teeth. The vomer with asperities in front. 

The tirst dorsal commences at a point midway between the base of the caudal fin and tiie 
tip of the snout ; its height equal to twice the length of its base ; the two first rays simple. 
the first very short, the second longest, thence very gradually diminishing to the last. The 
adipose dorsal long and narrow, nearer the base of the caudal than to the last rays of the first 
dorsal, and over the posterior third of the anal. Pectorals pointed and fan-shaped ; its first ray 
simple, short and dark-colored. Ventrals broad, with multifid rays, arising under the first 
ray of the dorsal fin. Anal long, with subequal rays, the anterior being slightly longest. 
Caudal forked. The parietes of the abdomen silvery. Ovaries of a bright sulphur-yellow. 
Liver moderate. Stomach cylindrical, with a few short caeca. (The absence of cajcal ap- 
pendages in the European species has, by some European writers, been made a part of the 
generic phrase.) Air-bladder oblong, linear, slightly dilated at its anterior extremity, where 
it terminates in a short tube communicating with the oesophagus. In the stomach, remains 
of shrimps and an atherine. 



244 NEW-VORK FAUNA. 

Color. Pale olive-green above the lateral line. Opcrclcs and sides silvery. Obscure traces 
just below the lateral line, of a broad longitudinal satin-like band, extending the whole length 
of the body ; the place of the ribs indicates unusually lustrous stripes, which disappear shortly 
after death. Upper part of the opercles near the nape, dark green. Caudal dark at the 
base, and with an obscure broad dusky marginal band. Dorsal and caudal fins light green. 
Pectorals, venlrals and anal light-colored, tinged faintly with bluish. Irides silvery. Bones 
of the head sub-diaphanous. 

Length, 8-0. Deptii, 1-5. 

Fin rays, D. 11 .0 ; P. 14 ; V. 9 ; A. 15 ; C. 19 f. 

Individuals of this species are sometimes taken, a foot in length, but the average size on 
this coast is between five and six inches. 

This beautiful and savory fish derives its popular name of Smelt from its peculiar smell, 
which resembles that of cucumbers. This is strongest when first taken out of the water, but 
it may be perceived by raising the opercles even when it has been some time out of water. 
This peculiar smell it possesses in common with the Mullotics villosus of the northern seas. 
It comes to us from the north in November and December, abounding in our salt-water 
streams, and is sold by measure in our markets. They are derived chiefly from the small 
streams emptying into Long Island sound, and from the Hackensack and Passaic rivers in 
New-Jersey. It appears to vary considerably from the European species, and is found along 
our coast from the mouth of the Hudson river to the coast of Labrador. 

GENUS BAIONE. 

A range of even teeth on the maxillaries ; a shorter range on the intermaxillaries and the 
anterior 2Jart of the vomer. A scries of long recurved teeth around the margin of the tongue. 
Branchial rays ten. Adijwse fin jwsterior to the anal. Scales microscopic. 

Obs. I propose this new subdivision, to admit a small fresh water species of the family 
Salmonidas, that cannot be arranged with any of the published genera of which I have any 
knowledge. Its name is derived from /3ait,jv, a small fish alluded to by ancient writers. 

THE SPOTTED TPtOUTLET. 

Baione font.nalis. ' ^"^ <^/^/WWw 

PLATE XX. FIG. 58. — (STATE COLLECTION.) 

Characteristic. Blackish above ; sides silvery ; with seven to eight broad vertical black bands 
on the sides. Length one to two inches. 

Description. Body elongated, subcompressed, with exceedingly minute, deeply imbedded 
scales, and only visible under a strong lens. Length of the body to its depth as eight to one. 



FAMILY SALMONIDyE — BAIONE. 245 

The lateral line curves down from the upper angle of the branchial aperture ; it is com- 
posed of a series of very minute rounded tubercles, continuous with the mucous pores on the 
head. Length of the head measured to the posterior margin of the opercle, to the total length, 
as one to live. The orbits large, encircled by a row of mucous pores ; at the posterior part 
of the orbits, a series of these pores goes off on each side posteriorly, and becomes continuous 
with the lateral line ; another transverse line connects these two over the basal line of the 
head. These series of mucous pores are scarcely evident in the living specimens. Eyes 
very large in proportion to the size of the body, 0"15 in diameter, and 0"1 apart. Mouth 
broad, rounded, and deeply cleft. A row of crowded minute even teeth on the maxillaries ; 
a shorter range on the intermaxillaries, and a patch of similar minute teeth on the vomer. 
A series of long upright teeth on the edges of the tongue. The branchial rays ten and 
eleven on opposite sides. 

The first dorsal arises at a point nearly midway between the end of the snout and the adipose 
dorsal ; it contains eight slender branched rays, so far cloven down as to render them difficult to 
enumerate. It is higher than long, being 0"2 in length along the base, and 0'28 high. The 
adipose fin slender but distinct, O'l high, and nearer the end of the first dorsal than the tip 
of the caudal rays. Pectorals placed low down, with twelve rays, of which the second, third 
and fourth rays are longest ; this fin is • 3 long, its tips scarcely reaching the base of the 
ventrals. The ventrals feeble, contiguous, pointed, and placed beneath the first dorsal, with 
one simple and six branched rays. The vent is a longitudinal fissure with a tubercular mar- 
gin, and covered by the ventrals when they are in repose. Anal quadrate, with nine rays, 
arising half an inch from the base of the caudal ; it is 0' 25 high, which is twice the length of 
its base. Caudal fin forked ; its lobes rounded, and with numerous accessory rays. 

Color. The general color is black above ; silvery white on the sides and beneath. The 
dark color above, descends in a waving manner on the sides, occasionally becoming detached 
rounded spots. Along the sides are eight large vertical broaJ bands, sometimes irregular, 
occasionally oblong elliptical, not uniting with the dark color above ; these bands become cir- 
cular spots on the sides of the tail. First and second dorsal dusky, faintly maculated with 
brown. All the other fins tinged with orange on their outer margins. 

Length, 2-0. Depth, 0-25. 

Fin rays, D. 8.0; P. 12 ; V. 7 ; A. 9 ; C. 19 i^ 

This pretty little fish inhabits clear running streams and springy morasses. It was first 
detected in a deep spring in Rockland county, by Mr. J. G. Bell, and will doubtless be 
found in other parts of the State. I have heard it called Pigmy Trout and Trout Pig. It is 
undoubtedly the smallest fresh-water species of the Salmonidas. 



246 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 



GENUS SCOPELUS. Cuvier. 



Body long and slender. Mouth and gills excessively deft. Branchial rays nine and ten. 
Small teeth in both jaws ; the edge of the upper jaw formed entirely by the intermaxilla- 
ries. Tongue and palate smooth. The first dorsal over the space between the ventral and 
anal. TJie adipose fin rudimentary . 

THE ARGENTINE. 

ScOPELnS HUMBOLDTI '\ 

PLATE XXXVIII. FIG. 121. 

Ar^mtina sphyrena. Pennant, RritisK Zoology, Vol. 3, p. 4.32, pi. 76. 

Scopelus humboldti. Cuvier, R. A. Ed. Angl. Vol. 10, p. 432. 

The Argentine, S. id. CL.4RKE, Lond. Mag. Nat. Hist. No. 13, 1838. 

The Argentine, S. id. Storer, Report on the Fishes of Massachusells, p. 110. 

Characteristics. Several series of brilliant silvery points along the sides of the body and tail 
Length two inches. 

Description. Body oblong, much compressed. Lateral line almost imperceptible, nearly 
straight, commencing at the upper third of the opercle. Mouth widely cleft, with minute 
teeth in both jaws. Eyes large, 0"2 in diameter. 

Color. The back, to the depth of about a line, green. Sides and gill-covers silvery. A 
series of circular metallic spots along the belly, from before the pectorals to the vent. Above 
these, another row ; and behind the vent another, consisting of similar but smaller dots 
extending to the base of the caudal fin. Irides silvery. 

Length, 2-1 ; of the head, 0-3. 

Fin rays, D. 10.— ; P. 17; V. 8 ; A. 1.5; C. 19. 

But one living specimen has, as far as I am acquainted, been met with on our shores. It 
occurred at Nahant on the coast of Massachusetts, and is noticed by Ur. Storer, whose de- 
scription is copied. Dr. Storer is silent respecting the spots on the opercle, and the slight 
ridge between the dorsal and base of the caudal, which represents the adipose fin in the 
European species. In this latter species, also, there are stated to be four series of metallic 
colored spots. The American species is, in all probability, distinct from that of the Medi- 
terranean. 



FAMILY SALMONID^. 247 



GENUS COREGONUS. Cmier. 



Mouth slightly deft. Teeth exceedingly minute, or wanting. Scales large. Base of the 
dorsal less than the length of its anterior rays. Numerous cceca. 



THE WHITE-FISH. 

CoREGONUS ALBUS. 
PLATE LXr-««HrMe. . 






While-fish, Coregomis albus. Lesdeur, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sciences, Vol. 1, p. 231, extra plate. 
The Auihavmieg, Salmo (Coregonus) albus. Richardson, Faun. Bor. Am. Vol. 3, p. 195, pi. 89. 

Characteristics. Bluish grey on the back, hghter on the sides, and white on the belly. Jaws 
and tongue with asperities; vomer and palate smooth. Length 18-20 
inches. 

Description. Body elongated, subcylindrical, somewhat compressed, slightly elevated be- 
fore the dorsal lin. Head one-fifth of the total length, smooth, and flattened above. Scales 
large, orbicular, thin and deciduous. About eighty scales in the course of the lateral line, 
and twenty in an oblique series from the dorsal ; numerous small ones ascend on the base of 
the caudal. Lateral line slightly arched, nearly straight. Eyes large, and nearly two diameters 
distant from the end of the snout. Tip of the snout blunt. Mouth small. Teeth scarcely 
perceptible to the touch. Pharynx smooth. Branchial arches with a row of bristles. 

The dorsal fin two inches and a half high, and one and six-tenths along its base ; the first 
three closely applied to the fourth, which together with the fifth is longest. Adipose broad 
at the base, where it is surrounded by small scales. Pectorals pointed, three inches long, 
the third and fourth longest, the lower rays very slender. Ventrals broad, arise under the 
tenth ray of the dorsal, and their tips reach to within 0-8 of the anal. The anal fin higher 
than long, shaped like the dorsal, and ending a short distance behind the adipose fin. Caudal 
forked. 

Color. Greyish blue above, lighter on the sides ; in certain lights, there is a play of colors 
on the sides. 

Length, 17-0; of the head, 3-0. 

Fin rays, D. 13.0; P. 17; V. 12; A. 13; C. 19 f. 

This is the celebrated White-fish of the lakes, which is most abundant in Lake Huron, but 
is occasionally found in Lake Erie. It was named by Lesueur, but its first accurate describer 
was Richardson, whose plate I have copied. The brief notice given by Lesueur will apply 
to any and all the species. It is often salted and sent to the New-York market, where it is 
sold for eight cents per pound. It occurs as high as 72° north latitude. 



248 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

THE COMMON SHAD SALMON. 

COEEGONUS CLUPEirORMIS. 

PLATE LX. FIG. 198. 

WhUc-fish of the Lakes, Shad Salmon, S. clupci/ormis. Mitchill, Monlh. Mag. Vol. 2, p. 321. 
Herring Salmon, Coregonus artedi. Lesueur, Journ. Acad. Vol. 1, p. 231. 
Salnw {Coregonus) artedi. RicnARDSON, Faun. Bor. Amer. Vol. 3, p. 203. 

Cliai'acteristics. Body elongated, compressed, arched above and beneath. Bhiish above ; 
silvery and yellow on the sides. Length one to two feet. 

Description. Form elongated in the males, but deeper and more compressed in the females. 
Scales orbicular, large, and ascending high up on the caudal fin. Lateral line not very con- 
spicuous, nearly straight. Head small, compressed, flattened above. Mouth small, with no 
teeth on the margin of the jaws. Nostrils double, and near the end of the pointed snout. The 
dorsal fin higher than long, even on its margin, and with twelve rays, of which the first two 
are simple and short. Pectorals long and pointed ; the three lower ones very slender. Ven- 
trals small, and placed under the posterior part of the dorsal. Anal under the adipose, and 
composed of fourteen rays. Caudal forked. 

Color. Bluish, with silvery reflections above ; with iridescent, pink, and yellowish on the 
sides ; white beneath. Irides yellowish white. 

Length, 15 'O. 

Fin rays, D. 12.0; P. 16; V. 12; A. 14; C. 19 f. 

This species was named by Dr. Mitchill, but Lcsueur's account, which appeared only a 
few weeks after, contains the first recognizable description. It occurs in Lakes Erie and 
Ontario, and in the smaller lakes in the interior of the State, which still communicate with 
our inland seas. 

THE OTSEGO SHAD SALMON. 

Coregonus otsego, 
Salmo Otsego, The Otsego Bass. Clinton, Med. and Phil. Register, Vol. 3, p. 188, plate. 

Characteristics. With numerous dusky longitudinal lines along the sides. Length one to two 
feet. 

Description. Body elongate, subcylindrical, compressed. Back arched. Scales very small. 
Lateral line indistinct, straight. Mouth small, with a protuberant bifid upper lip. No teeth 
in the maxillaries, intermaxillaries, vomer, palatines or pharyngeals. The dorsal with nine ^ 
rays, three of which are imperfect. Adipose filamentous at the tip, caudal forked. 



FAMILY SALMONID^ — COREGONUS. 249 

Color. Dusky above the lateral line ; silvery beneath it. Dusky lateral stripes, as in the 
Lahrax lineatiis, or Striped Bass ; these are about six or eight in number. Pupils black ; 
irides silvery. Opercles silvery, spotted with yellow. 

Length, 17-0. Depth, 5-0. Thickness, TO. 

Having mislaid my notes on this species, I am compelled to use the very brief description 
given by De Witt Clinton. It is a very distinct and beautiful species. According to Mr. 
Clinton, it is nearly equal to any fish that swims, for exquisite and delicious food. It is among 
fishes what the grouse or canvass back duck is among birds : the flesh is fine, white and 
delicate. It appears to be peculiar to Otsego lake, and is daily decreasing in numbers. It 
is rarely taken by the hook, but has been taken by the seine to the number of five tliousand 
at a draught. 



(EXTRA-LIMITAL.) 

C. tullibec. (Richardson, F. B. A. p. 201.) Compressed; belly rounded. Scales large, oblong. A 

small plate of minute teeth on the tongue. Length 14 inches. Northern Regions. 
C. quadrilateralis. (Id. p. 204.) Subcylindrical, quadrilateral. Scales rhomboidal. No teeth. Length 

18 inches. Polar Sea. 
C. lucidus. (Id. p. 207.) Compressed. Scales transversely oval. No teeth. Length 18 inches. 

Northern Regions. 
C. harengus. (Id. p. 210.) Compressed; back rounded ; abdomen slightly flattened. Three rows of 

microscopic teeth on the tongue. Length 12 inches. Lake Huron. 



Fauna — Part 4. 32 



250 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 



FAMILY CLUPID.E. 

Dorsal single. No adipose Jin. Upper jaw formed as in the preceding family ; in the 
centre by intermaxillaries, and on the sides by the labials. Body very scaly. ^ 

GENUS CLUPEA. Cuvier. 

Body compressed. Scales large, thin, and deciduous. Tongue and vomer furnished with 
teeth. Under jaiu longest. 

THE COMMON AMERICAN HERRING. 

Clupea elongata. 

The Herring of Commerce, C. harengus. MiTCHILL, Am. Month. Mag. Vol.2, p. 323. 

Clupea elongata. Lesoeue, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sciences, Vol. 1, p. 231. 

Clupea elongata, The Common Herring. Stoeer, Report on the Ichthyology of Massachusetts, p. UI. 

Characteristics. Back and head deep blue, tinged with yellow. Tail with caudal pouches. 
Length 12- 13 inches. 

Description. Body lengthened, fusiform, compressed. Depth at th-e dorsal fin to the total 
length, as one to fourteen. Back slightly arched. Scales large, silvery and deciduous. Ab- 
domen sharp, indistinctly serrated ; about thirty spines in front of the ventrals, and fifteen 
behind them. Two scaly appendages on each side of the caudal fin. Head destitute of scales, 
and about one-seventh of the total length ; a depression above, with numerous mucous pores. 
Eyes large, with a nictitating membrane, and two diameters apart. Mouth large. Jaws, 
palate and tongue furnished with t^eth. Dorsal subquadrangular, longer than high. Pecto- 
rals short, rounded. Ventrals under the middle o{ the dorsal fin. Anal subequal, narrow, 
highest in front. Caudal small, forked. 

Color. Back and head deep blue, tinged with yellow. Opercles yellowish, tinged with 
violet. Irides silvery ; pupils black. 

This species,* which rarely descends to the coast of New-York, is occasionally taken in 
considerable numbers in the waters south of Cape Cod. Of late, their numbers have much 
diminished, which is attributed by the fishermen, according to Dr. Storer, to torching them 

* As this species has lieen confounded with two species on the coast of Europe, we subjoin their diagnostic characters : 

1. C. harengvs, the Common Herring. Bade dark and glossy blue. Belly distinctly serrated in the young, obsolete with 

age. Under jaw tipped with black. Base of the ventrals under the sixth dorsal ray. First ray of the dorsal fin 
exactly half way between the tip of the snout and the base of the middle caudal ray ; if held up by the anterior 
dorsal rays, the head dips considerably. Vertebrffi 56. Anal with 15 rays. 

2. C. pilchardus, llie Pilcluird. Back bluish green. Belly smooth. Dorsal fin with its last ray equidistant between the 

tip of the snout and half way along the caudal ray; if held up by anterior dorsal rays, the body preserves its equili- 
brium. VertebrE 55. Anal with 18 rays. 



FAMILY CLUPID.E CLUPEA. 251 

at night, by which the shoals are broken up, and the fish frightened away. The causes of 
the irregular appearance and disappearance of many species of this family are not yet under- 
stood, and the wildest conjectures are substituted as a cloak for ignorance. Thus in some 
of the western islands of Scotland, their disappearance was attributed to the fires used in 
making kelp, altliough they appeared on other shores where these fires were also kept up. 
Anolher fancy is, that they are driven away by the firing of guns ; and hence they have left 
the Baltic since the attack upon Copenhagen. So firmly is this believed, that no o-uns are 
allowed to be fired during the fishing season. Steamboats are also charged with driving 
away fish ; and the answer to this is, that in Loch Fine, where a steamboat plies daily, they 
are abundant, while they have deserted other places where a steamboat never yet appeared. 
When the species above described first made their appearance in Long Island sound, in 1817, 
they were mistaken for the European herring, and were gravely stated to have followed the 
English squadron .thither in the attack upon Stonington in 1814. The best satire upon these 
wild conjectures, is found in a statement made in the English House of Commons, to this 
effect : A clergyman on the coast of Ireland having signified his intention of taking the tithe 
of fish, it was considered to be so utterly repugnant to the privileges and feelings of the finny 
race, that not a single herring has ever since visited that part of the shore. 

THE STRIPED HERRING. 

Clupea pasciata. 

Clupeafasdata, The Fasciated Hening. Lesueor, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc. Vol. 1, p. 233. 
C. pusilla, Tiny Herring? MiTCHILL, Lit. and Phil. Soc. Vol. 1, p. 451 (young?) 
C.fasciata, The Fasciated Herring. Stoker, Massachusetts Report, p. 112. 

Characteristics. Seven or eight blackish blue lines at tlie side of the back. Length two to 
nine inches. 

Description. Body compressed ; back straight ; breast and abdomen forming a bow down- 
wards as far as the tail. A rounded notch at the bottom of the divisions of the tail, of which 
the lower lobe is longest. The entire length of the body is about six times the length of the 
head, which is not equal to the depth of the body. Snout short ; jaws equal ; ma.xillaries of 
middling width, scarcely reaching beyond the centre of the eye, which is round, near the end 
of the snout. Opercle parallelogramiform, slightly oblique, and depressed at the lower edge. 
Dorsal as high as the width of the base. Pectorals acute, rather long. Ventrals somewhat 
behind the front of the dorsal, which is large and truncated. Anal long, subequal. Lateral 
line scarcely visible. Branchial rays seven. 

Color. Blue on the back ; lighter at the sides, and of a silver white under the abdomen, 
breast and tail. Yellow tints are reflected from the scales upon the opercles, base of the tail 
and fins. Seven to eight lines, of a blackish blue color, at the sides of the back ; deeper 
towards the back than the abdomen, where they disappear. 



252 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

Length, rO-9-0. 

Fin rays, D. 18 ; P. 16 ; V. 9 ; A. 18 ; C. 22 



This is a rare but well defined species, occurring south of Cape Cod, and will in all pro- 
bability be found on the coast of New-York. I have taken the description as given by 
Lesueur. I am inclined to suspect C. pusilla of Mitchill, or the Tiny Herring, to be the 
young of this species. 

THE GREEN HERRING. 

ClOPEA VIRESCENS. 
PLATE XIII. FIG. 37. 
Clupea haler, New-York Herring ? MiTCHiLL, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. Vol. 1, p. 451. (Var. ?) 

Characteristics. Bright green on the back. A black spot behind the upper angle of the gill 
openings. Length six inches. 

Description. Body much compressed ; its greatest depth to its length as one to four. Back 
arched. Abdomen cultrate, much serrated, with nineteen strong spines anterior to the ven- 
trals, and twelve between these latter and the vent. Scales large, orbicular, and very deci- 
duous. Lateral hne straight, indistinct, but may nevertheless be traced. Eyes large, rather 
more than their diameter apart. Head flattened above, and bounded by two parallel elevated 
lines. Branchial rays seven. The dorsal fin quadrangular, highest in front, its margin slightly 
concave ; the first two rays simple, shorter than the third and fourth, which are longest. 
Pectorals placed low down, long and pointed, and composed of sixteen rays. Ventrals fan- 
shaped, and placed under the middle of the dorsal fin. Anal long and subequal, its anterior rays 
longest, its margin slightly excavated. Caudal with long pointed lobes, and deeply forked. 
Caeca numerous. Air-bladder large, and ending some distance beyond the vent. 

Color. Back green, passing into a lustrous bright green, and forming a longitudinal stripe 
of the same above the lateral line. Sides silvery. Irides white, varied with brown. Sum- 
mit of the snout dark brown. A vertical black mark behind the upper part of the branchial 
aperture. Dorsal and caudal fins light olive-green, bordered on their margins with dark brown. 
Anal faintly tipped with black on the tips of a few of the first rays ; the remaining rays faint 
yellowish white. 

Length, 6'0. Greatest depth, 1'5. 

Fin rays, D. 16 ; P. 16 ; V. 9 ; A. 17 ; C. 19 f . 

The specimen from which this description is made, was taken in October by a seine, with 
several others in the Bay of New-York. It is called sometimes Greenback and Fall Herring. 



FAMILY CLUPID^ CLUPEA. 253 

THE LITTLE HERRING. 

ClUPEA PJRVl'1,1. 

Tht Little Herring, Ctupea panula. MiTCHiLL, Lit. and Phil. Soc. Vol. 1, p. 452 

Characteristics. Brownish above, and without spots or stripes. Almost transparent. Length 
six inches. 

Description. "A dehcate, and as it were, a semi-transparent appearance. Tail forked. 
" Belly serrated. Branchial rays six. 

" Color. A little -greenish about the head, gills and eyes ; but neither green nor blue on the 
" back or sides. Back of an unrai.xed, though not deep brown, which passes through regular 
" gradations of hue to a silvery whiteness on the sides and belly. 

" Length 6-0. 

" Fin rays, D. 14 ; P. 14 ; V. 9 ; A. 18 ; C. 21." 

I have copied this short note of a species, which figures in Mitchill's Memoir on the Fishes 
of New- York. I have met with nothing like it. It does not appear, from the description, 
whether it should be referred to this or the succeeding genus. Allied to it appears the Brit 
of Dr. Storer, which is thus described ; 

THE BRIT. 

Clupea minima. 



C. minima. Peck, Belknap's Hist. New-Hampshire, Vol. 3, p. 130. 

C. id., The Brit. Stokee, Report on the Fishes of Massachusetts, p. 113. 



Characteristics. Black above ; dark green and silvery on the sides. Abdomen serrated. 
Length one to four inches. 

Description. Length of the head one-fourth the length of the body, gradually sloping from 
the occiput to the snout. Gill-covers large, silvery, seeming to form one large plate. Lower 
jaw rather projecting beyond the upper. Diameter of the eye equal to one-si.\th of the length 
of the head. Tail forked. 

Color. Back nearly black ; upper part of the sides dark green. Sides silvery, with roseate 
and golden reflections. Li the younger specimens, the dorsal ridge is a black line, and the 
distance between it and the lateral line, which is situated very liigh upon the sides, is of a 
light green, sprinkled with darker points. The lateral line arises upon a line with the upper 
angle of the opercle, and runs along very near the back, the length of the body. 

Length, TO -4-0. 

Fin rays, D. 10 ; P. 15 ; V. 5 ; A. 12 ; C. 18. 



254 NEW-YORK FAUNA. 

This appears in some years in incredible numbers on the shores of Massachusetts, according 
to Dr. Storer, and will probably be found on our own coast. 

Dr. Mitchill has indicated, rather than described, two small herrings from the waters of 
New- York, which may be the young of otiier species. The notes which he has left do not 
enable me to place them with sufficient accuracy, but I leave them provisionally here. I have 
not met with them. 

THE SATIN-STRIPED HERRING. 

ClUPEA VITTATA. 

Satin-Striped Herring, C.vittata. Mitchill, Lit. and Phil. Soc. Vol. 1, p. 456. 

Characteristics. With large projecting upper jaws, small lower jaws, silver-striped sides, and 
forked tail. Length 3| inches. 

Description. " Length about three and a half inches ; depth rather more than half an inch. 
Inhabits the salt water, and resembles an atherine. The upper jaw is mUch more conside- 
rable in size than the lower, and terminates in a distinct nose or snout. Beneath it, the lower 
mandible is received, and shuts closely. The mouth has no proper teeth, but both the jaws 
have very minute and exact serrated edges. The throat, on examination, is found to be sur- 
rounded with a row of bristles, long and diposed funnel-wise, and investing tlie sides of the 
tongue. One dorsal fin near the middle of the back. The vent is rather nearer the tail than 
to the head. The ventrals small, and six-rayed. Eyes large and yellowish. Gill-covers 
silvery white. Belly carinated, and moderately serrated. Branchial membrane, eleven or 
twelve rays. Anal fin about twenty-one." 

This can scarcely be identical with the C. argentina of Swainson, from Brazil ; but the 
characters are too meagre to enable